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Brooklyn Entomological 




J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO 


J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 




4 ^A^^^'^^ 




No. 1 


Brooklyn Entomological 

Society ^-g*^^^^^^^^^^, 

[a FEB 10 iy:< ^ 





J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 
Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed February 3, 1933 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 


Honorary President 


President Treasurer 

Vice-President 28 Clubway 

J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 

Academy of Sciences 











R. T.-B 40 


Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
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Vol. XXVIII February, 1933 No. i 


By Jacobus C. Faure, Pretoria, Union of South Africa. 

This paper consists of the descriptions of seven new genera and 
fourteen new species. The types are on deposit in the entomolog- 
ical collection of the University of Pretoria, Union of South 

It has been my privilege to spend several weeks in the labora- 
tory of Dr. J. Douglas Hood at Rochester, New York, and to see 
his excellent collection of Thysanoptera ; I am greatly indebted to 
him for many helpful suggestions in connection with the prepara- 
tion of this paper. 

I also express my thanks to Dr. H. Priesner, of Cairo, Egypt, 
who very kindly gave me his views on the relationships of several 
of the forms described herein. 

Heliothrips sylvanus spec. nov. (PI. I, Figs, i, 2.) 

Female (macropterous). Length about 1.3 mm. Color 
blackish brown to black, antennae largely yellow. Head dark 
brown, yellowish brown between eyes, eyes black, surrounded 
by yellowish margins. Antenna : I and II brown, III yellow 
with basal fourth light brown, IV and V yellow, VI yellow 
in basal half and shaded light brown distally, VII light brown, 
VIII gray. Mouth cone dark brown. Prothorax like head, 
blackish brown over coxae ; pterothorax blackish brown on 
sides and on mesonotum, rest yellowish brown. All legs 
rather uniformly blackish brown. Abdomen dark brown, 
with blackish brown transverse lines between segments (due 
to overlapping). Wings greyish yellow, extreme base of 
fore-wing, and basal half of scale brown. 

All parts of body and legs heavily reticulated. Head 
about as long as wide, and abbtit 1.7 as long as prothorax. 
Cheeks distinctly concave, head distinctly constricted at ex- 
treme base. Eyes large, scarcely bulging, almost half as 


FED 9 


2 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxrill 

long as head, their width about 54 p and their interval about 
94 |j. Ocelli on a moderately raised hump, posterior pair 
situated on a line passing just in front of centre of eyes. 
Sides of vertex not deeply excavated between eyes and ocelli 
as in haemorrhoidalis. 

Antennae very similar to those of haemorrhoidalis: segment 
III about 10 |j shorter, V not so broadly truncate at apex, 
VI distinctly narrowed at base, VIII about 10 p shorter. 
Sense cones as in genotype : III and IV with one each on 
outer side ; V, one short cone on outer side ; VI with a very 
long cone on inner side and a short one on outer side ; VII 
with one of moderate size on outer side. Mouth cone broad 
and heavy, as in the genotype. 

Prothorax slightly more than twice as wide as long, 
strongly reticulated, sides feebly concave, without spines. 
Pterothorax about i.i as wide as long, sides concave about 
middle, rounded in front and behind. Wings about eleven 
times as long as width at middle, costa bearing a few minute 
setae but no fringe or large setae ; anterior and posterior vein 
each with about 6 minute setae, posterior fringe well devel- 
oped, but hairs much shorter at apex of wing ; hind wing 
with fringe on posterior margin and a row of setae about 
40 \x in length on anterior margin. Legs similar to those of 
genotype, hind tibiae and tarsi together about 40 |j shorter. 
Interval between hind coxae about 88 \\, middle coxae about 
twice as far apart. 

Abdomen very similar to that of genotype, except that 
spines on segment IX are about 20 \x longer {i.e. they measure 
about 80 |j). 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: — Length 1.36 
mm. ; head length 0.216, width across eyes 0.2, at base 0.208; 
prothorax length 0.128, width 0.264; pterothorax length 0.296, 
width 0.344; fore-wing length 0.72, width at base just beyond 
scale 0.1 12, at middle 0.064; abdomen length 0.792, width 
Antenna, length, 0.352. 

length in [j 20 44 72 56 52 48 12 48 
width in |j 32 40 28 24 24 20 8 6 

Male (macropterous). Length about i.i mm. Smaller 
than female, but very similar in coloration and structure. 
Segment VIII of abdomen with 4 setae about 24 |j in length 
on dorsum near caudal margin, and an incomplete comb of 
about 10 minute spine-like setae on caudal margin. Segment 
IX with a pair of setae similar to those on VIII situated 
distad of the middle line of the tergite, and about one-fourth 
of the width from each lateral margin ; a pair of much weaker 

Feh., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 3 

setae laterocephalad of these; near the caudal margin four 
short strong spines close together, the inner pair about 20 [i 
long and about 20 |j apart, the outer pair about as long as 
the inner pair but distinctly weaker; a pair of short setae 
latero-caudad of the short spines ; on a line with the short 
spines on lateral margins a pair of spines about 40 p in length, 
on the ventro-caudal angles a pair of curved spines about 
48 |j in length. 

Sternites III to VII of abdomen each with a conspicuous 
sense-area, transverse, kidney shaped, anterior margin con- 
cave, posterior convex, largest area on III, the areas on suc- 
ceeding segments progressively smaller: the area on III about 
96 |j wide and 16 p long, that on VII about 64 by 20 p ; the 
surface of the sense-areas brown, densely pitted with a 
large number of minute pale dots. 

Measurements of allotype (male cleared in NaOH) in 
mm.: — Length 1.3 mm. Head length 0.184, width O.176; 
prothorax length 0.112, width 0.216 ;pterothorax. length 0.28, 
width 0.28 ; abdomen length 0.8, width 0.288. 
Antenna, length, 0.32 mm. 

Ill IV V 
64 48 48 
20 20 20 

Described from 8 mounted specimens taken by the writer in 
the Woodbush, Pietersburg district, Transvaal in April 1924 on 
Maesa rufescens A. DC (4$$ 2<^(^) and in sweepings (2^$). 

This interesting form differs strikingly from the genotype H. 
haemorrhoidalis (Bouche) in the dark coloration of the legs, the 
absence of a fringe on the costal margin of the fore-wings, the 
longer head, and in the following antennal characters : the dif- 
ferent shape of segment VI and the length of segment VIII. 

Poethrips gen. nov. 

Body moderately long and slender, surface with anastomos- 
ing lines of sculpture and minute granulations. Head 
flattened, longer than wide, and slightly longer than the 
prothorax ; eyes elongate in dorsal aspect. Antennae seven 
segmented, third and fourth segments with the usual forked 
sense cones. Mouth cone broad and heavy, extending across 
prosternum ; maxillary palpi two segmented. Pronotum 
subrectangular, wider than long, with two strong bristles at 
each hind angle. Wings moderately narrow, curved out- 
wards. Legs short and rather stout. Abdomen elongate, 
sharply conical at apex ; ninth segment nearly twice as long 
as the tenth ; tergites bearing a fringe-like series of chitinous 




length in p 



width in p 






12 44 
8 6 

4 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxvili 

plates on the posterior margin (visible only in distended 


Genotype : Poethrips furcatus spec. nov. 
The species for which this genus is erected resembles those of 
the genus Baliothrips Haliday in the possession of seven seg- 
mented antennae, two segmented maxillary palpi, and two bristles 
at the hind angles of the prothorax. It differs from Baliothrips 
in the following characters : — fringe of plates on the posterior 
margin of the abdominal tergites, relatively longer ninth segment 
of the abdomen, flattened head, elongated eyes, and pedicillate 
sixth antennal segment. The new genus is related to Bregmato- 
thrips Hood but differs from it in the seven segmented antennae 
and the forked sense cones. 

Poethrips furcatus spec. nov. (PI. I, Figs. 3, 4, 5.) 

Female (macropterous). Length about 1.4 mm. Color 
dark brown and yellow : head dark brown, occiput unevenly 
yellowish brown for about one-fifth length of head from 
base; eyes black; antennae: I, VI, and VII brown, II brown 
but yellowish on dorsum at apex and on outer side. III, IV 
and V greyish yellow ; mouth cone brown. Prothorax light 
brown ; pterothorax brown in sclerotic parts, wing-insertions 
yellow ; wings clear, yellowish, without dark bands ; legs : 
all coxae and femora, and middle and hind tibiae brown, 
fore tibiae yellow at apex, increasingly browner towards base, 
all tarsi yellow. Abdomen brown, shaded blackish brown at 
sides towards apex, segment X blackish brown. 

Head longer than wide, its width about 0.9 of its length, 
its length about 1.2 that of prothorax ; cheeks parallel ; occiput 
with about ten anastomosing lines of sculpture between base 
and postocular setae ; vertex not sculptured ; head somewhat 
flattened, slightly raised in front of ocelli and feebly pro- 
duced in front of eyes ; head setae as illustrated. Eyes large, 
bulging slightly, about half as long as head, their width 
about 40 |j and their interval about 72 |j. Ocelli about 8 |j in 
diameter, their position as illustrated. 

Antennae about 1.7 as long as head, moderately slender; 
segment V narrowed at apex, VI constricted at base, VII 
half as long as VI; sense cones: III with one forked cone 
on dorsum, the branches slender, IV with a similar cone on 
ventral aspect, V with two very inconspicuous cones, a i"udi- 
mentary one on outer side and a slender one on inner side, 
VI with a long cone on inner side, a short stouter one op- 
posite it on outer side, and a third on. ventral aspect near 

FeT)., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 5 

Mouth cone broad and moderately long, reaching across 
prosternum ; maxillary palpi about 40 p long, the distal seg- 
ment about 28 [J, as illustrated ; labial palpi about 12 p long 
and much more slender than the maxillary pair. 

Prothorax a little more than 1.3 times as wide as long, 
pronotum feebly transversely striate, with scattered setae, 
and two moderately strong bristles at posterior angles, the 
inner pair about 40 |j and the outer about 30 \\ in length. 

Pterothorax slightly longer than wide, mesothorax dis- 
tinctly wider than metathorax ; wings curved outwards ; 
fore-wings about fifteen times as long as their width near the 
middle, costa with about 20 bristles and a moderately long 
fringe ; anterior vein with four bristles at base, three at origin 
of posterior vein, and two near apex ; po'sterior vein with ' 
about 8-10 more or less equidistant bristles covering the 
greater part of its length. Legs moderately short and stout ; 
fore femur length about 136 ^j, width 56 p ; tibia length 112, 
width 40 |j ; hind leg: femur 152 by 40 |j, tibia 144 by 40 p ; 
hind tibia with a row of five short, stout spines on inner side, 
and three at apex of which the longest is about 30 p in length ; 
legs with numerous setae (omitted in the figure). 

Abdomen slender, rather sharply conical at apex ; bristles 
on IX and X subequal, about 120 [j in length; tergites laterally 
with striae like those on prothorax; segment IX about 1.8 
as long as the tenth. 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: — Length 1.4; 
head length 0.173, width 0.153; prothorax length 0.14, width 
0.19, posterior-angular spines O.041 and 0.029; pterothorax 
length 0.27, width 0.26 ; fore-wing length 0.78, width at base 
just beyond scale 0.07, at middle 0.05 ; abdomen length 0.9, 
width 0.28. 

Antenna, length, 0.3 mm. 

segments I II 






length in \x 29 37 






width in |j 29 29 






Described from six mounted females taken by the writer in 
grass sweepings at Conjeni on the White M'folosi river, Zululand, 

Perissothrips halli spec. nov. (PI. I, Figs. 6, 7, 8.) 

Female (macropterous). Length about i.o mm. Color 
uniformly pale lemon yellow, only extreme tip of segment X 
of abdomen shaded brown, segments IV to VI of antennae 
shaded gray in distal half, with VI distinctly darker than 
the others, segments VII and VIII gray; pigmentation of 
eyes very dark red, almost black. 

6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. xxrill 

Head very small, about twice as wide as long, and only 
about 0.3 as long as the prothorax; eyes large, occupying 
nearly 0.8 of the length of the head, their width 40 |j, their 
interval about 28 |j. Posterior ocelli contiguous to eyes ; ante- 
ocellar and inter-ocellar setae minute, pale. Antennae very 
similar to those of the genotype, except that segment VII 
bears a long slender sense cone on the outer side ; cones on III 
and IV forked, respectively dorsal and ventral, one on outer 
side of V very small, VI with one veiy long cone on inner 
side and an inconspicuous small one on outer side. 

Mouth cone long and slender, attaining anterior margin of 

mesosternum ; maxillary palpi three segmented, basal and 

distal segments about 24 \^ in length, second 16 [i, a slender 

' seta at apex- of third segment about 16 |j long; labial palpi 

about 20 |j in length. 

Prothorax as long as its width at base, and about 3.5 times 
as long as the head ; a group of three short stout spines (about 
20 |j long) at each posterior angle, with a more slender and 
slightly longer bristle beneath them ; eight weaker setae on 
hind margin, and a number of pale setae (not illustrated) 
scattered over surface of pronotum. 

Pterothorax about 1.3 as wide as prothorax, its sides 
nearly parallel ; wings long and slender ; anterior vein with 4 
bristles near base, then a group of three, and three widely 
separated bristles beyond middle of wing; posterior vein with 
4 widely separated, more or less equidistant bristles. Fore 
femora enlarged, about 0.6 as wide as long, tibia angular at 
apex on inner side, with a seta at tip of angle, and a small 
tooth about 4 |j in length below it. Hind femora stout, about 
120 by 50 |j, tibiae about 120 by 32 p, tarsi 56 p in length; 
longest spine at apex of hind tibiae on inner side about 16 p. 

Abdomen somewhat broader than thorax, sharply pointed 
at apex ; segment IX about 80 p long, its caudal bristles about 
64 p, and a pair of lateral ones in front of these about 28 p ; 
segment X about 68 p long, its bristles about 80 p long and 
weaker than those on IX; tergites I to IX with transverse 
anastomosing lines of sculpture. 

Measurements oi holotype (macropterous female) in mm. : 
— Length 0.98 (very slightly distended) ; head length 0.05, 
width 0.103 ; prothorax length 0.173, width 0.173 '■> pterothorax 
length 0.22, width 0.22 ; fore-wing length 0.58, width at base 
just beyond scale 0.062, at middle 0.037; abdomen length 0.6, 
width 0.26. Fore-leg: femur length 0.116, width 0.07; tibia 
length 0.091, width 0.033; tarsus length 0.058, width 0.021. 
Antenna length 0.22 mm. 

length in p 21 31 33 33 33 39 § 12 
width in p 21 21 17 17 17 12 6 4 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 7 

Male (macropterous). Length about 0.7 mm. Smaller 
than female and somewhat darker yellow. Fore femora 
somewhat more strongly enlarged, fore tibiae each with two 
recurved teeth about 8 p in length at apex on inner side. 
Tergites II to VIII of abdomen produced, overlapping the 
succeeding segments, their caudal margins bearing a row of 
minute sharply pointed teeth; on II and III the teeth are 
very small, on IV-VI somewhat more conspicuous, on VII 
and VIII much larger, reaching a length of about 6 |j. 
(These teeth can be seen to best advantage in specimens 
cleared in NaOH). In addition, tergites IV to VI have at 
each hind angle a group of three or four finger-like spines, 
the longest about 10 p, the outer one or two of each group 
strongly bent outwards ; the figure reproduced is a drawing 
of what I regard as a more or less typical group of spines, 
but the groups are variable in number and shape of spines 
even on the same segment. Transverse striae present on 
tergites, best developed on segment I, on IX semi-circular 
and interrupted at short intervals. Setae at apex of abdomen 
very slender, about 80 \a in length. 

Measurements of allotype (macropterous male) in mm. :— 
Length 0.72 mm.; head length 0.058, width 0.103; prothorax 
length 0.165, width 0.161 ; pterothorax width 0.202; fore- 
wing length 0.54, width at base just beyond scale 0.054, at 
middle 0.033; abdomen length 0.38, width 0.21. Fore-leg: 
femur length 0.103, width 0.07; tibia length 0.091, width 
0.037; tarsus length 0.045, width 0.021. 
Antenna length 0.198 mm. 

segments I II III IV 

length in |j 17 25 33 29 

width in (j 21 17 14 17 

Described from 1 1 mounted specimens, all macropterous, 6 5$ 
and 5 (^(^, taken by Dr. W. J. Hall at Mazoe, Southern Rhodesia, 
on Acacia (probably an indigenous species) on 31.x. 1928. 

This species is readily distinguished from the genotype P. 
parviceps Hood by the following characters : ( i ) relatively longer 
prothorax, (2) small tooth on fore tibia of female, (2) two larger 
teeth on fore tibia of male, (4) stronger development of armature 
on abdominal tergites in the male. I take pleasure in naming 
this very distinct new species after its collector. 

Rhinothrips gen. nov. 

Head small, about 0.7 as long as wide, and a little more 
than half as long as prothorax; antennae broad and heavy, 






8 10 



4 4 

8 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^ol. XXVIII 

about three times as long as the head, eight segmented, seg- 
ments III and IV with forked sense cones. Mouth cone 
long and heavy, almost twice as long as dorsal length of 
head, attaining mesosternum; maxillary palpi slightly less 
than half as long as mouth cone, three segmented, second 
segment longest ; labial palpi two segmented, about one-fourth 
as long as maxillary palpi, the distal segment five times as 
long as the basal one. Prothorax about 1.5 as wide as long, 
broadly rounded behind ; three small, inconspicuous spines at 
each hind angle. Legs short and stout, unarmed except for 
a pair of stout sharp setae at apex of hind tibiae on inner 
side. Posterior margin of first abdominal tergite in both 
sexes with a row of minute irregular tooth-like serrations. 
Sense-areas on sternites III to VII of abdomen in male 
minute, sub-circular. 

Genotype RhinotJirips rostratiis spec. nov. 

This genus is closely related to Perissothrips Hood but differs 
from it (i) in the relatively shorter prothorax, (2) in the un- 
armed fore tibiae of the male, and (3) in the absence of teeth on 
the caudal margins of tergites IV to VIII of the abdomen in the 
male. From Rhamphothrips Karny it differs in the number of 
the antennal segments, and from Chilothrips Hood it can be dis- 
tinguished by the shape and relative width of the prothorax, which 
is only slightly widened behind in Chilothrips. 

Rhinothrips rostratus spec. nov. (PI. I, Fig. 9.) 

Ma/^ (dealated). Length about 0.8 mm. Color brown and 
yellow. Head light yellowish brown, eyes black, ocelli with 
bright red hypodermal pigmentation; antenna: I and II grey- 
ish yellow, I slightly darker. III and IV yellow, uniformly 
tinged with light brown, V to VIII light brown ; mouth cone 
colored like the head. Prothorax yellow, shaded faintly with 
brown. Pterothorax light brown, darker than head. All legs 
yellow, faintly brownish at tips of tarsi. Abdomen : segments 

I and II brown like pterothorax. III to VIII yellow, paler 
than prothorax ; IX and X yellow with light brown shading. 

Head small, about 0.7 as long as wide, slightly widened be- 
hind ; occiput with about five transverse lines ; vertex not 
depressed ; eyes large, about 0.7 as long as the head, very 
slightly protruding, closely facetted ; ocelli close together on 
a slightly raised hump, the posterior pair contiguous to eyes ; 
inter-ocellar and other setae minute. Antennae inserted be- 
low the vertex, about 2.9 times as long as the head ; segments 

II to V short, broad, subequal in length, II widest in whole 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 9 

antenna ; III to VI strongly pedicillate ; areola on II on distal 
margin ; sense cone on dorsal side of III forked, the branches 
extending broadly laterad ; the forked cone on ventral side of 
IV with longer branches extending cephalo-laterad ; V with 
one short cone on outer side; VI with a long cone inserted 
near the middle on the inner side and reaching to the middle 
of VII, a small cone near the middle on the outer side, and a 
moderately long cone on the ventral aspect near the cephalo- 
lateral angle. Mouth cone as described in diagnosis of genus. 

Prothorax not sculptured, about 1.5 as wide as long; scat- 
tered small setae on surface of pronotum, three short spines 
at each posterior angle, and two on each anterior angle, none 
of these more than 8 |j in length. Mesoscutum transversely 
striate, metascutum longitudinally striate at sides, transversely 
striate in front; sides of pterothorax obliquely striate. 

Legs stout, fore femur about 80 n long by 40 [x wide, tibia 
64 by 28 [J, much narrower at base; hind femur and tibia 
respectively about 92 by 36 |j and 80 by 28 p ; fore femur with 
two spines on anterior surface that are stronger than the 
prothoracic spines, hind tibiae with a pair of similar spines 
on inner side at apex. 

Abdomen moderately slender, feebly sculptured with about 
three transverse irregular lines across tergites I to IX, and 
several oblique lines at the extreme lateral margins of each 
tergite; dorsal surface of tergites minutely pitted, this espe- 
cially noticeable on first and second (i.e., brown) tergites. 
Tergites II to VIII each with six equidistant weak setae in 
a transverse row somewhat behind the middle, and a slightly 
stronger one near the outermost seta close to the posterior 
angle. Ventro-lateral spines on segment IX about 32 |j long; 
a pair of very short, moderately stout spines near these on 
the dorsal side; the spines at the tip of the abdomen curved 
and about 48 |j long. Sense-areas on sternites III to VII 
very small, oval to subcircular in outline, not more than 
about 10 |j in diameter, situated near anterior margin. 

Measurements of holotype (dealated male) in mm.: — 
Length 0.88 (slightly distended) ; head length 0.058, width 
0.083; prothorax length 0.103, width 0.153; pterothorax 
length 0.18, width 0.18; abdomen length 0.56, width 0.19. 
Antenna length 0.173 J^"^- 

length in n 17 25 23 25 23 33 8 14 
width in \x 17 21 17 19 17 17 6 4 

Female (dealated). Length about i mm. Almost identical 
with male in coloration and structure, except that seg- 
ment IX of abdomen is not noticeably shaded brown, and 
segment I of the antennae and the whole of the middle legs 

10 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXVIII 

are slightly darker, more distinctly shaded with brown. 
Ovipositor strong, reaching to apex of segment X. Spines 
on segment IX and X of abdomen subequal; two dorsal 
pairs and a lateral pair on IX about 80 |j in length, the ventral 
pair much weaker, about 32 ^j. 

Measurements of allotype (dealated female) in mm.: — 
Length 0.98 (slightly distended) ; head length 0.058, width 
0.095 > prothorax length 0.12, width 0.169; pterothorax length 
0.18, width 0.19; abdomen length 0.64, width 0.24. 
Antenna length 0.173 mm. 

length in p 17 21 25 25 25 2,7 8 14 
width in p 21 23 19 21 19 17 6 4 

Described from 10 mounted specimens, 455 and 6J*J*, all 
dealated, taken by the writer on Tephrosia sp. in the Wood- 
bush, Pietersburg district, Transvaal, 15.iv.1924. 

Dentothrips gen. nov. 

Body not depressed, feebly sculptured. Head about as 
long as wide, produced in front of eyes, eyes large, inter- 
ocellar bristles about as long as those at posterior angles of 
prothorax. Antennae eight segmented, segments III and IV 
with forked sense cones, segment II with a tooth-like projec- 
tion near apex on inner side. Mouth cone long, heavy, reach- 
ing across prosternum, bluntly pointed ; maxillary palpi two 
segmented. Prothorax about 0.8 as long as wide, with two 
moderately long bristles at each hind angle. Wings long and 
slender, rather sharply pointed. Legs normal. Abdomen 
rather broad, sharply conical at apex. 

Genotype Dentothrips graminis spec. nov. 

The projection on the inner side of the second segment of the 
antennae distinguishes this genus from all known genera; 
Projectothrips Moulton has processes on the dorsal aspect of this 
segment, but it differs from the new genus in the three segmented 
maxillary palpi and the very long eighth antennal segment. The 
projection of the head in front of the eyes, the shape of the wings, 
the two-segmented maxillary palpi and the forked sense cones 
suggest Trichromothrips Priesner, but this differs in having the 
mouth cone short and the second antennal segment unarmed. In 
general appearance the new genus resembles Bregmatothrips 
Hood, but this has three segmented maxillary palpi, unarmed 
second antennal segments, and simple antennal sense cones. 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11 

Dentothrips graminis spec. nov. (PI. II, Figs. lo, ii, 12.) 

Female (macropterous). Length about i.o mm. Color 
yellowish brown: head brownish yellow, shaded to light 
brown on cheeks; eyes black; ocellar pigment bright red; 
antennae: I and II yellowish gray-brown, III to VIII pale 
gray with a faint suggestion of yellow. Mouth cone brown. 
Thorax similar to head, more brownish, shaded brown on all 
margins. Fore wings with a median and a distal area shaded 
gray-brown: basal fifth clear, the median and distal shaded 
areas each equal to one-third of wing length, and a faintly 
shaded zone between them about two-thirds as long as basal 
clear zone; hind wings very pale, greyish, with conspicuous 
median longitudinal dark line. Legs : all tarsi yellow ; tibiae 
brownish yellow, paler at apices, middle and hind pair shaded 
brown basally and on outer sides; femora yellow-brown. 
Abdomen : yellowish brown, tenth segment blackish brown, 
also the sides of VIII and IX ; segments II to VIII demar- 
cated by transverse brown lines, extending completely across 
abdomen, due to overlapping of caudal margins over anterior 
margins of succeeding segments, the lines between IV to VIII 
heavier, about 16 p cephalo-caudad, those between II to IV 
about 8 |j. 

Head length equal to its width at base, and about 8 p less 
than width across eyes ; produced part in front of eyes about 
20 [i long to tip of frontal costa ; vertex moderately flattened ; 
cheeks straight; eyes large, length about 64, width 40, in- 
terval 48 |j ; ocelli situated as on figure ; interocellar bristles 
about 45 y long, other head setae much shorter, arranged as 

Antennae very similar to those of Taeniothrips except for 
shape of segment II; the tooth-like projection on II about 
4 |j long, somewhat variable in shape and direction of the tip, 
as illustrated ; forked sense cones of III and IV respectively 
dorsal and ventral, or normal shape, IV with an additional 
simple cone on outer side near apex ; V with a small cone on 
inner and a larger one on outer side; VI with three cones: 
inner one long, outer short, ventro-apical one intermediate in 

Mouth cone bluntly pointed, extending across prosternum; 
maxillary palpi : basal segment about 8, distal 28 |_i long ; 
labial palpi about 20 \i, much more slender. 

Prothorax wider than long, widened posteriorly, surface 
not sculptured, setae as illustrated, two pairs at hind angles 
about 45 |j in length. Mesothorax wider than metathorax, 
sides rounded, mesoscutum feebly transversely striate; sides 
of metathorax parallel, metascutum with more distinct, 
anastomosing striae and 4 setae on anterior margin subequal 

12 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^ol. XXVIII 

to anterior marginals of prothorax. Fore wings narrow, 
about 20 times as long as their width at middle ; costal bristles 
long, subequal to fringe hairs near anterior apical margin; 
fore-vein with bristles as follows : 3 at base, 3 at origin of 
posterior vein, 2 at apex ; hind vein with 7 to 8 more or less 
regularly spaced bristles. 

Fore femora slightly enlarged, about 100 p by 44 |j wide, 
tibiae about 100 by 36 p ; hind femora 120 by 40, tibiae 144 
by 32 |j ; fore tibiae with a minute pointed spur on inner 
side at apex. 

Segment IX of abdomen 80 |j long, its bristles about 120 |j ; 
segment X divided above throughout its length, its length 
about 68 [J, its bristles 90 \x. 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: — Length i.o; 
head length 0.112, width across eyes 0.12, at base 0.112; 
prothorax length 0.14, width 0.17, postero-angular spines 
0.045; pterothorax length 0.194, mesothorax width 0.2, 
metathorax width 0.18; fore-wing length 0.6, width at base 
just beyond scale 0.058, at middle, 0.037 ; abdomen length 
0.62, width 0.25. 
Antenna length 0.24 mm. 

length in p 21 25 37 33 33 41 10 12 
width in p 29 27 17 ' 17 17 19 8 4 

Described from 4 macropterous, mounted females, taken by the 
writer on grass at Pretoria, 2.xii.i923. This species is readily 
distinguished from all known forms by the peculiar shape of the 
second antennal segment. 

Caprithrips gen. no v. 

Body moderately elongate and depressed. Head about 0.8 
as long as wide, widest across eyes, produced in front of eyes, 
produced part about one-sixth of total length of head; eyes 
large, strongly protruding. Mouth cone heavy, broadly 
rounded, reaching half way across prosternum, maxillary 
palpi three segmented. Antennae twice as long as head, seg- 
ments III to V short, almost as wide as long ; sense cones on 
III and IV simple, not forked. 

Prothorax about 1.3 as wide as long, about 1.6 as wide 
behind as in front, and about 1.4 as long as the head; 
pronotum without any long spines. Legs short and stout. 
Abdomen elongate, broadly conical at tip, not sharply nar- 
rowed at base of segment IX or X but evenly narrowed from 
base of VII to apex of X ; tergite IX with two stout bristles 
on dorsum, about half as long and twice as thick as longest 
bristles on same tergite. 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 13 

Genotype CaprilJirips analis spec. nov. 

This genus resembles Anaphothrips Uzel and Agerothrips 
Trybom but differs from them in the simple sense cones of the 
antennae. From Bregmatothrips Hood it differs in lacking well 
developed pronotal spines. The broadly conical tip of the 
abdomen and the enlarged bristles on tergite IX are distinctive 

Caprithrips analis spec. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 13, 14.) 

Female (apterous). Length about i mm. Color pale 
yellow, eyes so dark red as to appear black ; antennae : seg- 
ments VI to VIII light brown, V greyish yellow, I to IV 
yellow; distal half of segment X of abdomen shaded light 
brown ; mouth cone brown at tip. 

Length of head equal to its width behind eyes, width across 
eyes about 0.012 mm. wider ; cheeks parallel ; vertex produced 
in front of eyes into a rounded hump that covers about half 
of the first antennal segments. Eyes large, closely facetted, 
about 0.6 as long as the head, their width about 32 p and 
their interval 44 p. Ocelli absent. Head setae as illustrated. 
Occiput with about 10 transverse striae. Antennae as illus- 
trated; segments III and IV each with one simple sense 
cone on outer side, the cone on HI dorsal, the one on IV 
ventral in position ; V with a very slender cone on outer side ; 
VI with a long cone on inner side and two shorter cones on 
outer side. Maxillary palpi about 28 p long, first and third 
segments subequal in length, second shorter, first about twice 
as broad as third. Labial palpi slightly longer than third 
segment of maxillary palpi. 

Pro thorax wider than long, more than one and a half 
times as wide behind as in front ; surface of pronotum with 
numerous fine transverse striae and scattered setae ; setae on 
hind margin and angles very weak, not more than 12 p in 
length. Meso- and metanotum rectangular, minutely striate 
like the pronotum, devoid of large bristles. Legs short and 
stout, fore femora slightly more enlarged than others, hind 
tibiae strongly expanded especially in distal third, other tibiae 
also broad. 

Abdomen rather elongate, segments III to VII subequal 
in width and length, their length about one-third of their 
width. Tip of abdomen stout, broadly conical. Tergites 
faintly and minutely transversely striate ; tergites I to VIII 
each with a transverse row of eight weak setae on hind 
margin, subequal in length on all segments ; tergite IX bears 
near the caudal margin three pairs of long slender bristles 
about 100 p in length, and a dorsal pair (about 48 p apart) 

14 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^ol. XXVIII 

of distinctly stronger bristles about twice as thick and half 
as long as the three pairs near the caudal margin. Tergite 
X bears two pairs of dorsal bristles about 80 p in length. 

Abdominal sternites II to V each with about 12-15 minute 
teeth on hind margin at sides; on sternites II to VII there 
are two transverse rows of about eight setae increasing in 
length caudad. 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: — Length 0.97 
(slightly distended) ; head length 0.088, width across eyes 
0.1, behind eyes 0.088; prothorax length 0.124, width at base 
0.16, at apex o.i ; postero-angular setae on pronotum 0.012; 
pterothorax length 0.16, width 0.168; abdomen length 0.67, 
width 0.208. Fore leg: femur length 0.08, width 0.044, 
tibia length 0.06, width 0.036; hind femur length 0.096, 
width 0.04, tibia length 0.092, width 0.032. 
Antenna of paratype female, length 0.176 mm. 

length in |j 20 24 24 24 24 40 8 12 
width in \x 24 24 18 20 16 16 8 4 

Described from two apterous females taken by the writer from 
the base of tufts of tall grass at Pretoria, 4.11.1931. This inter- 
esting new species can readily be distinguished by the generic 

Neothrips obesus spec. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 15, 16.) 

Male (brachypterous). Length about i.i mm. Color of 
body and appendages rather uniformly light brown, tinged 
with yellow ; only segment II of antennae, and tarsi, some- 
what paler, brownish yellow. All spines pale, inconspicuous. 
Head about i.i as long as wide, and very slightly shorter 
than the strongly chitinized part of pronotum. Cheeks 
parallel. Postoculars stout, expanded apically, about 28 |j in 
length, situated about half their length from posterior margin 
of eyes. Eyes greatly reduced, consisting of about four 
facets, scarcely protruding ; about six minute setae on dorsal 
aspect of head, and four in a transverse row between eyes 
near anterior margin. Ocelli absent. Dorsal surface of 
head in posterior half with transverse striations that 
anastomose sufficiently to produce an effect of weak reticula- 

Antennae inserted beneath the vertex, the outer basal 
angles of their first segments appearing to extend beneath 
the median margin of the eyes. Antennae about twice as long 
as the head, rather broad and heavy ; segments VII and VIII 
closely united, but the suture between them distinct ; sense 
cones: III, o-i ; IV, i-i ; V, i-i ; VI, i-i ; VII one on 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 15 

Mouth cone long, slender and sharply pointed, extending 
well on to mesosternum ; maxillary palpi about 28 \x in length, 
the second segment about six times as long as the first; 
labial palpi about 30 p in length, the two segments subequal. 
Labrum sharply pointed. 

Prothorax large, and elongate in appearance, anterior 
stippled membrane strongly developed, about 0.05 mm. in 
length, and bearing the two anterior angular spines ; width 
of prothorax (including coxae) about 1.9 times the length of 
the sclerotic part of the pronotum. All the usual spines 
present, pale, inconspicuous, expanded at apex, subequal in 
length to postoculars. 

Pterothorax rectangular, slightly narrower than prothorax ; 
rudimentary wings minute. Fore femora enlarged, width 
equal to half their length; fore tibiae short, fore tarsus with 
a short tooth (about 8 |j in length), blunt on both tarsi of 
holotype, sharply pointed on one fore tarsus of male para- 
type. Middle and hind legs short and robust ; hind femora 
nearly half as wide as long, and about 0.9 as long as fore 

Abdomen broad and heavy, wider than prothorax across 
coxae. Dorsal spines on segments II to VI broadly ex- 
panded at apex like those on prothorax : posterior angulars 
subequal to postoculars, marginals slightly longer. Posterior 
angular spines on segment IX long and pointed, nearly as 
long as tube, those on VII also pointed but somewhat shorter ; 
marginal pair on VII and two pairs on VIII expanded 
apically and nearly twice as long as postoculars ; IX also 
bears two pairs of capitate bristles distinctly less widely ex- 
panded than postoculars, the inner pair two-thirds as long 
as tube and much longer than the outer pair. Setae at tip 
of tube weak, about three-fourths as long as tube. Segments 
II to IX bear a transverse row of 6 to 10 minute setae on 
dorsum near the middle of each tergite; on the ventral aspect 
of segments II to VIII there is a similar row of minute setae 
across the middle, and two longer, pointed setae on the 
posterior margin. 

Tube short and heavy, about 0.8 as long as head, more 
than twice as wide at base as at apex, sides slightly concave 
near the middle. 

Measurements of holotype (male) in mm.: — Length 1.16 
(distended). Head length 0.124, width 0.112; mouth cone 
length 0.145; prothorax length 0.128, (anterior membrane 
0.054) width 0.248 ; spines : posterior angulars 0.033, on coxae 
0.025 ; pterothorax length 0.165, width 0.232 ; abdomen length 
0.76, width 0.28; tube length 0.095, tube setae 0.07, tube 
width at base 0.066, at apex 0.029 ; spines on ninth abdominal 

16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. xxvili 

segment : knobbed 0.058, pointed 0.091, on eighth 0.05. Fore- 
leg: femur length 0.132, width 0.066, tibia length 0.07, width 
0.037; tarsus length 0.041, width 0.029. 
Antenna length 0.25 mm. 









length in |j 







37 17 

width in |j 







19 12 

Female (brachypterous). Practically identical with male 
in coloration, form and details of structure, with the follow- 
ing exceptions: abdomen somewhat broader; teeth on fore 
tarsi smaller; two pairs of capitate bristles on dorsal aspect 
of ninth abdominal segment more widely expanded (though 
not quite as broad as those on eighth), and both pairs about 
two-thirds as long as tube. 

Measurements of allotype (female) in mm.: — Length 1.2 
(slightly distended). Head length 0.12, width 0.132; pro- 
thorax length 0.132 (anterior membrane 0.045), width 0.24; 
spines : posterior angulars 0.033, ^^ coxae 0.029 ; pterothorax 
length 0.145, width 0.25; abdomen length 0.8, width 0.32, 
tube length 0.107, tube setae 0.066, tube width at base 0.074, 
at apex 0.029 > spines on ninth abdominal segment 0.066, on 
eighth 0.05. Fore-leg: femur length 0.116, width 0.058, tibia 
length 0.07, width 0.037; tarsus length 0.041, width 0.029, 
tooth 0.008. 

mna length 0.27 
segments I 







length in \\ 29 
width in \\ 29 







41 21 

21 14 

Described from five mounted specimens : two J* J* and three $$ 
taken by the writer under the bark of a "fever" tree (tall, yellow- 
barked Acacia sp.) on the Ubombo mountain in Zululand, 

This species differs from A^. corticis Hood in the relatively 
shorter head, the absence of long pointed spines on segments VI 
and VIII of the abdomen, the pale coloration of segment II of 
the antennae, and the smaller tarsal teeth of the male. 
(Continued in April number) 

Explanation of Plates 
(J. C. F. del) 
Plate I 

Heliothrips sylvanns spec. nov. 

Fig. I — $ paratype, head and prothorax 
Fig. 2 — 5 holotype, left antenna 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17 

Pocthrips fnrcatus gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 3 — $ holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 4 — ^ paratype, maxillary palpus 

Fig. 5 — $ holotype, right antenna 
Perissothrips halli spec. nov. 

Fig. 6 — J* allotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 7 — (^ allotype, right antenna 

Fig. 8 — ^ paratype, right posterior angle of fourth tergite 
Rhinothrips rostratus gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 9 — (^ holotype, head and prothorax 

Plate II 

Dentothrips gramifiis gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. lO — $ holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. II — ^ holotype, second segment of left antenna 

Fig. 12 — 2 holotype, right antenna 
Caprithrips analis gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 13 — '2 paratype, left antenna 

Fig. 14 — 2 holotype, head and prothorax 
Neothrips obesus spec. nov. 

Fig. 15 — J* holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 16 — t^ holotype, right antenna 
Pseudocryptothrips proximiis spec. nov. 

Fig. 17— c^ holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 18 — (^ holotype, left antenna 

Plate III 

Allotlirips africanus spec. nov. 

Fig. 19 — 2 holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 20 — 2 holotype, right antenna 
Idiothrips bellus gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 21 — 2 holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 22 — 2 holotype, right antenna 
Fulgorothrips priesneri gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 23 — ^ paratype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 24 — (^ paratype, right antenna 
Hoodiana pallida gen. et spec. nov. 

Fig. 25 — 5 holotype, head and prothorax 

Fig. 26 — 2 holotype, left antenna 
Stephanothrips graminis spec. nov. 

Fig. 27 — 2 paratype, head and prothorax 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 

Plate I 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 

Plate II 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 

Plate III 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 21 


By Melville H. Hatch, Seattle, Washington. 

Fall (Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. XXVII, 1932, p. 145) points 
out the close affinity of Hydroporus hrodei Gellermann and H. 
quadriniaculatiis Horn. We were misled in the placing of brodei 
by the inaccuracies of Fall's treatment of quadrimaculatus (Rev. 
N. A. species Hydroporus and Agaporus, 1923, p. 112, 117). If 
that author had examined the metacoxae of quadrimaculatus, — 
which he writes me he had not done, — the impropriety of placing 
the species in a group with the "mesial line between the posterior 
coxal processes more or less abbreviated behind" would at once 
have become apparent. The mesial line is really acutely tri- 
angularly produced, its apex surpassing the level of the lateral 
metacoxal process. I am convinced, however, that rather than 
erect a new group for it it is better to expand Zimmermann's 
(Arch. Naturg. 83, A, 1917 (1919), p. 183-184, fig. 17) subgenus 
Deronectes s. str. This is a group hitherto unknown from 
America. The old world species of Deronectes s. str., however, 
have the mesial line of the metacoxae prominent but not surpass- 
ing the level of the lateral metacoxal processes. The characters 
of the subgenera of Hydroporus {sensu Fall) are set forth in 
the following key. 

Key to the Subgenera of Hydroporus (sensu Fall) 
A^ Lateral process of metacoxae narrower than the common 
median portion that may or may not be lobed 
B^. Apex of metacoxae truncate or nearly so ; Holarctic 

subg. Hydroporus (s. str.) 
B^. Median metacoxal line prominent ; Nearctic 

subg. Heterosternus Zimm. 
A^. Lateral processes of metacoxae wider than the common 
median lobe which may be entirely obsolete 
B'^. Scutellum invisible 

C^. Median metacoxal line prominent 

D^. Apex of prosternum narrow, more or less cari- 

nate; Palaearctic, Nearctic (Pacific Coast) 

subg. Deronectes Sharp 

D^ Apex of prosternum broad, not carinate; 

Europe subg. Stictotarsus Zimm. 

C^. Median metacoxal line abbreviated 

D^ Venter opaque, densely micropunctulate ; prono- 
tum without longitudinal foveae at sides; 

22 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entoynological Society '^ol. XXVIII 

metaf emora densely punctate at least in part ; 
Holarctic, Ethiopian, Oriental, Central 
America {Potamodytes Zimm., Deronectes 

Fall) subg. Potamonectes Zimm. 

D-. Venter shining, not densely micropunctulate ; 
metafemora with only a few seta-bear- 
ing punctures 
E^. Length 2.5-5 i^im-, the smaller species 
broadly oval or subrotundate ; pronotum 
usually longitudinally foveate at sides, 
vaguely transversely impressed towards 
base; Holarctic . .subg. Oreodytes Seidl. 
E^. Length 2-3.5 nim., usually under 3 mm., 
elongate oval ; pronotum with or 
without longitudinal foveae at sides, 
base not transversely impressed ; 
F^. Upper surface microreticulate ; form 
narrower . . subg. Graptodytes Seidl. 
F^ LTpper surface punctulate; form 
broader . .subg. Stictonotus Zimm. 
B^. Scutellum visible at apex ; Ethiopian 

sub. Nehrio perns Reg. 

Hydroporus (Potamonectes) mathiasi sp. nov. 

Elongate oval ; above straw colored ; head black with tes- 
taceous anterior margin forming an angle between eyes and 
testaceous transverse frontal spot; pronotum with black or 
rufous apical and basal markings which fuse more or less 
broadly on disc with exception of a longitudinal straw colored 
median spot; elytra with six more or less interrupted and 
semiconfluent rufous vittae on a straw colored background, 
with two feebly impressed discal series of punctures ; margin 
without subapical tooth. Dorsum finely densely punctate, 
virtually glabrous, microreticulate. Venter black, densely 
micropunctulate, the legs and mouthparts and epipleurae pale. 
Mesocoxae very narrowly separated. 

Type and seven paratypes: Austin Pass Lake, Mt. Baker, 
Washington, VIII-13-1932. T. Kincaid (in collection of author). 
Nine paratypes variously from Oueets Basin, Olympic Mts., F. W. 
Mathias ; Paradise Park (Robert Flock) and Tipsoo Lake (M. C. 
Lane), Mt. Rainier, the latter in Mr. Lane's collection. 

The glabrous dorsum and faded out dorsal markings distinguish 
this species from griseostriatus DeG. and related species in Fall's 
key (I.e., p. 100). The elytral punctures may possibly be set with 
extremely short and minute setae. 

Feb.,l9S3 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23 

I name this species in honor of Mr. F. W. Mathias of Hoquiam, 
Washington, who presented me with my first specimen of the 
species in 1928. It is an interesting Alpine type, apparently con- 
fined to small mountain lakes at an elevation, of about 5000 feet. 

The subgenus Oreodytes Seidl. 

Twenty-two of the twenty-three species of the subgenus 
Oreodytes are set forth in the following key. Of these I have 
seen specimens of all but six: bisidcatus Fall, picturatus Horn, 
laevis Kby., recticollis Fall, and alaskanus Fall. Dauricus Mots, 
from Siberia is omitted. For literature see Seidlitz, Verb. Nat. 
Ver. Briinn XXV, 1886, p. 57-59; Zimmermann I.e., p. 190-192; 
Fall I.e., p. 112-121 and Pan-P. Ent. II, 1926, p. 138-141 ; Hatch, 
Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXIII, 1928, p. 220-222. 

The members of this subgenus are primarily inhabitants of run- 
ning water or live in pools and eddies immediately adjacent 
thereto. The group is particularly developed along the Pacific 
coast of North America where fifteen of the twenty-three known 
species occur. 

Key to Species of Oreodytes Seidl. 

1 Epipleura impressed at base for reception of apex of meso- 


2 Form elongate oval 

3 Pronotum narrower than elytra at base ; elytra nearly 


4 Epipleura black or slightly paler towards its outer anterior 

angle; length 3.4-4 mm. ; dark band along inner margin of 
eye usually more distinct. 

5 Discal series of punctures moderately impressed ; elytra nigro- 

lineate or with the markings more or less fused ; scattered 
punctures of elytra coarse and evident or nearly obsolete; 
B. C. and Newfoundland to N. H., N. Y., n. Mich., Idaho, 
and Wash, (septentrionalis Fall nee Gyll.) . . .scitidus Lee. 

5' Discal series of punctures more strongly impressed ; Cal. 

• bisidcafits Fall. 

4' Epipleura pale ; dark band along inner margin of eye feeble or 
broken; elytra nigrolineate or (ab. devillei Reg.) nearly 
uniform black; length 2.6—3.3 I'nm. ; central and northern 
Europe, Siberia septentrionalis Gyll. 

3' Pronotum as wide as elytra, not foveate at sides ; elytra evi- 
dently pubescent ; length 4-4.5 mm. ; central Europe, Medi- 
terranean halensis F. and varieties. 

2' Form broadly oval 

6 Elytra without sutural series of punctures 

24 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^o^- XXVIII 

7 Elytra nigrolineate, the markings frequently more or less 


8 Sides of metacoxae coarsely punctate ; scattered punctures of 

elytra evident ; disc of pronotum with a single transverse 
fascia or with the entire disc more or less obscurely 
piceous; length 3-3.15 mm.; Mont., Utah, Wash. 

crassulus Fall. 
8' Sides of metacoxae finely punctate 

9 Elytra with scattered punctures 

10 Disc of pronotum with at most a single transverse fascia; 

scattered punctures of elytra very small and obscure 

11 Scattered punctures of elytra larger and sparser, confined to 

the vicinity of the suture ; the two impressed elytral series 
of punctures evident; length 2.7-2.95 mm.; width i. 6-1. 85 
mm. ; Cal. to B. C obesiis Lee. 

11' Scattered punctures of elytra very small, almost invisible, and 
evenly distributed ; impressed series of dorsal punctures 
nearly obsolete ; forms with the markings expanded or re- 
duced constitute the ab. rivalis Gyll. and ab. alienns Sharp 
respectively; length 3 mm., width 1.8 mm.; central and 
northern Europe, Siberia sanmarki Sahib. 

10' Disc of pronotum with two transverse fasciae; scattered 
punctures of elytra more evident; length 2.8 mm., width 

1. 1 5 mm. ; Wash angustior Hatch. 

9' Elytra without scattered punctures; the two impressed series 
of elytral punctures evident; length 2.6-2.85 mm., width 
1. 5-1. 75 mm.; N. M. and Ariz, to Mont., Alta., B. C, and 

Wash congruus Lee. 

7' Elytra not nigrolineate 

12 Above and below more numerously and coarsely punctate ; 

pronotum narrower at base than elytra ; posternal and 
metasternal process broader; length 3-3.3 mm. ; Cal., Wash. 

abbreviatus Fall. 
12' Above and below more sparsely and finely punctate ; pronotum 
as broad as elytra at base; prosternal and metasternal 
process narrower ; length 2.85-3 mm. ; Nev., Cal. 

, pictiiratus Horn. 

6' Elytra with impressed sutural series of punctures, not nigro- 
lineate, without scattered punctures ; length 3.3 mm. ; Cal., 

Wash subrotundiis Fall. 

i' Epipleura not impressed at base for reception of mesof emur ; 
form elongate oval 

13 Elytral apex not dentate in either sex 

14 Pronotum narrower at base than elytra; epipleura black; 

elytra at apex pale or (ab. montanus Zimm.) black; length 

4-4.5 mm. ; central and northern Europe .... borealis Gyll. 

14' Pronotum as wide at base as elytra; epipleura pale; elytra 

Feb., 19.33 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 25 

very obscurely vitto-maculate ; length 3.8 mm. ; Wash. 

snoqualmie sp. nov. 
13' Elytral apex externally dentate in female 

15 Last ventral segment of female without a broad deflexed 

apical process 

16 Elytra evidently punctate; epipleura pale; pronotum broader 

at base than at middle, the sides evenly arcuate ; female 
elytral dentation subrectangular to spinose 

1/ Length 4.5 mm. ; narrower; n. Europe alpinus Payk. 

17' Length 5.5 mm.; broader; B. C, Wash. . . .hortense sp. nov. 

16' Elytra very obscurely punctate 

18 Epipleura pale; black markings of dorsal surface more re- 

stricted ; pronotum pale with a more or less interrupted 
transverse basal fascia 

19 Protarsal claws similar in sexes; sides of pronotum nearly 

straight ; length 3.8-4.35 mm. ; Lake Superior, Hudson 
Bay Terr, {duodecimlineatus Lee.) laevis Kby. 

19' Male protarsal claws thicker; female elytral tooth somewhat 
obtuse; sides of pronotum variable; length 4.4-5 mm.; 
Calif., Y. T. {yiikoncnsis Fall, recticoUis Hatch nee Fall) 

semiclanis Fall. 

iS' Epipleura black; black markings of dorsal surface heavier, 
the pronotum diffusely clouded with the margins and a 
central median line pale ; sides of pronotum straight and 
parallel in at least basal half ; female elytral tooth nearly 
rectangular; length 4.8-5.2 mm; Alaska . .recticoUis FalP 

15' Last ventral segment of female with a broad deflexed apical 
process ; female elytral tooth obtuse 

20 Epipleura pale ; dorsum finely sparsely punctate ; female 

abdominal process broadly truncate ; male protarsi some- 
what broader than in female ; sides of pronotum nearly 
parallel behind middle; length 4.5—5.3 mm.; Alaska 

alaskanus Fall. 
20' Epipleura black ; dorsum evidently moderately closely 
punctate ; female abdominal process bilobed and more or 
less notched at apex ; male protarsi not broader than in 
female ; shape of thoracic side margin and elytral apex 
variable; length 4. 75-5-5 mm.; Wash, (kincaidi Hatch) 

rainieri Hatch. 

^Apparently close to recticoUis Fall is dauricus Mots, from 
Siberia. It approaches it in having the female elytra dentate, the 
epipleura black, the elytra finely punctate, the elytral vittae with a 
tendency to confluence. It is apparently distinguished by its 
three strongly impressed series of dorsal punctures. The other 
species with the female elytra dentate have the series of dorsal 
punctures nearly or quite unimpressed and very inconspicuous. 
See Motschulsky, L'Abeille XVI, 1878, p. 61 ; Zimmermann, 
Arch. Naturg. 83 A, 1917 (1919), p. 190. 

26 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^^- ^^VIII 

H. scitulus Lee. — I have followed Zimmermann in separating 
this species from septentrionalis Gyll., but Fall may really be 
justified in his contention that, in the last analysis, the two are 
inseparable. I have seen no American specimen, however, in 
which the epipleura are as nearly entirely pale as in those from 

There is certainly some evidence of the splitting up of this 
species into local races in Washington. A series recently taken 
on the Naches River in eastern Washington is uniformly less 
evidently punctate with some specimens exhibiting a pale area on 
the epipleura and the partial disintegration of the dark band along 
the inner margin of the eye, in all these respects approaching 
typical septentrionalis and differing from the form found in west- 
ern Washington and along the Columbia River at Plymouth. The 
specimens Fall (I.e., p. 115) cites from British Columbia and 
Idaho may belong to this Naches River race. 

H. snoqualmie sp. nov. 

Oblong oval, the outline feebly notched at base of pronotum 
and at eyes. Above virtually glabrous, finely microreticulate, 
the head and pronotum finely and densely, the elytra more 
coarsely and more sparsely punctate, the pronotum with 
larger punctures toward the base and apex. Head pale with 
an oblique dark band on either side of the front which bands 
fuse with a median dark spot towards the base of the head. 
Pronotum as wide as elytra at base, with a distinct short 
longitudinal fold on either side, broadest at base, the side 
margins arcuate, narrowed from or from slightly before base, 
with sides and a median spot pale, the disc more or less ex- 
tensively dark; the dark areas may or may not attain the 
apical and basal margins. Elytra with two more or less 
feebly impressed discal series of punctures, pale, marked 
with about six entire discal and one or two interrupted 
marginal pale brown or brownish black vittae ; apex not or 
very feebly sexually dimorphic. Epipleura of elytra pale, 
the basal portion not excavated for reception of the meso- 
femora. Below pale brownish, the thoracic plates and the 
metacoxae somewhat darker. Length 3.8 mm. 

Type: North Bend (Maloney's Grove), Wash., May 10, 1930, 
M. H. Hatch (in collection of author). 69 paratypes from North 
Bend (Maloney's Grove), Green River Gorge (King Co.), Mt. 
Rainier (Green Water River), and Austin Pass Lake, Mt. Baker, 
all in western Washington. 

Fel., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27 

H. hortense sp. nov. 

Oblong oval. Above glabrous, microreticulate ; the head 
and pronotum finely, the elytra evidently punctate. Head 
pale with an oblique dark band on either side of the front 
which fuse with a median dark spot towards base. Pronotum 
• narrower at base than elytra, with a distinct short longi- 
tudinal fold on either side, broadest at base, the side margins 
feebly arcuate. Pronotum pale with a more or less inter- 
rupted black basal fascia, the apical and basal margins some- 
times black. Elytra pale with six entire black discal and one 
or two interrupted lateral vittae, the apex very feebly 
obliquely sinuate (J*) or strongly and subrectangularly to 
spinosely dentate, the margin sinuate on both sides of the 
tooth (5). Epipleura pale, not excavated at base for recep- 
tion of mesofemora. Below black, the appendages pale ex- 
cept for the basal portions of the femora, which are dark. 
Terminal abdominal segment not modified in female. 

Type $, allotype ^, and 13 paratypes: North Bend (Malooey's 
Grove), Wash. July 14, 1930, M. H. Hatch (in collection of 
author). 13 paratypes same data as type taken on May 10 and 
June 29, 1930. One paratype: Barkerville, B. C. IX-9-1929, 
Hortense Griffin. 

I take great pleasure in naming this beautiful little species for 
Mrs. Hortense Griffin Lanphere, a student at the University of 
Washington, who has contributed numerous specimens of 
Coleoptera to my cabinet and who presented me with my first 
specimen of this species in 1929. 

H. semiclariis Fall (yukonensis Fall, recticollis Hatch nee Fall). 
My short series of specimens from Yukon Crossing is so 
variable that I am compelled to adopt Fall's original surmise that 
semiclariis and yukonensis are identical. My series range in 
size from 4.4 to 4.75 mm. and the side margin of the pronotum 
varies from practically straight to such a strongly arcuate condi- 
tion that I was led to identify some of the specimens erroneously 
with recticollis. 

H. rainieri Hatch (kincaidi Hatch). 

A series of seventy-five specimens, nearly all from the type 
locality, shows that kincaidi is an untenable species. The charac- 
ters on which it was founded (the divergent posterior pronotal 
angles, the feebler developmnt of the character of the elytral apex, 
and the absence of notching of the female abdominal process) 
occur in every degree of development and in eveiy possible com- 

28 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 


By J. R. DE LA ToRRE-BuENo, White Plains, N. Y. 

In November, 1931, Mr. Carl Geo. Siepmann collected a number 
of Heteroptera at Matecumbe and other near-by places, on the 
Florida Keys. Homestead is near Royal Palm Park ; and Jupiter 
on the East coast, north of Palm Beach. Isla Morada and 
Matecumbe are on Upper Matecumbe Key. The species secured 
and here listed are all, apparently, new records for Florida. All 
species here cited have been named or checked by Blatchley's 
keys ; and represent, so far as possible, the same species he 
enumerates and his understanding of them. It follows that in 
any changes of identification or synonymy in Blatchley, the species 
in this list will be readily referred where they should belong. 

There are 35 species in this lot, some of great interest. Of 
these, II species are wide-spread throughout the Eastern United 
States, namely: Homoemus bijugis Say, Corimelaena pulicaria 
Say, Pangaeus bilineatus Say, Soluhea pugnax Fabr., Euthochtha 
galeator Say, Chariesterus antennator Fabr., Harmostes reflex- 
ulus Say, Coriziis hyalinns Fabr., Aradiis similis Bergr., Oncopel- 
tiis fasciatus Dallas, Nysiiis californicus Stal, and Phymata 
fasciata Gray. The four forms following are recorded from 
Florida only : Loxa florida Van Duzee, IscJmodemus rufipes Van 
Duzee, EuryophtJiahnus davisi Barber, and Acanthochila cx- 
quisita Uhler. The strictly Neotropical species, found also in 
the West Indies and the parts of the Americas about the Gulf of 
Mexico are 12, namely: Thyanta perditor Fabr., Murgantia violas- 
cens Westw., Arvelius albopunctatus DeG., Piezodorns guildinii 
Westw., Podisus sagitta Fabr., Chondrocera laticornis LaP., 
Hyalymenus longispimis Stal, Harmostes affinis Dallas, Oncopel- 
tus sexmaculatus Stal, Aphanus illuminatus Dist, Dysdercus 
suturellus H. S., Teleonemia helfragei Stal. The remaining eight 
species are either peculiar to the Southern seaboard States or else 
wide-spread in the West and South ; these are : Camirus porosus 
Germar known from Vancouver, B. C., south; Diolcus chrysor- 
rhoeus Fabr., Southern States; Euschistus bifibidtis P. B., a 
widely distributed southern species ; Euschistus scrvus reported as 
from Massachusetts south into Mexico ; Nysius strigosus Uhler, 
California south; Orthoea (Paromius) longidus Dallas, Southern 

Fel}., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29 

States down into South America; Zcliis bilobus Say and Apio- 
merus spissipcs Say, common southern species. 

Barber brings out in his Hemiptera of Florida (which reports 
all records up to 1914 for both Heteroptera and Homoptera) that 
38% of those he records are restricted to Florida and the U. S. 
in general, about 43% are species of South American origins ; 
about 12% strictly Floridian, and 6% West Indian and Floridian. 
In Mr. Siepmann's captures we have about 11% Floridian, 30% 
wide-spread North American species and an equal proportion of 
Neotropical forms (including West Indian) ; and finally about 
22% of wide-spread southern and western forms. These propor- 
tions are quite in keeping, although in slightly different form. 
The strictly and solely Floridian species seem to be about twice 
as numerous on the Keys as in the rest of the State, however, ac- 
cording to this lot. 

The species of chief interest is the single specimen of 
Acanthochila exquisita Uhler. This seems to be its first record 
since it was described from four specimens from Cape Florida. 
Other species worthy of note are : the rare Floridian Loxa florida 
V. D., which takes the place of the West Indian L. flavicollis; 
Murgantia violascens Westw., a West Indian species known only 
from the Keys ; Chondrocera laticornis LaP. ; Euryo phthahnus 
davisi Barber, described from Big Pine Key, this being another 
new record for the species ; the seldom seen Aplianus ilhiminatus 
Distant, a Central American species ; the Floridian Ischnodemiis 
rufipes Van Duzee ; and finally Nysius strigosus Uhler, hereto- 
fore recorded from Miami. 

While the number of species is small, as shown it has a large 
proportion of interesting records ; it also shows the relative pro- 
portion of species at a fixed time. A long series of Chariesterus 
antennator Fabr. indicates but little inequality in the ratio of the 


The list of the species taken which follows is arranged accord- 
ing to Blatchley's linear order. A few ecological notes are added 
to each species. 

Corimelaena pulicaria Germar — One specimen only from Key 

Largo, November; a species that would appear to have been 

recorded only from Dunedin by Blatchley. 
Diolcus chrysorrhoeus Fabr.- — Two only from Matecumbe, Nov. 

21 ; a species widespread in Florida and recorded from South 

Carolina to Texas. 

30 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 

Homaemus bijugis Uhler — A long series of this variable species 
from Matecumbe, Windly, Key Largo and Jupiter; known 
from Quebec west and south into Mexico. 

Camirus porosiis Germar — One from Matecumbe, November; the 
species seems to be known from Vancouver and California 
to Florida, Texas and South America. 

Pangaevis bilineatus Say — One from Matecumbe; distributed from 
Quebec to Mexico and widespread in Florida. 

Thyanta perditor Fabr.- — Three from Windly; nine from Key 
Largo ; a common neotropical species. 

Soluhea pugnax Fabr. — Three from Matecumbe and one from 
Isla Morada; a common form on sedges throughout the East- 
ern United States. 

Eiischistus servus Say — A common and widespread species from 
Massachusetts to Louisiana, Texas and Mexico and common 
everywhere in Florida ; represented by only one specimen 
from Homestead. 

Eiischistus bifibuhis P. B. — Twenty-four specimens of this widely 
distributed and common species from Metacumbe. 

Loxa florida Van Duzee — Two from Lower Matecumbe ; this has 
been heretofore recorded from Florida by Van Duzee, who 
described it thence, and by Blatchley. 

Murgantia violascens Westwood — Three specimens from Windly 
of this West Indian species, which has been previously 
recorded from the Florida Keys. 

Arvelkis alba pun ctatiis DeG — One specimen from Matecumbe of 
this usual Floridian form. 

Podisus sagitta Fabr. — This is a Texan and Mexican form, 
recorded from St. Augustine and Miami by Barber, repre- 
sented herein by one specimen from Key Largo. 

Piezodoriis guildinii Westwood — Barber has already recorded this 
from Florida ; there are three specimens from Homestead in 
this lot. 

Corisus hyalinus Fabr.- — There is one from Matecumbe in this 
lot; a wide-spread species, particularly to the south. 

Corisus sp. — There are three specimens of a species undeter- 
minable by Blatchley, taken at Matecumbe. 

Chondrocera laticornis LaP. — ^There are nine from Matecumbe 
and one from Windly of this neotropical species. 

Euthochtha galeator Fabr. — This wide-spread species is repre- 
sented by two from Matecumbe and two from Key Largo. 

Chariesteriis antcnnator Fabr. — There is a long series of this 
common Eastern species from Matecumbe and Windly. 

Hyalymenus longispinus Stal — This is a West Indian species 
represented by three from Matecumbe, three from Key 
Largo and one from Windly. 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 31 

Harmostes reflexulus Say — There are three of this widespread 
species taken at Matecumbe. 

Harmostes affinis Dallas — A common southern species represented 
by three from Matecumbe. 

Aradus similis Say var. centrigiittatiis Bergroth — This species ac- 
cording to Blatchley is very common in central and southern 
Florida ; represented from Homestead by one specimen. 

Oncopeltits fasciatus Dallas — A long series from Matecumbe, 
some of which are teneral, indicating that at this time there 
, are still nymphs to be found ; this has been recorded from 
the Keys by Barber. 

Oncopeltus sexmaculatus Stal — A neotropical form recorded 
from Florida by Blatchley and Barber ; six from Matecumbe. 

Nysius calif ornicus Stal — There is one specimen from Matecumbe 
of this species which ranges from Connecticut in the East 
and Washington in the West into Texas and Mexico. 

Nysius strigosiis Uhler — There is one specimen from Matecumbe 
of this species heretofore reported only from Miami. 

Ischnodemus rufipes Van Duzee — Of this species which appears 
to be restricted to Florida, there is one specimen from Mate- 

Orthoea (Paromius) longida Dallas — Of this species, known 
• throughout Florida, extending from North Carolina into the 
West Indies and South America, there are three specimens 
from Matecumbe, one from Windly and one from Home- 

Aphanus illuminatus Dist. — Two from Matecumbe of this species 
described from Mexico and Guatemala ; and recorded by 
Barber from Florida. 

Euryophthahmis davisi Barber — This species, described by Barber 
from Big Paris Key, is here represented by three specimens 
from Key Largo. 

Dysdercus suturelliis H. S. — The unfavorably known and widely 
distributed cotton stainer is represented by six specimens 
from Matecumbe and two from Homestead. 

Acanthochila exqiiisita Uhler- — This very interesting Tingid 
seems to be known only from the original description, from 
the type locality Cape Florida, Fla. ; there is one specimen 
from Matecumbe in this lot. 

Teleonemia helfragei Stal — This species seems to be known only 
from Florida and Texas ; three from Key Largo. 

Phymata fasciata (Gray) Blatch. — Recorded by Barber from 
Florida, fide Handlirsch ; there are four here from Mate- 
cumbe, 2 from Homestead and one from Isla Morada. 

Apiomeriis spissipes Say — Two from Matecumbe of this widely 
distributed species. 

Zelus hilobus Say — A widely distributed species, of which there 
are 63 from Matecumbe. 

32 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 




By Donald DeLeon, Bureau of Entomology'^ 

Muesebeck,- in his revision of the genus Meteorus HaHday, 
states that the species comprising this group are parasitic chiefly 
on lepidopterous larvae. M. humilis (Cress.), he adds, has been 
recorded as being parasitic on the coleopterous larva Platydema 
ellipticum Fabr., a tenebrionid, and OrcJiesia castanea Melsh., a 
melandryid. He says, however, that the determinations of the 
hosts were somewhat doubtful, and that definite records are 
needed to establish this supposedly anomalous habit of some of 
the members of this genus. As a tenebrionid host for a species of 
this genus was definitely determined, and as the habits and sea- 
sonal history of hypophloei differ somewhat from those of other 
species of Meteorus, the following notes are recorded, though the 
seasonal history was not studied in detail. For more complete 
accounts of the biology and morphology of species of this genus 
Muesebeck^ and Parker* should be consulted. 

The observations on M. hypophloei were made while a study of 
the parasites and predators of the mountain pine beetle {Dendroc- 
toniis monticolae Hopk.) attacking western white pine {Finns 
monticola Dougl.) was being conducted. The study was made 
near Metaline Falls, Washington, on the Kaniksu National Forest, 
which is in the extreme northeast corner of the state. 

Acknowledgment is made to Mr. R. A. Cushman, of the 
taxonomic unit of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, for the deter- 
mination of this species, which he has recently described.^ 

^Resigned May, 193 1. 

^ Muesebeck, C. F. W. A Revision of the North American 
Species of Ichneumon-Flies Belonging to the Genus Meteorus 
Haliday. Proc. U. S. National Museum 63 : Art. 2, 1923. Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

^ Muesebeck, C. R. W. Two important introduced parasites of 
the brown-tail moth. Jour. Agr. Res. 14: 191-206, 1918. 

* Parker, H. L. Notes on Meteorus (Zemiotes) nigricollis 
Thomson, an occasional parasite of the European Corn Borer. 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 33: 93-103, 1931. 

■^ Cushman, R. A. Three new Braconidae parasitic on bark- 
beetles. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sc. 21 : 301-304, 193 1. 

Fel).,i933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 33 

Seasonal History and Habits 

While subcortical insects associated with the mountain pine 
beetle were being looked for, yellowish cocoons were frequently 
found in the tgg galleries of the beetle. The cocoons occurred 
both in trees which contained the brood of the beetle and in 
those from which the brood of the beetle had emerged. Along- 
side many of the cocoons, or affixed to them, were the collapsed 
larval skins of a species of Hypophloeus. The most abundant 
species of the genus found under the bark of trees killed by the 
mountain pine beetle was H. paralleliis Melsh., and it is certain 
that many, if not all, of the skins belonged to the larvae of this 

Some cocoons were found the first day of the field season, 
April 25, 1930. Of eight cocoons examined, seven contained 
larvae and one an adult. The adult was dead but rather moist, 
and appeared as though it had recently transformed. Five of the 
cocoons were saved for rearing and from these two males emerged 
between May 9 and 11 and one female between May 11 and 12. 
The female was fed sugar water, and though it remained alive 
until May 29, it would not oviposit on any Hypophloeus larvae. 
Two more cocoons were collected May 19 ; a male emerged from 
one between May 22 and 26 and a female from the other May 
27. Though the female was fertilized by the male as soon as 
both were placed together, she refused to oviposit on the 
Hypophloeus larvae placed with her, and died on June 5. The 
male died May 30. Later, the larvae of Dendroctonus monticolae, 
a species of Hypophloeus, and a species of Rhizophagiis (a small 
subcortical larva similar in size and shape to a Hypophloeus 
larva) were secured and placed with several females of Meteorus 
that had been collected in the field. However, none of these 
would oviposit on the larvae nor would they pay any attention 
to them. 

About two months later an attempt at oviposition was observed. 
Three Hypophloeus larvae and a female Meteorus had been placed 
in a Syracuse watch glass, the bottom of which had been covered 
with paper to give footing to the insects. The braconid sensed 
immediately the presence of the larvae. She ran up to one of 
them and rapidly, almost feverishly, vibrated her antennae over its 
dorsal surface, and at times felt the surface first with one antenna 
and then with the other. The larva during this time continued 
to move rapidly around the edge of the paper, and the female 
kept abreast of it by moving sidewise. Suddenly, still facing 
the larva, she bent her abdomen forward between her legs and 

34 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

attempted to pierce its venter with her ovipositor, but the larva 
gave a sudden twist and apparently "scared" her off. 

Subsequently, under the same conditions, females were ob- 
served to oviposit many times in HypopJiloeiis larvae. Each time 
before oviposition they went through the same maneuvers 
described above. Oviposition occurred in previously parasitized 
as frequently as in apparently unparasitized larvae. In the field, 
however, only one parasitic larva was found to emerge from its 
host at maturity. Females would not oviposit in dead Hypo- 
phloeus larvae, or in larvae which were not moving. Though the 
parasite would become excited and dash up to an inactive larva, 
she lost interest immediately if it did not begin to move when it 
was touched with her antennae. 

The parasite inserts her ovipositor in any portion of the venter 
of the larva, but most often, it appeared, in the region of the first 
abdominal segment. Larvae that had been punctured as many as 
six times showed no ill effects from the operation at any period. 
The act of oviposition required usually no more than a second, 
though occasionally, when the female had difficulty in extracting 
her terebra, it took a second or two longer. It was not determined 
whether or not the parasite selects larvae of a certain instar. 

Eight active and apparently normal and full-grown Hypo- 
phloeus larvae were collected August i8 and placed in a vial for 
rearing. Between August 29 and 30 one parasitic larva emerged 
from one of the larvae of the beetle, but before a cocoon could be 
spun by the larva of the parasite it was fed on by one of the 
remaining beetle larvae. The larval skin of the parasitized 
tenebrionid was in the characteristic deflated form. 

Meteorus adults (PI. IV) were observed on certain trees from 
about the middle of June up to the end of the first season, Septem- 
ber 23. They were especially common about the middle of July 
on one tree and the forepart of September on another. Both 
trees had been attacked by the mountain pine beetle the previous 
year, and Hypophloeiis larvae were fairly abundant beneath the 
bark of each. On other trees, attacked the same season, no 
Meteorus adults were found, and in these trees the tenebrionid 
larvae seemed as abundant as in the other two. 

The adults are very active, though when disturbed they usually 
escape by running rather than by flying. They work over the 
tree apparently in search of Hypophloeus larvae, crawling on the 
surface of the bark. None of the parasites had been observed 
under the bark in the tgg galleries of the mountain pine beetle. 

The tgg is practically colorless. Its surface is smooth and 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 35 

resembles a soap bubble in appearance. It is oval in shape, with 
a slight, nipple-like propection at one end. At the opposite end 
it is drawn out into a tapered stalk about one-third as long as 
its main portion. The eggs dissected from the Hypophloetis 
larvae averaged slightly over 0.35 mm. in length and o.i mm. in 

The incubation period, though not definitely determined, prob- 
ably occupies more than one day but less than five. A larva which 
was dissected twenty-four hours after it was parasitized still con- 
tained the egg unhatched ; another larva dissected 1 16 hours after 
it was parasitized contained a larva 1.25 mm. in length. 

The larva observed was of the caudate type. The head occupied 
about three-twentieths of the length of the body ; the tail-like seg- 
ment, four-twentieths. The mandibles were indistinct but ap- 
peared to be set far apart and were slightly sclerotized. The tail- 
like segment bore numerous rather coarse spines, which appeared 
to be more numerous on the dorsal surface. These were not vis- 
ible on the other body segments. The first-instar larva of Mete- 
orus nigricollis lacks these spines (Parker, op. cit.). The full- 
grown larva is hymenopteriform and averages about 4.5 mm. in 
length. The head capsule bears the same type of sclerotized de- 
sign in the buccal region that is found on other full-grown braco- 
nid larvae, and numerous very minute spines are present on all the 
body segments. 

The pupal stadium was not determined, and the pupal stage not 

Adults of the species were collected in Montana also. A female 
was reared from a cocoon collected under the bark of lodgepole 
pine infested with the mountain pine beetle near Sula. The cocoon 
was collected May 24, 1929, and the adult emerged between June 
6 and 7, 1929. Several adults were also collected in August on 
the bark of trees infested the previous year, and on trees recently 
infested. No other information was secured regarding its biology 
in this locality. 


(i) Meteorus hypophloei Cushm. is a primary, internal, soli- 
tary parasite of the larvae of Hypophloeiis parallelus Melsh. and 
probably other associated Hypophloeiis larvae in northeastern 
Washington and southwestern Montana. 

(2) Adults were reared in May from the cocoons collected the 
latter part of April, but no parasitism of the larvae of Hypophlo- 
eus could be secured until August. There is probably but one 

36 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^i. xxrili 

generation a year, the parasite overwintering in the larval stage 
within a cocoon. 

(3) Larvae of the parasite emerged from Hypophloeus larvae 
in August. 

(4) The egg, first-instar larva, and full-grown larva are briefly 
described, but the full seasonal history was not determined. 

Calosoma Escaping by Diving. — Reading the " Touching 
Tale of the Quaking Quag " by Mr. Frost in the October Bulle- 
tin reminded me of another case in which a beetle was observed 
to seek safety under water. One summer day several years ago, 
while sitting on a boulder on the beach of Northern Lake Michi- 
gan waiting for a boat to pick me up, I idly turned over the stones 
within reach to see what had taken shelter beneath them. From 
under one darted a specimen of Calosoma calidum, and in its 
haste to escape appeared to fall into the water filled cavity from 
which a deeply embedded stone had been removed. As the beetle 
failed to appear on the surface after several minutes, with my 
fingers I explored the muddy water which was several inches 
deep, and found it under a small stone on the bottom. When re- 
leased on the beach it immediately darted back into the same cav- 
ity. For nineteen minutes by my watch I waited but it did not 
come to the surface. My boat had then arrived, but before leav- 
ing I again retrieved the beetle which seemed none the worse for 
its submersion, and when released, for the third time again sought 
its underwater retreat. — Sherman Moore, Detroit, Michigan. 

Records of Connecticut Heteroptera.^ — On August 10, 193 1, I 
spent an hour or so on the shores of Lake Candlewood, in Connec- 
ticut, some ten miles from Danbury. This is an artificial body of 
water, for power production ; it consists largely of drowned val- 
leys and has a periphery of some thirty miles of shore line. The 
growth swept was the usual Eastern summer vegetation of this 
latitude — grasses, Daiicus carota, Asclepias, Ruhus spp., etc. The 
bugs taken in ones and twos (all new records for the State), were : 
Corimelaena pidicaria Germ., Neottiglossa undata Say, Mormidea 
liigens Fabr., Orsillus scolopax Say, Zeridoneus costalis Van 
Duzee, Nobis subcoleoptratus Kirby, Sinea diadema Fabr., Phy- 
mata erosa Wolff, and Miris dolabratus Linne. — J. R. de la 
Torre-Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 

Plate IV 


Meteorus hypophloai Coshmorv 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 1 

Plate V 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 39 


By J. D. GuNDER, Pasadena, Calif. 

" Well, I'll be a gol darned Mallophaga ! " exclaimed Dr. Tom, 
as he surveyed one of Mr. Ripley's new sign boards which had 
been put up in the neighborhood. " Imagine potatoes being able 
to imitate birds and bugs. Just look at those pictures ! They got 
everything including eyes, ears, noses and sex appeal. There 
must he something to this mimicry business after all." Come to 
think of it, our common garden vegetables have as much right to 
try and better themselves as our common insects. I've heard of 
monkeys imitating men and men making perfume so their women 
could smell like lilies, but I never thought they would breed pota- 
toes with savy enough to grow legs and wings ! I'll have to put 
an adv. in the Exchange page of the Bulletin, so I can get hold 
of one of those big fellows like he illustrates from New Zealand. 
Maybe a genitalic sHde would show it to be a new " mimetic 
form" ! Entomologically, I have heard that there was such a thing 
as a " mimetic form." However, I am not going to throw away 
my net, buy a shovel and go digging for new species until I find 
out. Maybe these potatoes are not real examples of so-called 
mimicry after all, but are just strange flukes of " convergent evo- 
lution," which means that creatures only remotely related to each 
other come to look like twins. But don't take my word for it ; I'm 
no vegetarian ! However, I feel that these potato-bug pictures 
represent a deep problem in mimetic analogy and that the propo- 
sition should be called to the attention of either Professor Poulton 
or Sherlock Holmes. Mr. W. L. McAtee, of the U. S. Biological 
Survey, thinks that mimicry in insects, that is, the trick of looking 
like a dangerous or ill-tasting species or of camouflaging oneself 
as a leaf or a twig, is not the prop of evolution it was once thought 
to be. In his Smithsonian Publication No. 3125, he gives the re- 
sults of a long series of studies conducted on the stomachs of 
birds, determining the numbers and proportions of supposedly 
protected insects eaten by them. Beetles are taken as one example 
of the failure of various protective devices. Some of them are 
mimics. Others have powerful, ill-smelling secretions which are 
supposed to repel their enemies. Still others have hard shells. 
Yet, Mr. McAtee says, the birds eat them all ! Now folks, what 
do you think of that? And don't forget that old Dr. E. N. Tom 
Ology lets the chips fall where they may." 

40 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 


Medical Entomology, by Robert Matheson, Ph.D. Pp. i-xii + 
1-489, 6 portraits in 2 frontispiece plates, not numbered, and 
figs. 1-211. (Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ills., 1932. $5.) 
This work includes not only the insects proper, i.e., the 
Hexapoda, but also the other Athropoda which are vectors of 
infections. The entire field is surveyed in twenty chapters. The 
first chapter, on Arthropods and human disease, gives a brief his- 
torical account of medical entomology, its rise and progress ; 
enumerates the principal insect-borne diseases and the manner of 
their transmission; defines sundry terms; and concludes with a 
list of references of the more important journals, reference books 
and texts. Each chapter is similarly followed by a most useful list 
of references. Chapter II is a necessarily brief exposition of the 
Arthropods in general, including Crustacea, Arachnida and Aca- 
rina ; with a synopsis of the last. In chapters III and IV, the Aca- 
rina, their characteristics, habits and anatomy, and the diseases 
they convey are dealt with; and synopses of the groups are given. 
The fifth chapter introduces the Hexapoda in a similar manner. 
Since insects are more abundant both as to species and numbers, 
they are dealt with in the thirteen chapters following, according 
to their respective Orders. Naturally, the Diptera are given the 
most extensive treatment in ten of these chapters ; the other three 
refer to the Hemiptera, Anoplura and Siphonaptera. Chapter 
XIX treats of urticating and poisonous Arthropods — scorpions, 
spiders, centipedes, stinging insects, vesicatory beetles and urti- 
cating caterpillars. The closing chapter gives brief directions for 
collecting, preserving and mounting insects. An Author Index of 
4 pages in 3 columns, and a Subject Index of 13 pages complete 
the work. 

One striking fact that emerges from the bibliographies at the 
end of the chapters is the enormous amount of work in pure en- 
tomology, including taxonomy, that is appearing in journals sel- 
dom seen by an entomologist pure and simple, no matter how 
wide his reading. In the Hemiptera, for instance, there are 11 
references out of a total of 36 from non-biological journals by 
non-entomologists ; three of these articles are by occasional ento- 
mologists in the medical profession. This would seem another 
complication added to an already sufficiently abstruse biological 

This is a fine, well-printed, highly useful and valuable work to 
any entomologist working in the groups of which it treats, even 
though there be no medical aspect in the studies being conducted. 
—J. R. T.-B. 

Feb., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41 


Meeting of May 12, 1932. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, May 12, 1932, at 
8.20 p. m. President Davis in the Chair, and 17 other members 
present, viz., Messrs. Ballou, Bell, Eisenhardt, Engelhardt, Lacey, 
Lemmer, Lerch, Moennich, Nicolay, Pollard, Schaeffer, Sheridan, 
Shoemaker, Siepmann, Torre-Bueno, Wilford, and Wurster, and 
three visitors, including Messrs. Nadeau and Stecher. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Torre-Bueno reported at length for the publication committee. 

Mr. Schaeffer proposed for membership Mr. Raoul Nadeau, 10 
Argyle Road, Brooklyn, New York. Mr. Nadeau being present, 
it was regularly moved and seconded that the By-laws be sus- 
pended, and the secretary was directed to cast one ballot for his 
election, which was accordingly done. 

A copy of the new enlarged edition of Riley and Johannsen's 
Medical Entomology was exhibited by Mr. Torre-Bueno. 

Mr. Schaeffer exhibited a series of over seventy specimens of 
the Cerambycid beetle, Romaleum riifulum, collected by Mr. 
Weeks in East New York. The specimens showed considerable 
variation in the form of the elytral apices. There is one spine at 
the sutural apical angle and usually another at the outer apical 
angle, though in the series of specimens shown by Mr. Schaeffer 
the latter was variable, being sometimes more or less feebly evi- 
dent or entirely lacking. The specimens with the outer spine lack- 
ing were described by Casey as mancum, but this series, with its 
intermediate forms, clearly shows it to be only an individual vari- 
ation of ritfidiim. At the same time Mr. Schaeffer presented 
three Long Island records in the same family: Ronialeum hispi- 
corne, collected by Mr. Schott at Fire Island, and new to New 
York; Anoplium cinerascens, a new Long Island record, and 
Tylonotus bimaculatiis, taken at Flushing, Long Island, by Ken- 
neth W. Cooper. 

Mr. Bell told of the experiences of Mrs. Bell and himself on a 
collecting trip to the island of Jamaica, B. W. I., during March 
and April, 1931. He exhibited specimens of twenty-one species 
of Hesperiidae, twenty of which he collected during his stay on 
the island and remarked on their characteristics and habits and 
pointed out the differences between these specimens and those 
found on the main-land and other islands. Among the species ex- 

42 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oZ. XXVIII 

hibited was Choranthiis lilliae, which he has described from speci- 
mens taken at Bath, St. Thomas Parish, where he found it very 
locally restricted in the upper part of the gorge. He also ex- 
hibited a female specimen of the rare Epargyreus perkinsi re- 
cently described by Mr. W. J. Kaye, of London, England, and 
which was captured by Miss Lilly Perkins. He told of the very 
excellent collecting at light for both moths and beetles at Baron 
Hill, Trelawny Parish, and at Constant Spring, St. Andrew Par- 
ish. He found excellent collecting from sea-level up to 1,200 feet 
altitude but higher than that it was not as good, owing to very 
cool weather and frequent rains. He also exhibited a number of 
photographs showing scenes in some of the localities visited. 

Mr. Davis exhibited a collection of cicadas from various parts 
of the world, including a number of large and beautiful species, 
which he had obtained from Mr. Eisenhardt. 

Mr. Moennich, reporting for the field committee, stated that six 
members appeared for the May ist trip, but it started to rain 
while the party was on their way to Richmond. Since it was no 
longer possible to do any collecting, at the invitation of Mr. Davis, 
they visited the Perrine House, and in the afternoon went to the 
Attic Club, in the Staten Island Museum, where Mr. Davis 
showed his collection. A collecting trip was planned for May 
14th, to Alley Pond Park, Douglaston, Long Island. 

Mr. Engelhardt exhibited some specimens of a species of Cryp- 
toceplialus, which emerged from some larvae he collected on the 
first or second of January in a cypress swamp near New Orleans. 
The larvae, which are case bearers, were numerous beneath bark. 
Mr. Schaeffer, who examined the specimens, said he could not 
place them with any species known to him, and thought they might 
represent a new species. 

Mr. Wurster exhibited some moths, including a specimen of 
Automeris io variety lilith. 

The meeting adjourned at 11. 10 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, 



Vol. XXVIII APRIL, 1933 


No. 2 


Brooklyn Entomological 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 
Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed April 1, 1933 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 

Honorary President 
President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

J. E. DE LA TOEEE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Eecording Secretary Librarian 


Cnrrespondinq Secrptnrv Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 




NEW THYSANOPTEEA FEOM S. AFEICA (continued), Faure 55 


DE. W. J. HOLLAND, Engelhardt 79 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
February. April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign. $2.75 in advance; single 
copies, 60 cents. Advertising rates on application. Short articles, notes and 
observations of interest to entomologists are solicited. Authors will receive 25 
reprints free if ordered in advance of publication. Address subscriptions and 
all communications to 

/. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor, 

S8 De Ealb Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 



Vol. XXVIII April, 1933 No. 2 


By Cyril E. Abbott, Morgan Park, IH. 

In August, 193 1, while crossing a field pink with the blossoms of 
Gaura biennis, I suddenly discovered a multitude of slender bugs 
with legs and antennae as attenuated as hairs. Specimens in vari- 
ous stages of development appeared to be feeding on Gaura. The 
adults were copulating in the peculiar " tail-to-tail " manner char- 
acteristic of Hemiptera. Further search revealed the presence of 
eggs. _ 

A little library research identified this bug as Jalysiis spinosus, 
and the absence of biological data on this insect encouraged me to 
write the following account. 

The eggs are found singly, chiefly on flower clusters, and espe- 
cially on the green fruits of Gaura. They are oval-elongate, mea- 
suring approximately 0.6 by 0.2 mm. One end bears four little, 
incurved hooks, each ending in a slight enlargement (Fig. i). 
The presence of two scarlet spots (the eyes) at this end of the egg 
advertise that the young bug is about to emerge. 

Stadium I. With scarcely perceptible movements the insect 
emerges from the egg. One that was observed required twenty- 
seven minutes for this process. With optical aid a not very dis- 
tinct " cephalic heart " is visible. The head appears first ; the tips 
of the antennae, legs, and abdomen, last. Ecdysis follows the 
same general plan, excepting that the thorax precedes the head. 

The young bug is, like the egg, orange in color, and translucent. 
Its " profile " is like that of a crude letter S lying on its side (Fig. 
2). The abdomen and thorax are nearly equal in size. Just 
before the first ecdysis the length of the body has increased to 
i.o mm. 

Stadium II. The fourth day after hatching ecdysis occurs. 
The bugs are then yellow-green with the tip of the head orange. 


44 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. xxrill 

Appendages darken somewhat with age. The head becomes 
straighter but the abdomen is still " bowed " dorsoventrally. The 
eyes, as in all stages excepting the adult, are bright scarlet. Be- 
fore the next ecdysis length increases to 2.0 mm. and the width to 
0.5 mm. 

Stadium III. During the seventh day ecdysis again occurs. 
The insect is now pale green in color with a mid-dorsal white line 
extending from the frons to the tip of the abdomen, and two 
dorso-lateral lines extending the length of the abdomen. The 
latter has become almost straight and of adult proportions. The 
average length of the body at the end of this stage is 3.0 mm. 

Stadium IV. On the tenth day a third ecdysis takes place. The 
green color persists ; the white lines are very distinct. The median 
line widens at its anterior end to form a spot. The " bowed " con- 
dition has practically disappeared, while appearance is further 
modified by the presence of wing-pads. The length of the body is 
4.8 mm., the width i.o mm. After this stage there is practically 
no increase in width. 

Stadium V. Ecdysis is repeated on the thirteenth day. The 
wing-pads increase in size. The average length is 5.8 mm. (Fig. 


Adult. On or about the sixteenth day the bug makes its last 

ecdysis. Recently emerged specimens are pale green with nearly 
white hemelytra, but in three hours the body has assumed a choc- 
olate color with the hemelytra gray-brown. The distal segment 
of the proboscis, the distal segment of each antenna, and the tarsi, 
are black. The eyes are red-brown. The median pale line per- 
sists. The remaining markings are too complex for description 
here. The average length of the adult body is 7.0 mm., the width 
1.0 mm. Females are a little broader than males (Fig. 4). 

The insect appears to feed exclusively on Gaura; at least this 
plant was all that was found necessary to bring insects to maturity. 

The binocular magnifier which enabled the author to construct 
the drawings was kindly supplied by the Illinois School of 
Pharmacy through Mr. Paul Carpenter. 


Fig. I. Egg of Jalysus spinosus. x 40. 

Fig. 2. J. spinosus as it emerges from ^gg. x 40. 

Fig. 3. Pre-adult or nymphal form of J. spinosus. x 40. 

Fig. 4. J. spinosus, adult, x 40. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 2 

Plate VI 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 2 

Plate VII 

AprU, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 47 

COTTON IN 1932. 

By J. C. Gaines, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, 
College Station, Texas. 

Cotton fields are known to harbor large numbers of insects, 
some of which cause severe injury, making it imperative that the 
planters use control measures for the economical production of 
this staple crop. In this locality, insect injury to cotton was 
noted throughout the season. Early in the spring the seedling 
cotton was injured by thrips. Later in the season, during June 
and July, hemipterous insects were abundant, causing the exces- 
sive shedding of squares. Among this group of pests, Psalhts 
seriatiis (Reut.) and Adelphocoris rapidus (Say) were the most 
important. Heliothis obsoleta Fab. and Alabama argillacea Hbn. 
were fairly numerous during July and August, causing injury to 
both the fruit and foliage. Anthonomiis grandis Boh. became 
numerous and infested practically all the squares by early Sep- 

The life histories and economic status are not known for a 
number of species that inhabit cotton fields. The 199 species, 
listed herein, representing 61 families, were captured on a screen 
trap located in a cotton field in the Brazos river bottoms, Burleson 
county, Texas. As this trap did not have any qualities that would 
attract insects, it is believed that these collections represent a good 
sample of the insect fauna, with the exception of Lepidoptera and 
Hymenoptera, that inhabited or was flying through the cotton 
during the growing season. 

The trap, from which these collections were taken, was con- 
structed by tacking a piece of ordinaiy screen wire to a 5'x3' 
frame. The ends of two of these frames were nailed together 
and to three posts placed in the ground in a triangular arrange- 
ment, the two frames forming a right angle with the bottom edge 
about three feet above the ground. The wire was thickly coated 
at regular intervals with a sticky tree banding preparation. All 
insects were taken from this trap once a week, during the period 
from June 15 to August 31, 1932, and cleaned with terpineol be- 
fore mounting. 

This list contains a number of species that have not been 
recorded from this state, as well as the record on the various 
species that occur in cotton fields. The writer is indebted to the 
following specialists for naming some of the insects in this list: 

48 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

H. J. Reinhard, Dr. E. A. Chapin, L. L. Buchanan, H. S. Barber, 
Dr. R. K. Fletcher, Wm. T. Davis, H. G. Johnston, S. W. Brom- 
ley, N. A. Donges, W. S. Fisher, C. F. W. Muesebeck, S. A. 
Rohwer, Grace Sandhouse, and W. M. Mann. 

Family Locustidae 
MelanopUis differentialis (Th.) (2)^ 

Family Chrysopidae 
Chrysopa plorahunda Fitch (i) 

Family Thripidae 
FrankUniella tritici (Fitch) (i) Chirothrips mexicanus Craw- 
ford (i) 

Family Phloeothripidae 
Haplothrips sp. (i) 

Family Scutelleridae 
Camirus porosus (Germ.) (i, 2) 

Family Podopidae 

Oncozygia clavicornis Stal. (2) 

Family Corimelaenidae 
Galgupha aterrima Mai. (2) Corimelaena pulicaria (Germ.) 


Family Cydnidae 
Amnestus piisilliis Ulil. (2) 

Family Pentatomidae 
Trichopepla semivittafa (Say) Thyanta custator (Fabr.) (2) 

(2) Thyanta antiguensis (West.) 

Chlorochroa iihleri Stal. (2) (2, 3) 

Sohibea pttgnax (Fahr.) (2,3) P odisits acutisshmis Sta.\. (3) 

Family Corizidae 

Harmostes fraterculus (Say) Cori::us hirtus Bueno (2, 3) 

(2) Jadera haematoloma (H. S.) 

Corizus lateralis (Say) (2) (2) 

^ Numbers in parenthesis after each species indicate the date 
of collection; i.e., (i) June, (2) July, and (3) August. 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 49 

Family Lygaeidae 
Nysiiis ericae {Sch.\\\.) (1,2,3) Geocoris punctipes (Say) (i, 
Blissus leucopterus (Say) (3) 2, 3) 

Orthaca bilobata (Say) (2) Ocophora pictiirata Uhl. (2) 

Family Reduviidae 
Melanolestes ahdominalis (H. Zeliis laevicollis Champ. (2) 
S.) (2) 

Family Nabidae 
Nabis alternatus Parsh. (2) 

Family Anthocoridae 
Orius insidiosus (Say) (i, 2) 

Family Miridae 
Netirocolpiis nubilus (Say) Lygus pratensis (Linn.) (2) 


Phytocoris sp. (2) 
Adelphocoris rapidus {Sa.y) (2, 

Polymerus basalis Reut. (2) 

Lygus olivaceus Reut. (2) 

Sixeonotus areolatiis Knight 

Ceratocapsiis fnscosignatus 

Knight (2) 
Psallus seriatus (Reut.) (i, 2, 


Family Cicadidae 
Tibicen superba (Fitch) (i) Pacarina piicUa Davis (i) 

Family Membracidae 
Stic toe ephala inermis (Fabr.) Vanduzea triguttata (Burm.) 

(2) (I) 

Stictocephala festina {Sdij) (2) Enchenopa binotafa (Say) (2) 
Micrutalis calva (Say) (2) 

Family Cicadellidae 
Agallia cinerea O. & B. (i) Deltocephalus sayi (Fitch) (2) 

Oncometopia iindata (Fabr.) 


Oncometopia lateralis (fabr.) 

Homalodisca triquetra (Fabr.) 

(i, 2, 3) 
Kolla hartii (Ball) (i, 2) 
Draecidacephala reticulata 

(Sign.) (1,2,3) 
Gypona rugosa Spangb. (i, 2) 
Gypona scarlatina Fitch. (2, 3) 
Xerophloea viridis (Fabr.) (i) 
Xerophloea major Bak. (2) 
Platymetopius acutus (Say) (2) 
Platymetopius loricatus Van D. 


Euscelis obscurinervis (Stal.) 

Eutettix seminudus (Say) (2) 
Eutettix cinctus O. & B. (i) 
Eutettix strobi (Fitch) (2, 3) 
Phlepsius excultus (Uhl.) (2) 
Phlepsius irroratus (Say) (2) 
Thamnotettix nigrifrons 

(Forbes) (2) 
Thamnotettix inornatus V. D. 

Chlorotettix viridius V. D. (2) 
Chlorotettix sp. (2) 
Erythroneura tricincta Fitch 

50 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVlll 

Family Fulgoridae 

Scolops sulclpes (Say) (2) Acanalonia conica (Say) (2) 

Oliarus aridus Ball (2, 3) 


Family Cicindelidae 
Cicindela punctidata Oliv. (i) 

Family Carabidae 

Dyschirins haemorrhoidalis Tetragonodenis fasciatiis Hald. 

Dej. (I) (2) 

Clivina bipiistulata (Fahr.) (i) Calleida punctidata Chd. (i) 

Family Staphylinidae 
Philonthiis hepaticus Er. (i) Tachyporus chrysomelinus (L.) 

Philonthus alumnus Fv. (2) ? (i) 

Family Lampyridae 
Photinns scintillans (Say) (i, 2) 

Family Cantharidae 

CJiaidiognathus scutellaris Lee. Belotits abdominalis (l^ec.) (i) 

Family Melyridae 

Colic ps qiiadrimaculatiis Collops balieatiis 'Lee. (1,2) 

(Fabr.) (1,2) 

Family Cleridae 

Cymatodera undulata var. brun- Enocleriis sp. (2) 
nea Spin. (2) 

Family Corynetidae 
Chariessa pilosa var. marginata Say (i) 

Family Oedemeridae 
Oxacis pallida (Les.) (i, 2, 3) 

Family Mordellidae 

Mordella atra Melsh. (2) Mordellistena sp. (2) 

Mordellistena piistidata 
(Melsh.) (i) 

Family Meloidae 
Epicauta callosa Lee. (2) 

Family Anthicidae 
Notoxus monodon Fab. (i, 2) 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 51 

Family Elateridae 

Monocrcpidius vespertinus Melanotus communis (Gyll.) 

(Fabr.) (i, 2, 3) (i, 2) 

Glyphonyx reciicollis (Say) (i, 

2, 3) 

Family Buprestidae 

Acmaeodcra pulchella (Hbst.) Chrysohothris femorata (Oliv.) 

(^) . . . , (1.2,3) 

Bnprestis nifipes (Oliv.) (2) Agriliis egeniformis Ch. & Kn. 


Family Nitidulidae 
Carpophilus dimidiatits (Fabr.) (2) 

Family Lathridiidae 
M elano phthaUna simplex Lee. (2) 

Family Phalacridae 
Phalacrus scriatiis Lee. (2) 

Family Coccinellidae 

Hyperaspis binotata (Say) (2) Hippodamia convergens Guer. 

Hyperaspis fimbriolata subsp. (i, 2, 3) 

marginatns Ga. (i, 2) Cycloneda sangiiinea (L.) (i, 

Hyperaspidius pallidus Csy. (2) 2) 

Scymniis creperus Muls. (i) Cycloneda sangiiinea var. im- 

Scymmis cinctus 'Lee. (1,2) maculata (Fab.) (i) 

Scymmis intrusiis Horn (i) 0//a abdominalis (Say) (i, 2, 

Scymnus terminatiis Say (i) 3) 

Psyllobora 20-macidata (Say) Olla abdominalis var. plagiata 

(1) Csy. (I) 

Psyllobora 20-maculata var. Chilocorus bividnerits Muls. 

renifer Csy. (2) (2) 

Ceratomcgilla fiiscilabris Exochomus marginipennis var. 

(Muls.) (i) childreni Muls. (1,2,3) 

Family Tenebrionidae 
Triboliitm ferruginenm (Fabr.) (2) 

Family Anobiidae 
Lasioderma serricorne (Fabr.) Eupactns obsolctus Fall (2) 

(2) Catorama confnsum Fall (2) 

Family Scarabaeidae 

Onfhophagus pennsylvaniciis Trigonopeltastcs delta (Forst.) 

(Har. 1,2) (2) 

Ataenius cognatus (Lee.) (2) 

52 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

Family Cerambycidae 
Smodicum cucnjiforme (Say) Neoclytiis acuminatus (Fabr.) 

Neoclytiis scuteUaris (Oliv.) 

Neoclytus nnicronatus (Fabr.) 


Leiopus fascicularis (Harris) 

Hippopsis lemniscata (Fabr.) 

Oberea qtiadricallosa Lee. (i) 

Family Chrysomelidae 

Nodonota texana Schffr. (i) 
Fidia viticida Walsh (2) 
Myochrous denticoUis (Say) 

(2' 3) 
Typophorus viridicyaneus 

(Cr.) (1,2) 
Paria canella var. quadriguttata 

Lee. (i, 2) 
Lina scripta (Fabr.) (2) 
Diabrotica diiodecimpunctata 

(Fabr.) (1,2,3) 
Diabrotica vittata (Fabr.) (i, 

2, 3) 

Cerotonia trifurcata (Forst.) 

(2.' 3) . 
Oedionychis miniata (Fabr.) 

Disonycha crenicollis (Say) 

Disonycha abbrcviata Melsh. 

Haltica nana Cr. (i, 2) 
Haltica amoena Horn ? (2) 
Lactica tibialis (Oliv.) (i) 
Epitrix parvula (Fabr.) (i) 
Chirida guttata (Oliv.) (i) 

Metriona bicolor (Fabr.) (i) 
Family Mylabridae 
Mylabris obtectus Say (i, 2, 3) 

Family Platystomidae 
Brachytarsns alternatiis (Say) Brachytarsiis ? sticticus Boh. 
(2) ' (I) 

Family Curculionidae 
Apion metallicum Gerst. (i) Cylindrocopturus adspersiis 

Eudiagogus pule her Fabr. (2) 
Macrorhoptns estriatus Lee. 

Anthonomus grandis Boh. (2) 

Anthonomus sp. (near albopi- 

losus Dtz.) 

Baris aerea (Boh.) 

Boris sp. (2) 

(Lee.) (2) 
Conotrachelus naso Lee. (i) 
Conotrachelus posticatus Boh. 

Calandra oryzae (L.) (i, 2) 

Gasterocercus sp. (2) 

(Heretofore not reported 
from U. S.) 

Family Tabanidae 
Silvius quadrivittatus Say (i, Tabanus costalisV\f\ed. {2) 

2, 3) Tabanus sidcifrons Maeq. (2, 

Chrysops flavidus Wied. (2) 3) 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 53 

Family Therevidae 
Psilocephala haemorrhoidalis Macq. (2) 
Family Asilidae 

Atomosia melano pagan Herm. Atamasia pnclla\N\td. {i) 

(i, 2) Erax aestuans L. (2) 

Atomosia miiscida O. S. (i, 2) 

Family Syrphidae 

Allograpta ahliqua Say (i) 

Family Tachinidae 

Cistogaster immacidata Macq. ( i ) 

Family Sarcophagidae 

Senotainia ruhriventris Macq. Phytodes hirculiis Coq. (i) 


Family Muscidae 

Pseiidopyrellia carnicina Fabr. Stomoxys calcitrans L. (i, 2, 

(O . 3) 

Musca damestica L. (i, 2, 3) Lyperasia serrata Desv. (i) 

Family Argidae 
Sterictiphara lineata (Roh.) (i) 

Family Braconidae 
Chelonus texanus Cress, (i, 2) 

Family Perilampidae 
Perilampus n. sp. (i) 

Family Chalcididae 
.' Spilochalcis tarvina (Cress.) Trigonura sp. (i) 


Family Chrysididae 
Chrysis sp. (i, 2) 

Family Mutillidae 
Dasymutilla sp. (i, 2) 

Family Scoliidae 
Campsomeris pliuiiipes (Drury) (2) 

Family Formicidae 
Iridomyrmex analis Andre (i, Prcnolepis sp. (i) 

2) Pogauomyrmex sp. (1,2) 

Iridomyrmex sp. (i) 

Family Andrenidae 
Calliapsis andrenifarmis .Sm. Halictus (Chloralicius) zephy- 

(i) rus Sm. ? (i, 2) 

Halictus (Chlaralictus) tegu- 
laris Robt. (1,2) 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 2 

Plate VIII 

Type of Trap Used to Capture Insects. 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 55 


By Jacobus C. Faure, Pretoria, Union of South Africa. 

(Continued from p. 20). 

Pseudocryptothrips proximus spec. nov. (PI. II, Figs. 17, 18.) 

Male (apterous). Length about 1.5 mm. Color: legs and 
anterior half of body brownish yellow, posterior half brown. 
Head yellow, shaded brown on cheeks especially near eyes ; 
antennae: IV to VIII brown, I to III brownish yellow, II 
distinctly paler than I and III ; thorax and segments I and II 
of abdomen yellow shaded with brown, hypodermal pigmenta- 
tion orange in weak light; legs concolorous with head and 
thorax ; abdomen : segment III light brown in median third, 
brownish yellow at sides, segments IV to IX light brown, 
tube darker brown in basal half, paler brown in distal half. 
Spines yellowish, not conspicuous. 

Head about 1.4 as long as wide, and nearly 1.2 as wide at 
base as across eyes ; notched at sides behind eyes ; not 
sculptured except for three or four transverse lines on 
produced vertex at insertion of antennae. Three pairs of 
capitate head bristles, as illustrated. Eyes bulging slightly, 
composed of rounded facets of varying sizes. Antennae 1.75 
times as long as the head, shape of segments as illustrated ; 
sense cones long and pointed : III, i— i ; IV, 2-2 ; V, i-i ; 
VI, i-o; VII one on dorsum. Mouth cone broadly rounded, 
extending nearly across prostemum. Maxillary palpi large, 
segment one about 8 |j long, two about 52 |j long by 12 p 
wide, with a sharp spine about 20 p long at apex. 

Prothorax about 0.58 as long as head and about 2.18 as 
wide as long. All usual spines present, all except coxals 
slightly larger than postoculars. but of same shape ; coxals 
about half as long as other spines. Pronotum not sculptured. 
Mesonotum with one capitate spine subequal to prothoracic 
ones near lateral margin on each side ; metanotum with four 
such spines of comparable size in a transverse row across 
the middle, the outer pair on lateral margins with an addi- 
tional smaller spine in front of them. Legs unarmed, fore 
femora not strongly enlarged. 

Abdomen moderately broad and heavy, its width about 1.5 
that of head. Spines capitate, tergites III to VI each with 
three pairs, of which the angulars are subequal to the pos- 
terior angulars of prothorax. and the median pair about 1.5 
as long ; segments VII and VIII each with two pairs of strong 
bristles somewhat longer than those on segment VI ; on 

56 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomvlogical Society ^ol. XXVIII 

IX three dorsal pairs, the inner and outer slightly enlarged 
at tip, and 2.5 as long as prothoracic spines, the intermediate 
pair much weaker, pointed and about one-third as long as the 
inner pair; a ventral pair projecting laterally are as long as 
outer dorsals, but pointed. Tube short and heavy, about 0.6 
as long as head, nearly twice as long as wide, and more than 
twice as wide at base as at apex ; setae at apex about half as 
long as tube. 

Measurements of holotype (male) in mm.: — Length 1.5 
(slightly distended) ; head length 0.24, width across eyes 
0.149, greatest width 0.173, postoculars 0.045; prothorax 
length 0.14, width 0.306; spines: posterior angulars 0.05, on 
coxae 0.025, on hind margin 0.058, mid-laterals 0.054, anterior 
angulars 0.05, on anterior margin 0.054; pterothorax length 
0.207, width 0.269 ; abdomen length 0.96, width 0.38 ; tube 
length 0.145, tube setae 0.074, tube width at base 0.079, at 
apex 0.033; spines on ninth abdominal segment 0.116, on 
eighth 0.062. 
Antenna length 0.42 mm. 

segments I II III IV V 

length in |j 33 50 58 70 58 
width in |j 41 33 29 31 29 

Female (apterOus). Very similar to male in 
and details of structure, and only slightly larger; inner and 
outer pair of spines on segment IX of abdomen less distinctly 
enlarged, almost pointed. 

Measurements oi allotype (female) in mm. : — Length 1.68; 
head length 0.244, width across eyes O.173, greatest width 
0.215; interocular spines 0.054, postoculars 0.054; prothorax 
length 0.153, width 0.34, spines: posterior angulars 0.058, 
on coxae 0.041, on hind margin 0.07, mid-laterals 0.058, 
anterior angulars 0.058, on anterior margin 0.066; ptero- 
thorax length 0.28, width 0.32; abdomen length 1.04, width 
0.48, tube length 0.182, tube setae 0.095, tube width at base 
0.91, at apex 0.037; spines on ninth abdominal segment 0.149, 
on eighth O.083. 






e in 

45 29 
23 12 

;nna length 0.48 


segments I 







length in [^ 50 






50 33 

width in |j 45 






25 12 

Described from 9 mounted specimens, 6 ^^ and 3 '22> taken 
in fallen leaves, as follows: — ^by Mr. S. J. S. Marais at 
Fauresmith, O. F. S., 4.V.1930 one (^, one 5; by the writer at 
Ottobotini on the Pongola river, Zululand, 17.ix.1922, one J*, and 
at Silverton, Pretoria, 24.V.1922, 4(^(^ and 2 22- 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 57 

This species is very closely related to P. meridionalis Priesner ; 
it differs in having segments III to VI of the antennae each about 
15-201J longer, and the spines on segment VIII of the abdomen 
more distinctly enlarged at the tip. 

Allothrips africanus spec. nov. (PI. Ill, Figs. 19, 20.) 

Female (apterous). Length about i.i mm. Color: gen- 
eral color light brown and brownish yellow, with reddish 
yellow hypodermal pigmentation visible in weak light. Head 
brownish yellow, shaded darker on genae and in front of eyes. 
Antennae: IV to VII light brown, IV slightly paler than V 
to VII; I light yellowish brown similar to IV, II and III 
yellow with brownish tinge. Thorax slightly darker than 
head, more distinctly light brown. Legs rather uniformly 
brownish yellow, similar to segments II and III of antennae, 
tarsi narrowly tipped with black on inner side. Abdomen: 
segments I to IX light brown, somewhat darker than thorax ; 
tube : basal two-thirds yellow, distal third tinged with brown. 
Spines and setae on all parts of body pale, inconspicuous. 

Head about 1.2 as long as wide, and about 1.9 as long as 
prothorax, slightly wider at base than across eyes, cheeks 
faintly rounded. Eyes small, each consisting of about five 
large rounded facets, protruding slightly in front. Ocelli 
absent. Postocular bristles about 50 p in length, expanded 
at apex, situated very close to eyes ; two bristles on the 
median dorsal area of the head are shorter than postoculars 
and variable in size and position. Interocular bristles about 
two-thirds as long as postoculars, close to front margin of 
eyes; a pair of short bristles are situated laterad of the eyes, 
close to their hind margins, and these bristles are sometimes 

Antennae about 1.5 as long as head, stout; bristles pale 
and inconspicuous, pointed, except two or three on the dorsal 
aspect of segments II and III which are expanded at the 
tip in some specimens ; sense cones long and slender : III, 
i-i ; IV, i-i ; V, i-i (+ i) ; VI, i-o (+ i) ; VII one on 
dorsum near the middle. Segments V and VI produced 
ventrally at apex, to form a short conical projection which 
bears a seta at its tip. 

Mouth cone broadly rounded, extending across prosternum. 
Maxillary palpi long and slender, bearing a strong, slightly 
curved spine at the tip of the second segment which is usually 
bent inwards ; this appendage is so well developed that it 
gives the palpus a three-segmented appearance, and strongly 
suggests that the function is prehensile rather than tactile; 
the second segment about 48 |j long by 8 p w^ide, the spine 

58 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

about 20 |j long and 4 \x wide at base. Labial palpi well de- 
veloped, also with a sharp long spine at the tip, but not curved 
inwards; segment two about 20 |j in length, spine about 16 \x. 
Labrum bluntly pointed. 

Prothorax about 2.3 times as wide as long. All the usual 
spines present, expanded distally, subequal in length and 
about two-thirds as long as postoculars. The median pair of 
spines on the posterior margin are well developed in the 
genotype, but minute in africanus. Pterothorax short, and 
narrower than the prothorax across coxae. Legs rather 
short but not stout, fore femora not noticeably enlarged; 
legs not armed. 

Abdomen broad and heavy, about 1.3 as wide as prothorax 
across coxae. All bristles pale and expanded distally, except 
two pointed lateral pairs on segment IX which extend almost 
to the tip of the tube ; the bristles on segments I to VII sub- 
equal to postoculars, those on VIII about 1.5 as long. Tube 
shorter and heavy, slightly more than twice as wide as base 
as at apex, and about 1.5 times as long as width at base; 
sides slightly concave in outline ; terminal setae pale, slender, 
about as long as the tube. 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: — Length 
1.07; head length 0.226, width 0.192 ; prothorax length 0.121, 
width 0.276, spines at posterior angles 0.042 ; pterothorax 
width 0.24; abdomen width 0.370; tube length 0.117, width 
at base 0.079, ^t apex 0.033. Fore leg: femur length 0.128, 
width 0.056; tibia length 0.12, width 0.032; tarsus length 
0.04, width 0.024. 
Antenna length 0.33 mm. 

segments I II III IV V VI VII 

length in p 42 54 58 42 42 42 67 
width in |j 40 36 36 36 32 28 28 

Male (apterous). Smaller than female, but very similar 
in coloration and details of structure: ventral elongation of 
segments V and VI of antennae more pronounced than in 
female, and segment IV also produced somewhat. Fore 
femora enlarged, and fore tarsi armed with a stout tooth in 
some specimens ; the tarsal tooth variable in size, and want- 
ing in one specimen from Bloemfontein ; its size is more or 
less correlated with the enlargement of the fore femur, as the 
following measurements show : — 

width of fore femur, in ^ 83 83 6"/ 67 63 52 50 
length of tarsal tooth, in [j 21 17 17 13 10 4 4 

Measurements of allotype (male) in mm.: — Length 0.98; 
head length 0.192, width 0.16; prothorax length 0.104, width 
0.226 ; spines : posterior angulars 0.029 ; pterothorax width 













April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 59 

0.2I ; abdomen width 0.26, tube length 0.092, width at base 
0.063, at apex 0.029. Fore leg: femur length 0.121, width 
0.05; tibia length O.i, wadth 0.036; tarsus length 0.04, width 
0.024, tooth on tarsus length 0.004. 
Antenna length 0.299 mm. 

segments I II III 

length in p 33 42 50 

width in p 38 31 29 

Described from 14 mounted females and 10 males taken by 
the writer amongst fallen leaves in dry situations on hillsides in 
the following localities : Pretoria ; Bloemfontein ; Rietspruit, 
Marico, Transvaal ; Ottobotini, Zululand. January to September, 
1920 to 1930. 

This species differs from the genotype A. megacephahis Hood 
in the much paler coloration, the absence of strong bristles on the 
middle of the posterior margin of the prothorax, and the rela- 
tively longer head. From A. caudatus Bagnall it differs in the 
much smaller size and shorter tube. 

Idiothrips gen. nov. 

Body sculptured, short and broad, depressed. Head large, 
heavy, as long as broad; postoculars wanting; eyes large, ex- 
tending backwards beyond the middle of the dorsal aspect of 
the head, but very short ventrally. Antennae seven seg- 
mented, segments six and seven closely united. Mouth cone 
large, heavy, extending across prosternum. labrum pointed 
and extending beyond labium, both pairs of palpi long. Legs 
short, fore femora moderately enlarged in both sexes, fore 
tarsi of male with a long tooth, those of female unarmed. 
Body bristles short, feebly clavate, those at posterior angles 
of pronotum funnel-shaped. Tube about half as long as the 

-7 Genotype Idiothrips bell us spec. nov. 

This genus is related to Stictothrips Hood, but it can readily be 
distinguished by the seven segmented antennae, the unarmed fore 
tarsi of the female, the larger mouth cone and longer palpi. 

Idiothrips bellus spec. nov. (PI. Ill, Figs. 21, 22.) 

Female (apterous). Length about 0.9 mm. Color: in re- 
flected light dark red, white and black : Head black with red- 
dish tinge at base; eyes dark red; antennae: segments I, II, 
IV, VI and VII blackish brown. III and V very pale, almost 
colorless. Prothorax dull opaque white with granulated ap- 
pearance, a group of irregular red spots on each side, and 

60 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oi. XXVIII 

transparent margins at posterior angles. Pterothorax red 
with black tinge and white spots on anterior and posterior 
angles ; legs blackish brown with pale bands at tibio-tarsal 
joints, each tibia being yellowish gray in distal fourth. Me- 
dian part of abdominal segments I to VIII, the whole of IX 
and tube dark red, with blackish tinge ; segments I to VIII 
with lateral white bands, similar to prothorax, about as wide 
as hind tibiae, bordered with a narrow transparent margin ; a 
transverse whitish area in the middle of segment I, and a me- 
dian row of transverse narrow whitish lines on the interseg- 
mentalia caudad of segments II to VII. 

In transmitted light the coloration appears entirely differ- 
ent : head brown, eyes black; antennae: III and V transpar- 
ent, pale yellowish gray, the rest brown, somewhat paler than 
head ; thorax and abdomen light brown with bright red hypo- 
dermal pigmentation ; legs light brown with all tibiae pale 
gray in distal fourth. All bristles pale, transparent and dif- 
ficult to see. 

Head large, as wide as long, about 1.5 as long as prothorax 
and 1.8 as long as tube; dorsal surface incompletely but dis- 
tinctly reticulated, vertex between eyes with longitudinal lines 
of sculpture, cheeks minutely serrate; postoculars absent; 
four irregular longitudinal rows of short, broad bristles as 
illustrated. Eyes large, with numerous rounded facets, and a 
number of minute punctures between them that are probably 

Antennae about 1.5 times as long as head, broad and heavy, 
seven segmented, shape of segments as illustrated. Many of 
the setae are shaped like sense cones, so that it becomes a 
matter of difficulty to identify the true sense cones ; eight 
setae on segment II could readily be described as sense cones. 
There appear to be true sense cones as follows : III, i-i ; IV, 
i-i and one on ventral aspect; V, i-i and one on ventral 
aspect ; VI, i-i ; VII, one on dorsal aspect. 

Mouth cone extending across prosternum, labrum black, 
pointed, extending beyond labium ; maxillary palpi about 48 \\ 
in length, the distal segment about three times as long as the 
basal one (36 to 12 ^) ; labial palpi about 32 p long, the distal 
segment 24 and the basal one about 8 \x. 

Prothorax about 2.3 times as wide as long, hind angles 
projecting beyond the coxae; posterior angular spines fun- 
nel-shaped, very broad, about 25 ^i in length ; four rows of 
smaller broadened bristles on surface of pronotum, as illus- 
trated; surface of pronotum practically without sculpturing. 
Pterothorax narrower than prothorax, dorsal surface with 
about 20 transverse lines of sculpture, each with minute pro- 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 61 

tuberances ; mesonotum with a group of three bristles similar 
to those on head on each side, metanotum with two groups of 
five such bristles. Legs short and moderately stout, each with 
a fringe of curved, broad bristles on outer margins of femora 
and tibiae, and two larger ones near apex of tibiae on outer 
side; in addition there are a number of scattered broad bris- 
tles on the upper and lower surfaces of the femora and tibiae. 

Abdomen broad and heavy, nearly 1.2 as broad as the pro- 
thorax, segments II to VIII strongly transverse; segments 
III to VIII each bears a narrow transverse dark line about 
one-third the length of each tergite from its anterior margin, 
each line with four minute circular punctures, two near the 
mid-dorsal line and one near each lateral margin of the ter- 
gite ; these lines produced on to the sternites in each case, ex- 
tending about one-third the width of the sternites from their 
lateral margins. The tergites with some irregular fine sculp- 
turing; the intersegmental membranes caudad of segments 
II to VIII prominently sculptured with about twelve trans- 
verse lines, of which the posterior 8 or 10 are broken up into 
minute rectangular blocks (only visible in stretched or macer- 
ated specimens). 

Segments III to IX of abdomen each bear a broad scale- 
like bristle at each posterior angle, the bristles on III to VII 
obliquely truncate, and not as broad as the posterior angulars 
of the prothorax; the bristles on segment III about 24 p long, 
and those on VII about 28 p. The posterior angular bristles 
of segment VIII about 40 |j long and 8 p broad at the tip, 
those on IX about 40 by 4 p. Setae at apex of tube weak, 
pointed, six in number, about half as long as tube. 

Short, broad bristles similar to those on the head present 
on the abdominal tergites, about 10 in a transverse row near 
the middle of segments II to VIII, two on each side of the 
mid-dorsal line and three or four near the lateral margins ; in 
addition these tergites each bear a single somewhat larger 
bristle near the posterior margin on each side about half-way 
between the mid-dorsal line and the lateral margin ; on ter- 
gites VIII and IX there is also a mid-dorsal, posterior mar- 
ginal pair of large bristles about half as broad and two-thirds 
as long as the posterior angulars of segment VIII. 

Tube short and slender, about twice as long as wide, the 
width at base nearly twice that at apex, sides sloping rather 
regularly from base to apex. 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm.: Length 0.94; 
head length 0.19, width 0.19; prothorax length 0.124, width 
0.286 ; bristles at posterior angles of prothorax 0.025 ; ptero- 
thorax length 0.124, width 0.26; abdomen length 0.52, width 
0.33; tube length O.103, wadth at base 0.052, at apex 0.029; 













62 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oZ. XXVIII 

setae on tube 0.058, bristles on IX of abdomen 0.04, on VIII 
0.04 long by 0.008 wide. 
Antenna length 0.28 mm. 

segments I II III 

length in p 17 45 41 
width in [j 25 33 23 
Male (apterous). Smaller and more slender than the fe- 
male, but with the same coloration, except that practically the 
whole of the fore tarsus is as pale as the distal portion of the 
tibia. Fore tarsus with a long, slender, slightly curved brown 
tooth (about 24 by 4 p) and an expanded transparent bristle 
of about the same length close to and immediately above it. 
Fore femur enlarged, about 128 |.i long and 60 p wide (in the 
female about 112 by 60 |j). 

Measurements of allotype (male) in mm.: — Length 0.82; 
head length 0.153, width 0.149; prothorax length 0.12, width 
0.23, postero-angular bristles 0.019; pterothorax length 0.107, 
width 0.2 ; abdomen length 0.44, width 0.22 ; tube length 
0.074, width at base 0.041, at apex 0.025 > setae on tube 0.036; 
bristles on 9th abdominal segment 0.033, on 8th 0.029. 
Antenna length 0.27 mm. 

segments I II III IV V VI VII 

length in |j 17 41 37 45 4i 54 33 
width in |j 21 29 21 21 25 29 17 

Described from eight females and one male (mounted speci- 
mens) taken by the writer as follows :^on Grewia cana Sond. at 
Moorddrift, Transvaal, 20.iv.1924 (one 5), and on Rhynchosia 
sp. at Warmbaths, Transvaal\4.v.i930 (7$$ i c^). 

Fulgorothrips gen. nov. 

Body elongated, not depressed. Head strongly produced 
in front of the eyes, the produced part about 0.3 as long as 
the total length of the head, and about half as wide as the 
width of the head across the eyes ; vertex not elevated, the an- 
terior ocellus situated about half way between anterior mar- 
gin of eyes and cephalic margin of head. Eyes produced 
caudad on ventral aspect of the head, their ventral caudal 
margin about as far from the base of the head as their an- 
terior margin is from the cephalic margin of the head. 
Mouth cone very short. Antennae eight segmented. 

Prothorax small, less than half as long as the head, and 
about twice as wide as long. Legs long and slender, fore 
femora enlarged and fore tarsi armed with a tooth in both 
sexes; femora and tibiae unarmed. Tube about_o.6 as long 
as the head, and about three times as long as its width at base. 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 63 

Genotype FiilgorotJirips priesneri spec. nov. 

The distinctive characters of this genus are the strongly pro- 
duced head and the ventrally produced eyes. Several other gen- 
era have the eyes produced ventrally, e.g., Ommatothrips Hood, 
Bolothrips Priesner and Adraneothrips Hood, but none of these 
have the head noticeably produced in front of the eyes. Ophthal- 
moihrips Hood has ventrally produced eyes, and its head is 
slightly produced in front of the eyes, but it differs from the new 
genus in having the anterior ocellus situated on the conically pro- 
duced vertex. The new genus shows certain resemblances to 
Phoxothrips Karny but differs from it in the presence of a tooth 
on the fore tarsus of the female. 

Fulgorothrips priesneri spec. nov. (PI. HI, Figs. 23, 24) 

Male (brachypterous). Length about 3.5 mm. Color: 
body and legs uniformly blackish brown; fore tibiae yellow- 
ish brown, fore tarsi (including tooth) brownish yellow; 
antennae : segments, I, II, VI, VII and VIII blackish brown, 
III yellow, faintly darker at apex, IV yellow in basal half, 
light brown in distal half, V yellow in basal third, distal two- 
thirds blackish brown. Eyes yellow, underlying tissue red- 

Head strongly produced in front of eyes, the produced 
part about 0.3 as long as the total length of the head, and 
about 0.4 as long as the remaining part of the head ; width of 
produced part at base about half that of width of head across 
eyes, slightly less at apex in some specimens. Cheeks sub- 
parallel, very slightly concave about the middle and with a 
slight enlargement near the base, surface smooth, with two 
or three weak spines. Occiput minutely transversely striate. 
Eyes large, with numerous small facets, slightly protruding, 
strongly produced ventrally, the produced part tapering to a 
bluntly rounded point that extends (as measured from above) 
to a point about midway between the posterior ocelli and the 
caudal margin of the head. Ocelli small ; the anterior one 
slightly further forward than midway between the anterior 
margin of the eyes and the tip of the head, and slightly 
further from the posterior pair than these are from one an- 
other. A pair of strong blunt bristles situated near a trans- 
verse line passing through the anterior ocellus, about 80 |j in 
length, and a pair of very weak bristles, about 28 |j long, 
close to margin of eyes behind the posterior ocelli (not 
figured). Postoculars about as long as the cephalic bristles, 
but more sharply pointed and weaker, situated a little less 
than half their length from the eyes. A few additional 
scattered short bristles on the head (not figured). 

64 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 

Antennae slightly more than 1.5 times as long as the head, 
shape and relative length of segments as illustrated. Setae 
pale, weak, inconspicuous. Sense cones smaller, slender: 
III, i-i; IV, 2 (+i)-2; V, I (+i)-i (+1); VI, i^(+i); 
VII with one on dorsum. Mouth cone very short, broadly 
rounded, labrum blunt ; maxillary palpi short, second segment 
about 28 |j long and 12 ^ wide; labial palpi minute. 

Prothorax about 0.47 as long as the head, and about 1.8 
as wide across the coxae as its dorsal length; pronotum 
smooth, the usual bristles present : posterior angulars and 
coxals similar to cephalic pair on head, posterior marginals 
and midlaterals about half as strong, the latter situated more 
mesad than usual, anterior angulars smaller than midlaterals, 
anterior marginals minute. 

Pterothorax elongate, nearly as long as the head, sides 
parallel. Rudimentary wings narrow, difficult to see, extend- 
ing to anterior margin of first abdominal segment. Meso- 
notum with fine anastomosing lines of sculpture giving it a 
reticulated appearance. 

Fore femora strongly enlarged, width about 0.36 to 0.4 of 
their length, the relative width being somewhat variable ; fore 
tibiae with a short, seta-bearing projection near apex on inner 
side ; fore tarsi with a strong tooth at base, tooth about 50 p 
long and 16 [i wide. Middle and hind legs rather long and 
slender: hind femur length about 0.44 mm., width 0.088 
mm. ; tibia about 0.4 by 0.048 mm. 

Abdomen long and slender, tapering more or less gradually 
from fifth segment to tube. Tergites finely sculptured with 
transverse striations : in anterior half these anastomose into 
incomplete reticulations, in the posterior half they are much 
closer together. Segments III to VIII each with a pair of 
blunt bristles near posterior angles of tergites, those on III 
about 80 |j in length, on IV and V somewhat longer, those 
on VI to VIII about 140 |j. Segment IX with three pairs of 
pointed bristles reaching nearly to the tip of the tube. 

Tube about 0.7 as long as the head, and about 3 times as 
long as width at base, sides sloping evenly from base to apex ; 
terminal setae about as long as tube, interspaced with fine 
curved setae about one-fourth their length. 

Measurements of holotype (brachypterous male) in 
mm.: — Length 3.3 (slightly distended); head length: total 
0.472, from base to anterior margin of eyes 0.336, thence to 
anterior margin 0.136; width across eyes 0.192, behind eyes 
0.184, in front of eyes and at apex 0.104; prothorax length 
0.216, width 0.344; posterior angular spines of prothorax 
0.056, coxals 0.056; pterothorax length 0.36, width 0.344; 
abdomen length 2.34, width 0.4; tube length 0.28, width at 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 65 

base 0.096, at apex 0.052 ; tube setae 0.32. 
Antenna length 0.728 mm. 

length in |j 56 68 160 132 100 80 60 60 
width in |j 40 40 36 36 32 32 24 16 

Foiiale (brachypterous). Length about 4.2 mm. Very 
similar to male in coloration, but fore tibiae somewhat 
darker, and segment IV of antenna paler, almost wholly 
yellow in some specimens. Fore femora not so strongly 
enlarged as in male, width equal to about one-third of the 
length ; fore tarsi with a small tooth near apex, directed 
downwards (forwards in the mounted specimens), about 
20 |j in length. Coxal spines shorter than posterior angulars 
of prothorax, these equal to cephalic pair on the head. 

The macropterous female does not differ from the 
brachypterous form in structure or coloration. Wings 
delicate, colorless, slightly curved outwards, not noticeably 
narrowed in the middle; length of fore wing about 1.28 mm., 
width at base 0.12, at middle 6.12 mm. ; fore wing with about 
12-15 intercalated hairs in the fringe. 

Measurements of allotype (brachypterous female) in 
mm.: — Length 3.5 (slightly distended); head length: total 
0.52, from base to anterior margin of eyes 0.36, thence 
to anterior margin 0.16; width across eyes 0.232, behind 
eyes 0.216, in front of eyes 0.128, at apex 0.12; prothorax 
length 0.24, width 0.424, posterior angular spines O.i, coxals 
0.064 ; pterothorax length 0.48, width 0.432 ; abdomen length 
2.4, width 0.64; tube length 0.4, width at base 0.12, at apex 
0.06, tube setae 0.4. 

Antenna length 0.77 mm. 

segments I II 






length in |j 60 80 





68 68 

width in p 48 40 





24 20 

Described from 22 mounted specimens (10 brachypterous 
males, 9 brachypterous females and 3 macropterous females) 
taken in grass sweepings by the writer in Zululand at Ndumu and 
in the Ingwavuma district in September 1922, and in Portuguese 
East Africa at Chinanganine and Vila de Joao Belo [= Chai Chai] 
in July 1930. 

I take great pleasure in dedicating this distinct and interesting 
new form to Professor Dr. H. Priesner of Cairo, Eg}'pt. 

Hoodiana gen. nov. 

Body elongate, depressed. Body and legs rough on sur- 
face, bearing numerous minute warts, some of which bear 

66 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^ol. XXVIII 

setae. Head about 1.5 times as long as wide, produced in 
front of the eyes, the produced part about one-sixth of the 
total length of the head ; eyes prominent, bulging, moder- 
ately large. Cheeks closely set with small tubercles, some 
of which bear minute setae. Antennae consisting of eight 
segments, the third segment with a shelf -like ring near the 
base, the sixth only about half as long as the fifth and not 
much longer than the seventh which is as long as the eighth. 
Mouth cone short, broadly rounded, maxillary palpi two 
segmented, the first segment minute. 

Prothorax transverse, bearing one blunt spine at each 
posterior angle. Legs short and stout, roughly sculptured 
like the cheeks; hind and middle coxae equally widely 
separated, both pairs closer together than the anterior coxae. 
Abdomen feebly sculptured at the sides, segments three to 
nine with one strong spine at each posterior angle ; the ninth 
segment equal to the eighth in length; the tube about half as 
long as the head, the terminal setae less than half as long as 
the tube. 

Genotype Hoodiana pallida spec. nov. 

This form is placed in the family Urothripidae for the follow- 
ing reasons:- — (i) its general appearance is strongly suggestive 
of the urothripids; (2) the sides of the body and the legs are 
roughly sculptured, bearing minute tubercles; (3) the mouth cone 
resembles the type found in the Urothripidae in the broad pro- 
truding labium and the minute basal joint of the maxillary palpus ; 
(4) the prothoracic bristles are reduced to a single pair at the 
hind angles; (5) the third antennal segment is provided with a 
shelf-like ring at the base. 

It differs from the other genera of the Urothripidae in the 
following characters: — (i) hind coxae as far apart as the middle 
coxae; (2) ninth segment of abdomen subequal to the eighth in 
length; (3) the terminal setae shorter than the tube; (4) the 
antennae are eight segmented. 

It is therefore clear that Hoodiana is intermediate between the 
Phlaeothripidae and the Urothripidae, reducing still further the 
characters available for separating the urothripids from the other 

It is the writer's privilege to be able to name this curious new 
genus after Professor Dr. J. D. Hood of Rochester, New York. 

Hoodiana pallida spec. nov. (PI. Ill, Figs. 25, 26.) 

Female (apterous). Length about 1.5 mm. Color in re- 
flected light lemon yellow with gray-brown spots on sides of 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 67 

abdomen and some spots of bright red pigmentation in the 
thorax and first abdominal segment ; eyes dark red ; antennae: 
segments I to IV transkicent, gray and yellowish, V to VIII 
dark brown ; legs like basal part of antennae, shaded with 

In transmitted light the color is greyish yellow, shaded 
with brown. Head greyish yellow, shaded brown on poste- 
rior half of the genae ; eyes black ; antennae : I to IV yellow, 
V to VIII light brown, V darker than VI to VIII. Prothorax 
like the head, narrowdy blackish brown on the anterior 
angles, with deep red hypodermal pigmentation near the 
anterior angles, the posterior angles lighter brown. Ptero- 
thorax similar to the prothorax, lateral shading not so dark, 
one spot of red hypodermal pigmentation at each anterior 
angle of the mesonotum. Legs pale gray, much less yellow- 
ish than the body, the basal half of each femur and tibia 
shaded light brown especially at the sides, the tarsi light 
brown. Abdomen with three spots of red hypodermal pig- 
mentation in the first segment ; the general color brownish 
yellow, due to brown shading which is especially well devel- 
oped on the sides; the median dorsal area generally paler; 
tube grayish yellow. 

Head about 1.6 as long as wide, widest across the eyes; 
width at base about 171a less than across eyes; width at 
narrowest point behind eyes about 24 \x less than across 
eyes, this point about 28 |j from posterior margin of eyes ; 
produced part of head about one-sixth as long as total length 
of head, and a little more than twice as wide as long, slightly 
constricted at the base, and expanded to receive the antennae. 
Cheeks narrowed behind the eyes, thence gently rounded to 
near the base, very slightly narrowed again at the extreme 
base. Cheeks with numerous small rounded wartlets, about 
half of which bear minute setae that are curved cephalad. 

An irregularly curved ridge of sculpturing behind each eye ; 
a dorsal longitudinal median area of the head incompletely 
reticulated from base of head to near eyes; greater part of 
dorsal surface of head smooth, with a few scattered minute 

Eyes prominent, bulging, their length nearly one-fourth 
of total length of head, their width about two-thirds of their 
length, and slightly more than half of their interval; facets 
rounded, of unequal size, about 20 in each eye. Ocelli absent. 
Ventral surface of head without sculpturing, except for the 
warts on the cheeks which extend slightly on to the ventral 
margin, and about five oblique fine ridges behind the eyes; 
a pair of prominent setae about 25 \\ in length on a line pass- 

68 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^oi. XXVIII 

ing through the posterior margin of the eyes; two pairs of 
much shorter setae in front of them and closer to the eyes. 

Antennae large and heavy, 1.5 times as long as the head; 
general facies suggestive of those of the Urothripidae, espe- 
cially the pedicel and the cup-like apex of the second seg- 
ment, and the shelf-like ring near the base of the pedicel 
of the third segment ; the third segment with a strong 
emargination on the inner side near the middle. Sixth seg- 
ment remarkably small, only about 1.3 as long as VII, and 
very little more than half as long as V. Sense cones: III, 
i-i ; IV, i-i ; V, i-i ; VI, o(+i)-o(+i); VII one on 
dorsum; the cones on the third segment slender, very much 
like two setae on the same segment, those on IV and V more 
readily distinguished from setae. 

Mouth cone broadly rounded, reaching to about the middle 
of the presternum; labium extends about half the length 
of the mouth cone beyond the labrum, broadly rounded, 
four setae on its caudal margin about 25 |j long, two shorter 
ones between these and the palpi, and one laterad of each 
palpus ; labial palpi minute, only about 6 \\ in length ; 
maxillary palpi : segment I about 4 |j, segment II about 20 \\ 
in length. 

Prothorax about half as long as the head, and about 0.6 
as long as wide ; pronotum sculptured with ridges and tuber- 
cles at sides from anterior angles to the suture, the sculptured 
areas narrow, extending mesad only as far as the lateral 
margins of the head ; the rest of the pronotum smooth, with 
about six minute scattered setae ; one prominent spine about 
25 |j in length at each hind angle, blunt, gradually widened 
from base to apex. 

Meso- and metanotum free from sculpture but with a few 
scattered minute setae. Sides of metathorax bulging, 
rounded, sculptured with rounded wartlets that are smaller 
and further apart than those on the cheeks. 

Legs short and stout, very similar to those of Urothrips, 
outer surfaces of femora and tibiae roughly sculptured with 
wartlets larger than those on the cheeks, some of them bear- 
ing setae. All femora about equally enlarged. Length and 
width of fore femora about 100 : 48 |j, tibiae about 80 : 44 n ; 
posterior femora about 100 : 48 p, tibiae about 92 : 36 p. 
Coxal intervals as follows : — 

anterior middle posterior 

holotype $, in p 116 76 76 

paratype $ 100 72 y2 

(treated with NaOH) 

Abdomen widest (228 p) at segment III, tapering grad- 
ually thence to segment VIII which is 136 p wide. Segments 

April, 1333 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 69 

II to VII subequal in length; VIII somewhat shorter, 87 jj 
long; IX subequal to VIII in length. Tube a little more than 
half as long as the head, its greatest width (near the middle) 
about 0.3 of its length. Segments III to VII sculptured on 
extreme lateral aspect only with 4-6 wart-like protuberances, 
some of which bear minute setae. Tergites only faintly 
sculptured : I with 6-8 incomplete reticles on mid-dorsal 
line ; II to VIII with 3-4 oblique lines of sculpture on each 
side, about midway between mid-dorsal line and lateral 
margins, and with 10-12 minute setae not arranged in definite 
rows. Segments III-IX each with one strong, curved, 
bluntly pointed spine borne on a strong tubercle near each 
hind angle, those on VIII about 50 p long, on VI, VII and 
IX about 40 |j, on IV and V about 36 |j, on segment III, 
32 [i ; segment IX with a pair of lateral pointed spines about 
two-thirds as long as the dorsal pair, and a pair of weaker 
and shorter ventro-lateral setae. Segments IV to IX each 
with four very small setae near the hind margin of the 

The tube is widest near the middle, gently narrowed from 
there to the base, and then wider again at the base ; distinctly 
notched beyond the middle, tapering thence to the apex ; setae 
at the apex of the tube about 0.4 as long as the tube, six only 
present, the dorsal pair distinctly longer than the two other 

Measurements of liolotype (female) in mm.: — Length 1.48 
(slightly distended) ; head length 0.244, width across eyes 
0.149, near base 0.132; prothorax length 0.124, width with- 
out coxae 0.19, spines at posterior angles 0.025; pterothorax 
length 0.161, width 0.202; abdomen width 0.228, segment 
VIII length 0.087, width 0.136, spines 0.05; segment IX 
length 0.074, width 0.083, spines O.041 ; tube length O.136, 
width at base 0.037, ^it middle 0.041, near apex 0.025; tube 
setae 0.058. 

enna length 0.36 
segments I 







length in |.i 33 
width in p 29 








25 25 

14 6 

Described from two mounted females (one macerated in 
NaOH), taken by the writer in sweeping native vegetation 
(shrubs) at Hermanns, in the south-western Cape Province, on 
January 17th, 1923. 

Urothrips minor spec. nov. 

Female. Length 0.94 to 1.28 mm. Color: head brown, with 
bright red hypodermal pigmentation (extending into thorax 

70 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^oi. XXVIII 

and abdomen also) ; eyes dark red; antennae: I and II very- 
pale, almost colorless, II, IV and V pale yellow, VI and VII 
pale brownish yellow, VII somewhat darker than VI ; pro- 
thorax and fore-legs brown like the head ; mesonotum brown ; 
metathorax yellow, shaded brown at sides ; middle and hind 
legs yellow, shaded with brown ; abdomen : ground color yel- 
low, with bright red hypodermal pigmentation in spots ; seg- 
ments II to VIII light yellowish brown laterally, about one- 
fifth of the width of each tergite being brown on each side, 
and a dorsal median paler brown line about half as wide as 
the lateral brown stripes ; segment IX yellow, narrowly 
shaded brown at sides ; tube yellow, with a very short brown 
band at extreme tip. 

Head about as long as wide : in the series before me the 
relative length and width are somewhat variable ; the length 
is from 146 to 163 |j ; in some specimens the width is equal to 
the length, in others it is 4 to 11 |j less, and in the majority 
from 2 to 21 |j greater than the length. Cheeks subparallel, 
very slightly rounded. Vertex produced somewhat in front 
of eyes, raised and rounded, projecting over a large part of 
segment I of the antennae ; the anterior margin somewhat 
variable, the vertex being more distinctly produced in the 
series from Pretoria and Ndumu, and less produced in the 
series from Hermanns, while the specimens from Lourengo 
Marques are more or less intermediate in this respect. Eyes 
nearly one-third as long as head, consisting of about 12 
rounded facets, bulging slightly on antero-lateral margin of 
head. Cheeks and dorsal aspect of head behind eyes, from 
eyes to base of head, roughly sculptured, scabrous, densely 
covered with minute tubercles of unequal size, some of which 
bear small setae. Dorsal median area behind eyes, a little 
less than half the width of the head, differently sculptured, 
bearing 15-20 transverse, irregularly broken wavy thicken- 
ings with minute scattered punctures between them which 
probably bear minute setae. Sculpturing of vertex similar 
to that of dorsal median area, but the protuberances do not 
form distinctly transverse ridges. Ventral surface of head 
smooth, except narrow margin of cheeks on which tubercles 
are present as on dorsal aspect. 

Antennae seven segmented ; I cylindrical ; II globose, with 
a short constricted stalk on which the large globose part is 
mounted asymmetrically; HI vase-shaped, with a distinct 
ridge near the base of the pedicel ; IV and V broadly joined 
to HI and to one another, barrel-shaped ; VI pedicillate ; VII 
elongate-conical. Sense cones long and slender: III, 0-0; 
IV, i-i ; V, i-i ; VI, i-o; VII one on dorsum. 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 71 

Mouth cone short, broadly rounded, extending to near 
middle of presternum ; maxillary palpi about 24 [j in length, 
labial about 8 jj, basal segments of both pairs minute. 

Prothorax about 0.6 as long as head, and about twice as 
wide as long; pronotum with a transverse trough-like depres- 
sion in the middle, its length equal to about one-third that of 
the pronotum; sculpturing of pronotum similar to that of 
dorsal median surface of head ; minute seta-bearing punc- 
tures scattered over surface, and a row of about 12 on poste- 
rior margin, but no strong bristles present. Mesonotum dis- 
tinctly but incompletely reticulated, there being about 12 
distinct reticles in the median third ; this character somewhat 
variable, the series from Hermanus having the reticles more 
transverse than those from Pretoria and Ndumu. 

Metanotum widened posteriorly, sides and posterior angles 
rounded, lateral margins explanate, projecting about 6 \i 
beyond the pleurites, the surface sculptured with flattened 
nipple-like protuberances pointing backwards and bearing 
minute setae at their apices ; the setae numerous, scattered 
and not arranged in definite rows. 1 

Legs short and stout ; anterior femora moderately enlarged 
(length about 96, width about 56 \\), hind femora about 100 \x 
long and 45 p wide ; posterior coxae about as far apart as the 
anterior coxae, but distinctly more widely separated than the 
middle pair: the intervals are approximately, anterior 100- 
120, middle 80-92, and posterior 1 12-120 p; femora and 
tibiae with numerous minute setae borne on small tubercles. 

Abdomen about 1.4 as wide as prothorax; tergites II to 
VIII each with two transverse rows of minute setae borne 
on tubercles, and reticulated in anterior half, the reticles with 
minute longitudinal striations, the lateral (brown) portions 
of these tergites sculptured more or less like metanotum ; 
segments IV to VIII wuth one strong, pointed, slightly curved 
spine about 20 p in length at each hind angle, segment III 
with a similar spine about half as long. Segment IX about 
1.2 as long as its width at base, and about 1.9 as wide at 
base as at apex, its surface reticulated, the minute setae not 
in rows. Tube short, about 0.7 as long as the head, and 
about four times as long as its width at base, slightly con- 
stricted at base and at apex, sides subparallel ; setae at apex 
nearly four times as long as the tube. 

Measurements of liolotype (female) in mm.: — Length 
1. 119 (distended) ; head length 0.146, width 0.142; prothorax 
length 0.095, width 0.194; metathorax width 0.248; abdomen 
width 0.274, segment IX length 0.102, width at base 0.084, 
at apex 0.05; tube length 0.106, width 0.029, setae on tube 

72 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oJ. XXFIII 

Antenna length O.197 mm. 

segments I II III IV' V VI VII 

length in |j 18 33 37 29 26 29 33 
width in |j 22 33 29 29 22 18 1 1 

Male. Length 0.7-0.9 mm. Smaller than the female, but 
very similar in coloration and structure : slightly more brown- 
ish on sides of abdomen, setae on tube somewhat longer. 

Measurements of allotype (male) in mm.: — Length 0.88 
(slightly distended); head length O.144, width O.148; pro- 
thorax length 0.1, width 0.192; metathorax width 0.212; 
abdomen width 0.228, segment IX length 0.108, width at 
base 0.088, at apex 0.06; tube length O.i, width 0.032, setae 
on tube 0.44. 

Antenna length 0.204 mm. 

segments I II 






length in |j 16 32 






width in ^i 20 32 






Described from 56 mounted specimens, 45 $5 and ii<^c^, all 
apterous, taken by the writer as follows: (i) amongst fallen 
leaves in rather dry situations, especially on hillsides : — Pretoria 
June 1922: 7 5? (including holotype), 9.vii.i922, 1$ i J*, 
19.iv.1925 2 $5 1^; Derby, Transvaal 27.vii.1922 i^; Rietspruit 
Marico, Transvaal 14-15.1.1930 10 55 ^(^(^' Lobatsi, Bechuana- 
land Protectorate 8.11.1928 i 5; Hermanus, Cape Province, Decem- 
ber 1922 1 1 55 iJ*; 8.1.1923 15 2^(^; Ndumu, Zululand 19. ix. 
1922 5 55 1 Lourengo Marques, Portuguese East Africa 13.vii.1930 
4 5$; (2) in a dead flower-head of Protea sp. on the ground, at 
Hermanus, Cape Province, 7.1.1923 2 55- 

This species differs from the genotype U. paradoxus Bagnall in 
the shorter tube, and the sculpture of the median dorsal area of 
the head, which is reticulate in paradoxus. From U. hagnalli 
Trybom it differs in having segments VI and VII of the antennae 
subequal in length, and probably also in the sculpture of the head 
which Trybom described as being similar to that of paradoxus. 

Urothrips paradoxus Bagnall 

Of this species only three specimens have been recorded in the 
literature: two from East Africa by Bagnall in 1909 and one 
from Natal by Trybom in 191 2. I have collected good series of 
specimens under fallen leaves in rather moist situations, espe- 
cially under poplar trees on the banks of streams, at Silverton 
near Pretoria (1922), Rietspruit, Marico, Transvaal (1930), on 
the Drakensberg at Sekororo Location, Pietersburg, Transvaal 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 73 

(1927), Hermanus, Cape (1922), and Kirstenbosch, near Cape 
Town (1929). Only females have been found. I am indebted 
to Dr. R. S. Bagnall for confirming the identification of this 

It should be noted that the majority of my specimens differ 
from the measurements given by Trybom in that segments III 
to VII of the antennae are from 3 to 11 [j longer than those of the 
specimen measured by him. 

Stephanothrips graminis spec. nov. (PI. Ill, Fig. 27.) 

Fern-ale (apterous). Length about i.i to 1.3 mm. Color: 
head, prothorax and fore legs brown ; pterothorax, abdomen, 
middle and hind legs largely greyish yellow, with pale red 
hypodermal pigmentation. Antennae: I light brown, II and 
III pale yellowish gray, IV slightly darker, V brownish 
yellow. Prothorax with a pale yellowish transverse band 
across the hind margin, occupying about one-fourth of the 
dorsal length, and bordered with a transparent caudal margin. 
Anterior tarsi and base of femora paler, yellowish gray- 
brown. Sides of pterothorax margined with pale brown. 
Middle and hind legs grayish yellow, shaded brown on 

Abdomen from segments I to VIII with a light brown 
lateral margin dorsally on either side, each brown area about 
one-sixth the total width of the abdomen, and a third pale 
brown line less than half as wide as the lateral ones along the 
mid-dorsal line extending over segments II to IX ; segment 
IX yellow, tinged with gray, and narrowly light brown at 
sides; tube greyish yellow, about one-twenty-fifth of its 
length at apex light brown. 

Head large and heavy, about 1.2 as long as its width at 
base, widened posteriorly, the width at base about i.i the 
width at the apex ; anterior margin broadly rounded, extend- 
ing over the base of the antennae so as to cover the first seg- 
ment completely. Cheeks and greater part of dorsal surface 
closely set with minute wartlets, some of which bear small 
setae ; the wartlets more widely scattered behind and between 
the eyes, and absent from a slightly depressed mid-dorsal 
longitudinal stripe about as wide as an antenna : this median 
area from base of head to anterior margin of eyes sculptured 
with transverse irregular flattened ridges. 

Crown spines four in number, distinctly truncate ; the 
median pair capitate, curved inwards, and about twice as 
long as the outer pair ; the outer pair very close to a line 
passing through the anterior margin of the eyes, the basal 
tubercles of the median pair projecting from the cephalic 

74 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

margin of the vertex ; the median pair distinctly less than 
half (about 0.36) as long as the greatest width of the head. 

Eyes small, consisting of three large, irregularly rounded 
facets and a fourth smaller one situated nearest the outer 
crown spine. 

Antennae very similar to those of the genotype, except 
that segment III is about 10 ^j longer (71-73 as against 62). 
Three long pointed sense cones on segment III, one on the 
inner surface and two on the outer surface. Mouth cone 
broadly rounded, extending to the middle of the prosternum. 
Maxillary palpi with the second segment about 32 \\ long and 
4 \i wide at base, bearing a sharp spine, about 8 |j in length, 
at the apex ; labial palpi minute, also bearing a spine at the 
apex of the second segment, the spine subequal in length to 
segment II. I have not found three setae on the maxillary 
palpus like those figured for buffai by Trybom. 

Prothorax about half as long as the head, and about twice 
as wide as long. The spines at the posterior angles about 
20 |j long and 8 p wide at apex. Surface of pronotum 
roughly sculptured in anterior three- fourths with irregular 
raised areas and about 30 minute seta-bearing wartlets 
smaller than those on the head. Metathorax subequal in 
width to the prothorax, wider than the mesothorax; meso- 
and metanotum not sculptured but bearing minute setae not 
arranged in rows. 

Legs short and rather stout, fore femora slightly more 
enlarged than those of the other legs ; fore femora and tibiae 
with numerous seta-bearing wartlets and some sculpturing 
similar to that of pronotum on outer and lower surfaces ; 
similar setae and sculpturing on the middle and hind legs, but 
much less conspicuous on these owing to the pale coloration. 

Abdomen long and slender. Tergites I to IX with numer- 
ous minute setae borne on small tubercles, not arranged in 
definite rows. Spines at posterior angles of segments III to 
VIII subequal, about 20 p long and 4 p wide, not dilated at 
apex, truncate, transparent. Segment IX slightly more than 
twice as long as VIII, its length about 145 to 150 |j, its width 
at base about 80-90 |j, and at apex about 48-50 jj. Tube 
long and slender, about 186-204 p in length; gently widened 
from about middle to apex, width at apex about 33 \i, at 
base about 26 |j ; setae at apex 2 to 2.3 times as long as the 

Measurements of holotype (female) in mm. : — Length 1.05 ; 
head length 0.179, width at base 0.15, at apex 0.131; crown 
spines length : median 0.05, lateral 0.026 ; prothorax length 
0.091, width 0.19, posterior angular spines 0.02; metathorax 
width 0.208; abdomen width 0.234, tube length 0.186, width 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 75 

at base 0.026, at apex 0.033, tube setae 0.434; fore femur 
length 0.1, width 0.052; tibia length 0.08, width 0.04; tarsus 
length 0.032, width 0.02. 

Antenna length 0.168 mm. 

segments I 





length in p 18 





width in \\ 22 





Described from 31 mounted females taken by the writer as 
follows : — 26 in grass sweepings at Conjeni, on the White M'folosi 
River, Zululand, 12.ix.1922; 3 on grass in the Ingwavuma district, 
Zululand, 19. ix. 1922; 2 on grass at Vila de Joao Belo [= Chai 
Chai] in Portuguese East Africa, 19.vii.1930. 

This species is closely related to the genotype S. buffai Trybom, 
but differs from it in the following characters: — third antennal 
segment about 10 p longer, tube about 25 to 30 |j shorter, crown 
spines distinctly knobbed (Trybom's figure of buffai shows these 
definitely pointed), head wider at base than at apex (this not due 
to flattening resulting from pressure of the cover glass), 4th and 
5th segments of the antennae paler, brown longitudinal line 
present along mid-dorsal line of abdomen, spines on segments III 
and IV of the abdomen borne at the hind angles, not on the sides. 
The new species dift"ers from S. bradleyi Hood in the pale colora- 
tion of the thorax and abdomen ; it cannot be confused with 5". 
occidentalis Hood and \\'illiams because this species has six 
crown spines. 

76 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society yol. XXVIII 


By Everett C. Lerch, Staten Island, N. Y. 

The following Homoptera collected by Mr. J. F. Brimley of 
Ontario were turned over to me by Mr. J. R. de la Torre-Bueno 
for determination. Mr. C. E. Olsen kindly determined the 
Cicadellidae for me, and Dr. W. D. Funkhouser helped with the 
Genus Cyrtolobus. I thank both these gentlemen and Mr. A. J. 
Mutchler of the American Museum of Natural History and Mr. 
Wm. T. Davis of the Staten Island Museum for their kindness 
in giving me access to the collections for comparison. 


1546 Aphrophora quadrinotata Say. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
2 specimens, August. 


1576 Ceresa taiirina Fitch. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
2 specimens, August. 

1579 Ceresa borealis Fairm. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
I specimen, August. 

1580 Ceresa basalts Walker. 

Malorwa, B. C. 

1 specimen, 1923. 

1 62 1 Glossonotiis crataegi Fitch. 

2 specimens from Prince Edw. County, Ontario, 
July, and i specimen from Rainy River District, 
Ontario, August. 

Heliria praealta Fowler var. ruhidella Ball. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

1 specimen, August. 

• Palonica pyramidata Uhler. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, July. 

■ Palonica tremulata Ball. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
2 specimens, August. 

Tclamona tristis Fitch var. coryli Fitch. 

I specimen from Prince Edward County, Ontario, 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 77 

July, and i specimen from Rainy River District, 
Ontario, September. 

Telamona miicolor Fitch. 

Prince Edward County, Ontario. 

2 male specimens, July. 

Telamona tiliae Ball. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

3 specimens, July. 

Telamona spreta Coding. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

I specimen, September. 
1678 Cyrtolobus van Say. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

I specimen, July. 
1685 Cyrtolobus griseus Van Duzee. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

3 specimens, July. 
1695 Cyrtolobus (Xantholobus) muticus Fabr. 

Prince Edward County, Ontario. 

I specimen, June. 
1734 Campylenchia latipes Say. 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

I specimen, July. 


1778 Idiocerus pallidus Fitch? 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

1 specimen, October. 

1779 Idiocerus stituralis Fitch. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, August and September. 
1781 Idiocerus provancheri Van Duzee. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
2 specimens, May. 
1795 Idiocerus lachrymalis Fitch. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

1 specimen, September. 

181 7 Macro psis canadensis Van Duzee. 
Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, August and September. 

78 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society foi. xxrill 

1824 One op sis variabilis Fitch. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, June and July. 
1837 Bythoscopus robustus Uhler? 

Medicine Hat, Alta. 

1 specimen, May. 

1847 Oncometopia lateralis Fabr. 
Medicine Hat, Alta. 

2 specimens, June. 

1873 Draeeulaeephala angulifera Walker. 
Rainy River District, Ontario. 

1 specimen, October. 

1923-6 Gypona sealatina peetoralis Spangle. 
Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, June. 

1996 Seaphoideus inimistits Say. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

1 specimen, July. 

2014 Platymetopius acutus Say. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 

2 specimens, August. 

2051 Deltoeephalus eonfiguratus Uhler. 
Rainy River District, Ontario. 
I specimen, October. 
2126 Oriotura gammaroides Van Duzee. 
Rainy River District, Ontario. 
I specimen, June. 
2324 Chlorotettix imieolor Fitch. 

Rainy River District, Ontario. 
I specimen, July. 
In preparing this list I used Dr. E. D. Ball's recent "Mono- 
graph of the Tribe Telamonini" (in Entomologica Americana, 
vol. Xn, No. i) for arranging the group. This paper has been 
of the greatest assistance to me. 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 79 


The Brooklyn Entomological Society records with deep sorrow 
the death of its Honorary Member, Dr. William Jacob Holland, 
Director Emeritus of the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
who died on December 14, 1932, at the age of 84 years. 

World famous for his work in zoology and paleontology. Dr. 
Holland also achieved high distinction for his work as author, 
artist, educator and clergyman. Rarely has there lived a man so 
versatile and so accomplished in so many tields. 

Born in Bethany, Jamaica, B. W. L, on August 14, 1848, the 
son of Moravian missionaries from Salem, North Carolina, he 
graduated from the Theological Seminary of Bethlehem, Pa., and 
received his degrees of A.B. and A.M. from Amherst College. 
Honorary degrees were conferred on him by Washington and 
Jefferson, Amherst, Dickinson, Bethany, and St. Andrews Col- 
leges, and by the University of New York and of Pittsburgh. 
He was made Ofificier de la Legion d'Honneur in 1908, and was 
the recipient of similar decorations from the Governments of 
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Spain, Belgium and Russia. 

An authority on Museum administration. Dr. Holland was the 
founder and first President of the American Association of 
Museums and a member of all the leading entomological societies 
in this country and abroad, as well as of many other scientific 
societies. He served as naturalist of the United States Eclipse 
Expedition to Japan in 1887 and to West Africa in 1889. He 
also travelled widely in North, Central and South America, and 
in Europe and Asia. 

His interests in entomology were concerned particularly with 
butterflies and moths, on which he wrote many important papers. 
His outstanding publications are "The Butterfly Book" and "The 
Moth Book," illustrating and dealing with practically every species 
of these insects known from North America. These books are 
to be found on the shelves of every student and collector of in- 
sects, and have done more in stimulating and popularizing an 
interest in these subjects than any other publication. 

The Butterfly Book, first published in 1898 and followed by 
numerous editions, had a sale of over 60,000 copies. In 1931 Dr. 
Holland brought out a completely revised new edition. This will 
stand as a classic with all nature lovers for many years to come. 

How sad that it was not granted the eminent author to revise 
and republish his equally essential "Moth Book." We know, that 
this was his last, cherished ambition. 

George P. Engelhardt. 

80 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 


Wisdom may seem a curious thesis to elaborate in a journal 
devoted to pure factual knowledge. But in the management of 
enterprises, great and small, into which matters of policy enter, 
it is necessary to consider all elements of a problem and to seek 
for its solution long before it becomes imperatively necessary to 
find it. 

It is well-known to our authors and readers that we have un- 
grudgingly published extensive papers and imposed no limit on 
the number of plates or illustrations to accompany articles. Here 
is where wisdom must come into play. 

We need not dwell on the present abnormal conditions, except 
to mention that they are bringing with them a sharp decrease in 
our income. Accordingly, we must plan to make both ends meet 
in the interests not alone of our Society's finances but also in 
those of our faithful subscribers and of those authors who favor 
us with their contributions. To meet these conditions, the Pub- 
lication Committee has adopted the much-advertised and discussed 
plan of making the budget keep within income. Hence, for this 
volume and until further notice, the following principles will be 
put into practice : 

1. The number of pages of each number of the Bulletin will 
be decreased. 

2. Articles published will not exceed ten pages in length, ex- 
cept by special arrangement with the authors. 

3. The number of plates per number will be limited to not more 
than two. 

4. No article with more than one plate will be accepted, except 
by special arrangement with the author. 

We trust that our readers and authors will understand that 
we are "in the fell clutch of circumstance" ; and that it is with 
the utmost reluctance that we are taking these — we earnestly 
hope — temporary measures. 

Aprils 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 81 


Meeting of October 13, 1932. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, October 13, 1932, at 
8.10 p. m. 

President Davis in the chair and twelve other members present, 
viz., Messrs. Burke, Eisenhardt, Engelhardt, Lacey, Lemmer, 
Moennich, Nicolay, Dr. Herbert Ruckes, Messrs. Schaeffer, 
Sheridan, Siepmann, and Wilford ; also Mr. Stecher and two re- 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Engelhardt presented the report of the treasurer and reported 
briefly for the Publication Committee. 

Mr. Moennich, of the Outing Committee, reported that a field 
trip had been made on May 4th to Alley Pond Park, Long Island, 
attended by Messrs. Cleff and Siepmann and himself. Excellent 
weather and good collecting made the trip an enjoyable one. 

The secretary read a letter from Dr. Bequaert, proposing for 
membership, Mr. Carlos Guillermo Aguayo, Avenida Wilson No. 
17, Vedado, Havana, Cuba, the proposal being held over for action 
at the next meeting in regular course. 

Mr. Moennich reported obtaining Serica similis at Little Neck, 
Long Island, representing an additional record for this recently 
introduced species. The determination was verified by Mr. 

Mr. Schaeffer also spoke of a dense swarm of the ladybird 
beetle, Coccinella transversogiitfata variety quinquenotata, which 
is said to have been observed for a few days during the past July 
at Mattituck, Long Island. He believed that the beetles had been 
blown over from Connecticut. 

Mr. Nicolay reported that he had spent a short time in the 
Great Smoky Mountains, near Elkmont, Tennessee, collecting on 
Mt. Leconte, Mt. Guyot and Clingman's Dome. He advised col- 
lecting on as many peaks as possible, rather than on only a single 
peak, since although the fauna may be similar on any of a number 
of near-by mountains, species will always occur on the summit 
of one which are either rare or entirely absent on the others. 
The best collecting was on the very tops of the mountains, 
Cychrus being usually found there, though a few could some- 
times be taken a little lower down. Mr. Nicolay also reported 
collecting in the vicinity of Greenwood Lake, and at Jamesburg, 

82 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 

N. J. The objective of the latter trip was to obtain Cicindela 
lepida which had been recorded from that locality in the New 
Jersey State List. A search for this beetle in the few scattered 
sandy regions around Jamesburg appeared to be a futile one, and 
it was not until several hours' search that the beetle was finally 
located in the third of three adjoining sand-pits about two miles 
out of town. A fine series was obtained. He mentioned this as 
an instance of how local a species may be in distribution. 

Mr. Moennich reported that he had made a trip to the Green 
Mountains of Vermont, hiking from Bennington to Camel's 
Hump. Mr. Lacey reported that he had obtained several species 
of insects not previously represented in his collection, which he 
would exhibit at a later date. 

Mr. Lemmer exhibited a specimen of a male Epipsilia heinrichi 
Barnes and Benjamin, of which species only one other specimen, 
a female, is known. 

Mr. Schaeffer recorded the capture by Mr. Lacey of Ditoma 
crenata, an introduced European Colydid beetle, at Pelham, New 
York. About forty specimens were taken. The only other 
American record for this species is that by Kenneth Cooper, at 
Flushing, Long Island, previously recorded in the Minutes. 

Mr. Stecher reported that he had done some collecting in 
Massachusetts during the past summer, and would exhibit speci- 
mens later. 

Dr. Ruckes reported that he had spent some time collecting in 
New Mexico, covering a large part of the state, and collecting 
in various orders, but chiefly in Hemiptera. He commented upon 
the distribution of species, and mentioned that there seemed to be 
no plausible explanation of different faunal regions in the east 
and west, whereas a difference between the northern and southern 
species could be explained by a change in climate and temperature. 

Mr. Davis exhibited 87 pupal skins of Tihicen chloromera 
taken on and about the trunk of a single willow tree, commenting 
that this species may occasionally be so numerous as almost to 
compare with the seventeen-year locust. 

The meeting adojurned at 10.10 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, Secretary. 

Meeting of November 10, 1932. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, November 10, 1932, 
at 8.00 p. m. President Davis in the chair and nine other mem- 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 83 

bers present, vie, Messrs. Ballou, Engelhardt, Lacey, Lemmer, 
Moennich, Nicolay, Schaeffer, Siepmann, and Torre-Bueno. Five 
visitors were present: Miss Elizabeth Sherman, Messrs. Herman 
Finkelstein, John D. Sherman, Jr., Charles Ragot, and Hans 

Messrs. Torre-Bueno and Engelhardt reported at length for 
the Publication Committee. They said that the remaining stock 
of the GLOSSARY had been sold. Since this publication has 
always been a valuable asset of the society, they recommended 
that the society at this time take steps toward publishing a new 
and revised edition of this work. Mr. Ballou moved that the 
Publication Committee be authorized to compile a new glossary, 
and that the society expend the sufficient funds to cover the 
immediate expenses. The motion was regularly seconded and 

The election of Mr. Carlos Guillermo Aguayo, who was pro- 
posed for membership at the October meeting, was considered. 
The proposal was duly seconded, and the secretary was directed 
to cast one ballot for the election of Mr. Aguayo, who was ac- 
cordingly elected. 

Mr. Schaeffer said that the single record of Adalia frigida var. 
humeralis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in the New York State 
List is a misdetermination. The record should be changed to 
Adalia bipiinctata variety qiiadrimaculata. He stated that Mr. 
Lacey had recently taken the species in Westchester County, New 
York, thus providing an additional record for this form. 

Mr. Lacey exhibited a box of insects, mostly Coleoptera col- 
lected by himself in Westchester County, during the past season, 
which were new to his collection. Among the species were Elater 
sayi, Glischrochilus obtusus, Omosita discoidea, Melasis pecti- 
nicornis, and Cyrtinus pygniaeus. 

Mr. William T. Davis showed about one hundred pupae skins 
and a few adult 17-Year Cicadas belonging to Brood VL This 
brood occurs from Wisconsin to northern Georgia, and as far 
as known has a greater distribution than any other brood. On 
Staten Island the Cicadas were few in number in 1932, but oc- 
curred in most of the wooded areas, where they were about as 
numerous as in 1881, 1898, and 191 5. Mr. Davis showed speci- 
mens collected on the Island in all of these years. In New Jersey, 
Mr. Carl G. Siepmann had collected in April some mature pupae 
under stones, etc. near Rahway; Mr. Frederick M. Schott had 
found a small colony near the pumping station at Charlotteburg, 

84 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^ol. XXVIII 

Passaic County, and collected 9 adults, June 6, 1932, while Mr. 
George B. Wilmoth had found a number of pupae skins at 
Kaaterskill, Greene County, N. Y., July 15, 1932. 

Mr. Engelhardt reported on the Fifth International Congress 
of Entomology held in Paris, July 16^23, 1932, which he attended 
as a delegate from the Brooklyn Entomological Society and the 
Brooklyn Museum of Arts and Sciences. 

Headquarters were at the Institute National Agronomique, 16 
Rue Claude-Bernard. The attendance of 400 or more included 
delegates from every leading country and about 40 from the 
United States of America. 

The Congress was opened by a reception in the Grand Amphi- 
theatre of the National Museum of Natural History, Rue Cuvier, 
in celebration of the looth anniversary of the Entomological 
Society of France in the presence of M. A. Lebrun, President of 
the Republic of France, and M. A. de Monzie, Minister of 
National Education and Honorary President of the Congress. 

The scientific morning and afternoon sessions, introduced by 
the President of the Congress, Dr. P. Marchal, comprised many 
important papers in French, English, German, Italian and Spanish, 
covering the various fields in entomology. 

For the entertainment of the visiting delegates an elaborate 
programme had been prepared. Tea, served every afternoon in 
the garden of the Institute Agronomique, gave opportunities for 
informal gatherings and for getting acquainted with entomologists 
known heretofore through correspondence or through reputation 
alone. Indeed, it was a great pleasure to meet again our Hon- 
orary Member, Dr. L. O. Howard, now residing in Paris, Dr. 
K. Jordan, Dr. W. Horn and many others, who took so active 
a part at the International Congress in Ithaca in 1928. Banquets 
at the Claridge, at the Jardin de Vincennes and a reception at 
the Hotel de Ville will be remembered as splendid affairs. Then 
there were especially conducted parties for seeing the unrivalled 
art treasures, the magnificent boulevards and parks, the historic 
sections and buildings, institutions of education — in fact, every- 
thing pertaining to Paris, by day and by night. Very popular 
were the excursions by auto coaches to the grave of Latreille, the 
chateaus and forests of Chantilly and Fontainebleau and to Ver- 
sailles, where those inclined could also indulge in collecting. 

A final grand excursion followed the closing of the Congress 
on July 23. The fifty members registered for this excursion 
divided into two parties, one composed of representatives from 

April, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 85 

Europe and the other all Americans. A carefully selected, com- 
prehensive itinerary, including reservations on railroads, auto 
cars, hotels and sight-seeing privileges afforded unusual oppor- 
tunities for first hand observations in a land little affected by the 
progress of time, where the people still adhere to customs and 
traditions handed down through centuries. 

Travelling from Paris by way of Bordeaux the first stop was 
made at Lourdes, the gateway to the Pyrenees, where thousands 
of pilgrims had gathered at the famous shrine. Here autos were 
waiting to conduct the party on a four day tour over good roads 
through the mountains. 

Ascending steadily througii open valleys and ancient settle- 
ments, narrow gorges cut by turbulent streams, along steep, 
wooded, but never heavily timbered slopes to Alpine meadows, 
were daily experiences. These meadows with their profusion of 
gaily colored flowers afforded excellent insect collecting. But 
above all they formed a setting for a glorious panorama of stark, 
sharply serrated peaks, silhouetted against snowfields and glaciers 
over a sea of billowing clouds. 

Leaving the Pyrenees at Bagneres de Luchon the route pro- 
ceeded through semi-arid country with limestone escarpments, 
vineyards and groves of olives to the old towns of Foix Mirepoix 
and Carcassonne, the latter noted as one of the best preserved 
double-walled medieval strongholds. Side trips were made from 
Foix to view the amazing paintings of prehistoric man in the Cave 
I'Herm and from Avignon to the Roman amphitheatre and beau- 
tiful arch at Orange and the near-by home and grave of Fabre, the 
famous French naturalist. 

While the European party returned from here to Paris, the 
Americans continued by way of Montpellier on the Mediterranean 
to Chamonix, terminating their official excursion at the base of 
massive, snow covered Mont Blanc. Their subsequent and 
previous travels in Europe will be subjects for discussion at future 

Mr. Engelhardt accompanied his remarks with numerous photo- 
graphs of the regions visited and he exhibited his collections made 
on the trip. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.25 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, Secretary. 

86 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^ol. XXVIII 


Explanation of all Technical Terms Used in Entomology. 
By John B. Smith, Sc.D. (The Glossary.) Out of 
Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society (un- 
bound), vols. 8 to date (per vol.) 2.50 

Entomologica Americana, vols. I to date, per volume 4.00 

Papilio, vote. 1 and 4, each 3.00 

Monograph of Plusia, Ottolengui 50 


A Revision of the Genus Eurema Hiibner — Part II — Alexander 

B. Klots, 64 pp., 4 pis. $1.50. 
A Review of the North American Species of Poddbrus — H. C. 

Fall, 48 pp. $1.25. 
A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Life History of Bremus 

himaculatus (Cresson) — T. H. Frison, 64 pp., 4 pis. $1.50. 
The Biology of the White Pine "Weevil, Pissodes strohi (Peck) — 

Raymond L. Taylor, pp. 168, 10 pis. $3.50. 
An Illustrated Synopsis of the Principal Larval Forms of the 

Order Coleoptera — A. G. Boving and F. C. Craighead — 

Price, paper, $6.50. Cloth, $7.50. 
On the Female (i^enitalia of the Microlepidoptera and Their Im- 
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Also — A limited number of other reprints, at moderate prices. 

Orders for publications must be sent with remittance to Li- 
brarian, Brooklyn Entomological Society, 28 Clubway, Harts- 
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Vol. XXVIII JUNE, 1933 


No. 3 


Brooklyn Entomological 


IV^ Ml 1 C 1933 tJ, j 


J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 
Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed June 8, 1933 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 

Honorary President 
President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

J. E. DE LA TOEEE-BUENO Hartsdale, N, Y. 

Becording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of Neiv York 
Academy of Sciences 






TEEFLY, Britton and Harte 109 






Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
February. April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign, $2.75 in advance; single 
copies, 60 cents. Advertising rates on application. Short articles, notes and 
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SS De Kalh Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 




Vol. XXVIII June, 1933 No. 3 


By Wm. T. Davis, Staten Island, N. Y. 

An attempt has been made in this paper to separate the dragon- 
flies of the genus Tetragoneuria (Hagen, Neuroptera, North 
America, p. 140, 1861) that the writer has been able to examine. 
In the "Handbook of the Dragonflies of North America" by 
Needham and Heywood, is the statement that "The species are 
all about one size and one color pattern of body and are very 
variable in the markings of brown upon the wings. Many species 
have been named because of very slight differences. We can 
find no good use for all these names since our specimens seem to 
transgress all the boundaries that have been indicated. The last 
important paper on the genus is that of Muttkowski (1911) [and 
1915] in which he endeavors to define eleven species. We recog- 
nize five, that are separable ..." p. 179. 

In the present paper we have recognized thirteen named forms 
as species, subspecies and one variety. There are no doubt sev- 
eral more that might have been separated. No specimens df 
costalis Selys have been available and it has not been included 
in the table, but is added at the end of the paper. Caherti has 
been identified from the description only. 

The "Studies in Tetragoneuria" (1911 and 1915) by Richard 
A. Muttkowski, Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History 
Society has been the chief source of reference, but the writings 
of Dr. Philip P. Calvert, R. Heber Howe, Jr., C. H. Kennedy 
and Edward B. Williamson, have been consulted together with 
other literature cited under the specific names. I am particularly 
indebted to Mr. E. B. Williamson for the privilege of examining 
numerous specimens from which some of the photographs have 
been made rather than from material in my own collection. Other 
acknowledgements are included under the specific names. 

The figures of abdominal appendages have been drawn by Mr. 
Hans L. Stecher from a number of sources; from the insects, and 

88 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xXFllI 

also from the published figures of the types, etc. In separating 
the species of Tctragoneitria the shape of these appendages is of 
prime importance, but whether the insect has a broad or a slim 
abdomen is also a character of much value. In order to arrive at 
a more accurate knowledge of Tetragoneuria it will be advisable 
in the future to collect many hundred specimens from as many 
localities as possible, and prepare or spread them so that they may 
be viewed in a comprehensive manner. Specific differences with 
such material often become apparent. 

Tetragoneuria Hagen, i86i 

A Superior appendage of the male not declined at tip and with- 
out superior ante-apical spine or tubercle. 
B Male superior appendages with ventral angle at basal 
C Male superior appendages, when viewed from above, 
curved, and with the apical third bent out- 
D Abdomen of male rather broad, often much 
E When viewed in profile the top and bottom 
lines of the male appendages beyond the 
ventral angle are not as parallel as in 
semiaquea, and the rounded extremity is 
more gradually attained. Length of 
abdomen about 30 mm., hind wing about 
30 mm. male appendages about 3 mm., 
female appendages about 1.5 mm., vul- 
vars flattened, divaricate, the tips 
divergent. Thoracic pile often con- 
spicuously gray. 

Brown of hind wing reaching the base 
of the triangle or less. Maine and 
Minnesota to Oklahoma and North 
Carolina. Type loc. Mass. 

cynosura Say. 

Brown of hind wing filling first to 
third antecubitals and thence diago- 
nally across wing to lower end of 
membranula ; transparent area between 
radius and cubitus small or wanting. 
New York, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, Georgia, Iowa. Type loc. 
Bluffton, Ind. 

cynosura sub. species simidans Mutt. 

Ju7ie, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 89 

EE When viewed in profile the top and bottom 
lines of the male appendages beyond the 
ventral angle are more parallel than in 
cynosura and the rounded extremity is 
more suddenly attained. Smaller; length 
of abdomen about 25 mm., hind wing 
about 26 mm. Thoracic pile browner 
than in cynosura. 

Brown of hind wing filling antecubital 
spaces to nodus, or at least the first 
four antecubitals, and thence diago- 
nally across wing to lower end of 
membranula. Usually the transparent 
area between radius and cubitus at 
base of wing, not conspicuous. Coast 
from New England? to North Caro- 
lina and Georgia (type loc). 

semiaqiiea Burmeister 
Brown of hind wing not reaching the 
nodus. Type loc. Georgia. 

semiaqiiea subspecies calverti 
DD Abdomen rounder and proportionally more 
slender in comparison with cynosura and 
semiaqiiea; sides of abdomen nearly parallel. 
Wings without brown markings ; stigma 
paler and longer than in cynosura; ventral 
angle at basal third of superior appendage 
more obtuse than in cynosura. Length of 
abdomen, male 33-34 mm., female 33-34 
mm.; of hind wing, male 30-31 mm.; fe- 
male, 31. Female appendages 2 mm. West 
Palm Beach, Fla. (type loc), Georgia, 

Louisiana stella Williamson 

Both fore and hind "wings with brown 
spots at antenodal intersections, sometimes 
with spaces filled." Length of abdomen, 
male 28-31 mm., female 31 mm.; hind 
wing, male 27—31 mm., female 30 mm. 
"Male appendages intermediate between 
cynosura and stella, though more nearly 
related to the latter." "The female ap- 
pendages are longer [about 2 mm.] than 
those of cynosura and Ji£S,Si.,-sji.ifailiiorm. 
Vulvars slender and recurved, not flattened 
and divaricate as in cynosxira, the tips sub- 

jun 10 n's 

90 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- X^VIII 

parallel." Round Mountain, Blanco Co., 
Tex. (type loc). Cypress Mill, Texas, 
Kansas, and Florida, (costalis?) 

petcchialis Muttkowski 
CC Male superior appendages when viewed from above 
more straight and with tips not bent outward ; the 
inferior angle produced. 

Abdomen of male slender, 29-31 mm., segments 
2 and 3 inflated, 3 constricted at middle ; fore 
wings without color; hind wings 31 mm.; male 
appendages 3.5 mm. ; female appendages 2 mm. 
Wister, Oklahoma (type loc). 

zvilliamsoni Mutt. 
Abdomen 30 to 34 mm. ; hind wing 30-33 mm. ; 
female appendages 3-3.3 mm. Male appendages 
seen in profile somewhat like those of cynositra, 
but with a longer, slightly produced angle. The 
vulvars of the female are "like those of 
spinigera. Appendages somewhat stouter and 
longer." Resembles cynosura but the produced 
angle on the male appendages appears to ef- 
fectually separate them. Solon Springs, Doug- 
las Co., Wisconsin (type loc), Michigan, 
Maine and Massachusetts. 

morio Muttkowski 
BB Male superior appendages with ventral spine at basal 
third ; no ventral angle. 

T-spot of head present. Color on hind wing usually 
confined to first antecubital space (often to its 
posterior part) and narrowly along margin of 
membranula. Length of abdomen 30-34 mm. ; hind 
wing 30 to 33 mm. Female appendages about 3.5 
mm. ; vulvars with the tip parallel. Maine, New 
York, Indiana, Wisconsin, Washington, "Canada" 

(type loc.) spinigera Selys 

Color on hind wings usually filling first two or three 

antecubital spaces, extending thence obliquely across 

the wings to lower extremities of the membranule. 

Female can be told from cynosura var. sinmlans, 

which it resembles, by its longer appendages and 

usually larger size. Hudson Highlands, N. Y. J* and 

Newfoundland, N. J. $, allotype and type localities 

spinigera var. suffusa Davis, new variety 

AA Superior appendages of the male slightly declined at the tips 

beyond a superior ante-apical spine or tubercle. 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 91 

Male superior appendage when seen in profile with a 
dorsal ante-apical sharp spine ; apex of appendage blunt ; 
ventral surface with angle at basal third ; no ventral 
spine or tubercle. Female appendages 2 mm. in length ; 
vulvars with the tips parallel. Hind wings usually with 
four antenodal cross veins. Georgia (type loc), New 

Jersey spinosa Hagen 

Male superior appendages when seen in profile with 
dorsal ante-apical elevation or tubercle ; apex of ap- 
pendage obliquely truncate ; ventral surface with tubercle 
near basal portion. Male superior appendages 3 mm. 
Female appendages 2.3-2.7 mm. ; vulvars with the tips 
parallel. Hind wings usually with five antenodal cross 
veins. Maine, New York, Wisconsin, Ontario, Cali- 
fornia, Washington (type locality). . .canis Mac Lachlan 

Tetragoncuria cynosura (Say) Selys., PI. IX, fig. i. 

Jn. Acad. Philadelphia 8, p. 30, 1839. 

Syn. lateralis Burmeister Handb. Ent. 2, p. 847, 1849. 
Syn. ? basiguttata Selys., Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 31, p. 271. 

The original description contains the statement: "anal processes 
longer than the caudal and ultimate segment of the abdomen to- 
gether a little dilated and curved outwards towards the tip, which 
is rounded, abruptly narrowed beneath towards the base; inferior 
process two-thirds the length of the superior ones." The anterior 
wings are described as immaculate, and the "posterior pair with 
the basal, costal, and subcostal cellules fuscous, and an irregular 
fuscous spot between them and the anal angle." These features, 
together with the given habitat "Massachusetts," fixes the identity 
of the species, which with scuiiaqnca Burm., was described in 

Burmeister's EpophtJialmia lateralis is described very briefly, 
the male type coming from Philadelphia ("female not seen by 

92 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^^l. XXVIII 

me"). As he states that the male cerci are elongate, clavate and 
curved outwardly, there can be no reasonable doubt but what 
lateralis is a synonym of cynosura. 

Cordulia basiguttata was described as a race ? of cynosura by 
de Selys. "Abdomen, male 25 ; female 29. Hind wing, male 26 ; 
female 30. Shape more slender; abdomen almost cylindrical, not 
depressed, narrower behind the constriction. Coloration of the 
body darker, as are also the legs and the anal appendages ; the 
blackish band of the base of the front extending over almost the 
entire upper side of the front in the emargination. The basal 
droplet [spot] of the hind wings shorter, but black in both sexes. 
The spot of the same color, placed close to the membranula, short 
in the male, absent in the female. Country : The male from 
Florida (Col. Selys), the female from Canton near Boston, N. B. 
The Cordulia cynosura and semiaquea seem to be so variable that 
I have not dared regard this race as a distinct species, the more 
so since it is not quite certain that the male belongs to the female 
with which I place it. The age of the specimens and their mode 
of preparation may also contribute to give the abdomen an ap- 
pearance more or less compressed or depressed." 

In his notes on synonymy (1915) Muttkowski states that: "The 
reference of this form to cynosura is based on Dr. Ris' notes," 
and adds that the female from Canton near Boston is "without 
doubt a true cynosura, while the male from 'Floride' may belong 
to some other species, probably stella." However, stella is usually 
larger than the measurements given in the above description for 
the male and it is also generally of a lighter color. We think that 
the male may prove to be the same as williamsoni which is 
smaller, has a slender, cylindrical abdomen and wing maculation 
as described. 

The writer has several times seen members of this widely dis- 
tributed species in great numbers, notably in Northern New 
Jersey in Passaic County near Buckabear and Cedar Ponds, and 
also along the shore of Conesus Lake, Livingston County, N. Y. 
On May 28, 19 10, there was a remarkable gathering of this 
species along the road leading from Newfoundland, N. J., to 
Cedar Pond and the air was full of these dragonflies. On one 
small dead bush I counted twenty-two individuals, and there were 
other bushes and stems of plants that also had a great many 
resting upon them. On June 23, 1916, on the shore of Conesus 
Lake, Dr. Harry H. Knight captured thirty-one individuals by 
simply swinging his net about a bush where the dragonflies had 
settled, many of them being still quite immature. Twenty speci- 

June, 1&33 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 93 

mens of this series are in the writer's collection. Six of them are 
typical cynosura with the hind wings slightly infuscated at the 
base, while fourteen belong to the subspecies simulans Mutt- 
kowski, in which the hind wings are more heavily infuscated at 
the base, the darkened portion including the first two or three 
antecubital spaces and extending thence diagonally across the 
wings to the end of the membranule. There were no inter- 

On Staten Island and about New York City generally, only 
typical cynosura has been collected. Mr. Williamson has noted 
on the envelope containing two typical male cynosura collected at 
Viberg Lake, Allen Co., Indiana, June ii, 1916: "Eight simulans 
and four cynosura taken today; no intermediates." 

In the sixty specimens of cynosura and simulans in the writer's 
collection there are no intermediates, nor did I find any in the 
extensive series from Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont, 
kindly sent for examination by the late Mr. R. Heber Howe, Jr. 

Tetragoneuria cynosura subspecies simulans Mutt., PI. IX, fig. 2. 

Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. (2) vol. 9, pp. 95, 106, 191 1. 

diffinis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 31, p. 272, 1871 ; 
simulans syn. of dijfims f 

In the original description simulans is distinguished by having 
"Hind wings with markings reaching to tip of triangle and be- 
yond," instead of, "Hind wings with markings reaching the base 
of the triangle or less," as in typical cynosura. 

Muttkowski (1911) uses the trinomial name, "Tetragoneuria 
cyyiosura simulans," for this insect, but as both forms occur to- 
gether over a part of their range, especially inland, simulans is 
probably not a geographic race of cynosura, and I think should 
be designated as a subspecies unless it can be shown in the future 
to be distinct. 

This insect has been frequently identified as the semiaquca of 
Burmeister (1839), described from Savannah, Georgia, as, for 
instance, when de Selys (1871) states that he has that species 
from "Ga., S. C, Washington, Fla., Mass." Simulans is larger 
than semiaquca from the southeastern Atlantic States, and the 
hind wings are not as broadly marked with brown at the base. 

In 1871 de Selys states: "I believe that my diffinis described 
from an example in the British Museum labelled Nova Scotia, 
is nothing but an individual variety of semiaquca. It dififers only 
because the discoidal triangle of the upper wings is free. M. 
Hagen has communicated an example from Massachusetts show- 
ing the same aberration." 

94 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL xxvili 

As mentioned above the circumstance of the discoidal triangle 
being free is not of very much importance, but diffinis must have 
had the basal part of the hind wings browned or it would not 
have been considered with semiaqiiea, and as the type came from 
Nova Scotia, it is likely to have been what is here considered 
simulans Muttkowski (1911), and not semiaquea at all. In the 
second part of his "Studies in Tetragoneuria," (1915), Mutt- 
kowski lists diffinis as a synonym of simulans and adds "insuf- 
ficient diagnosis." He also states: "This form has hitherto not 
been noted in the synonymy. Its characterization although vague 
when taken together with de Selys' synonymical notes is suf- 
ficiently distinct to merit attention." 

As has been stated under cynosura this species or subspecies 
has not been found on Staten Island, but a few miles to the north, 
at Ramsey, Hewitt and Newfoundland, New Jersey, and Ramapo, 
Greenwood Lake, and Pine Island, New York, it occurs with 
typical cynosura. At Conesus Lake, New York, on June 23, 1916, 
simulans exceeded typical cynosura in numbers. Though closely 
associated, I found no intermediates. 

Tetragoneuria semiaquea (Burmeister), PI. IX, fig. 3. 

Handb. Ent., 2, p. 858, 1839; $ (Libellula). 

Syn. complanata (Rambur), Ins. Neur., p. 145, 1842; 
(Cordulia), $ ^T, Coll. Selys. 

The original description calls for an insect with the segments 
of the abdomen as broad as long or still broader, the entire 
abdomen flat, always broader than thick, narrowed posteriorly. 
When seen in profile not strikingly thicker at the base but becom- 
ing gradually thinner outwardly from the base. "Wings hyaline 
the hind ones broadly fuscous, with a transparent spot and some 
of the veins infuscate; abdomen with fulvous lateral spots. Long 
i" 3"'' $•" The type came from Savannah, Georgia. 

In 1842 Rambur described his complanata from "North Amer- 
ica" as having the "Wings transparent, the hind ones a little 
widened, with a broad, brown-rufus reticulate spot which some- 
times covers almost half the wing in the female but which in the 
male sometimes disappears entirely." His description may 
embrace what are now considered several different species of 
Tetragoneuria, but the "brown-rufus, reticulate spot which some- 
times covers almost half the wing," can we think, refer only to 
what is here considered typical semiaquea. 

In 1871, de Selys stated that semiaquea is so near to cynosura 

June, 1&33 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 95 

that a comparison therewith will enable an understanding of the 
differences better than a regular description. He states that he 
has it from Ga., S. C, Washington, Fla., and Mass. From his 
localities and comparative description it is possible that he in- 
cluded simidans and calverti. 

In 191 1 Muttkowski stated: "This species hitherto known as 
complanata Rambur and as representing the extreme of the 
cynosura-semiaquea-complanata series, I regard as distinct. It is 
essentially an Atlantic coast species covering the region from 
Massachusetts to Georgia [Massachusetts records are doubtful]. 

"Its main distinction from cynosura and simidans is the smaller 
size and the wing markings, though some minor points exist such 
as the largely brown pile of the thorax-grayish-white in cynosura 
— and the more marked tubercle on the superior appendix of the 

"Head, thorax and abdomen of typical coloration. T-spot 
absent, never more than the stem visible in black. Thorax with 
pile largely brown, so that it is little apparent. The lateral 
stripes occasionally with a metallic glint." 

In 1915, Muttkowski states, referring to cynosura, siinulans 
and scmiaquea: "The synonymy of some of the forms is un- 
doubtedly somewhat involved owing to the peculiar nomenclatural 
interchange in early descriptions, which have been variously fol- 
lowed by authors . . . All of the material of de Selys under 
T. complanata reverts to T. scmiaquea; that under T. scmiaquea, 
as stated above, is insufficiently diagnosed to permit accurate 
determination. It should be noted that it presents certain 
peculiarities especially exhibited by specimens from Massa- 
chusetts, which should make a detailed study of a long series 
from Massachusetts of decided interest." 

In Psyche for March, 1895, Prof. Albert P. Morse, comment- 
ing upon Tetragoneiiria cynosura and its varieties as found in 
Massachusetts, states : "There is another species found in the 
Southern States, having the fuscous of a more reddish hue, and 
even wider in extent, which presents differences in abdominal 
appendages. This is perhaps the true semiaquca." 

Typical scmiaquea has been collected by the writer in North 
Carolina in April, both at Southern Pines and about Wilmington, 
mainly at Greenfield Pond. An example is figured on the 
accompanying plate, and it will be noted, that the dark colored 
portion of the hind wing reaches beyond the nodus in the central 
portion of the wing in the cells bordering M3. 

96 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXVIII 

Tetragoneitria semiaquea subspecies calverti Mutt. 

Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. 13, p. 53, June, 1915. 

In the original description it is stated that the markings of the 
hind wings reach the nodus and beyond in semiaquea, while in 
calverti the markings do not reach the nodus. It is to be regretted 
that "Prof. Calvert's valuable material has been completely 
destroyed only a single T. Stella escaped destruction," as related 
by Muttkoski in his 191 5 paper, and an effort should be made to 
collect calverti in the type locality, which we understand to be 
Thomas County, Georgia. We have, however, specimens from 
much further north than Georgia that answer the description of 

Tetragoneuria Stella Williamson. PI. IX, fig. 4. 

Williamson (in Muttkowski paper) Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Vol. 9, pp. 95-99, 1911, pi. 6 (wings). 
Muttkowski, Bull, Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 13, pp. 49, 58, 

59, ,1915- 
In the original description the male abdominal appendages are 
described as follows : "Superior appendages seen in profile spatu- 
late, with an obtuse inferior angle at one third the length, this 
angle inconspicuous; if the appendages of Stella and any of the 
cynosura group are compared the differences in the superior ap- 
pendages seen in profile are striking — cynosura high arched 
dorsally and excavated ventrically at the base, with a resultant 
prominent ventral angle, and a decidedly unsymmetrical outline ; 
Stella, on the other hand, without this arching and excavation, and 
with an outline almost symmetrical." "In Dr. Ris' opinion stella 
is quite distinct from all the cynosura group by the form of the 
abdomen (narrow, not spindle shaped), by the color of the 
abdomen, and by the superior abdominal appendages of the male, 
which are longer and have a second distal dilation" (Williamson). 

T sxei-UA, ^v, , 

J\in^, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 97 

In addition to the differences in the shape o£ the superior 
appendages in the males of Stella and cynosura, noted by WilUam- 
son, I observe that the stigma of both fore and hind wings are 
longer in Stella than in cynosura; also the insect is usually much 
lighter in color. 

In his notes on synonymy, 1915, under T. basigutta Selys, 
described from "male from Florida (Coll. Selys) ; the female 
from Canton near Boston," Muttkowski states : "The female 
mentioned by de Selys is without doubt a true cynosura, while 
the male from 'Floride' may belong to some other species, possibly 
Stella." The original description of basigutta fits more nearly 
williamsoni in size, color, etc., and de Selys' male may have been 
of that species. 

The male figured on the accompanying plate, is from Rock- 
ledge, Fla., March 2, 1904. It is one of the specimens from which 
the original description was prepared and kindly loaned to me by 
Mr. E. B. Williamson. Also from the Williamson collection we 
have examined the following six examples from Florida: St. 
Petersburg, March 24, 1913, 2 ^•, Moore Haven, March 29, 1921, 
J* (J. H. Williamson) ; Palmdale, April 3 and 6, 1921, 2 J*, $ 
(J. H. Williamson). In the collection of Mrs. A. T. Slosson 
there is a male from Biscayne Bay, Florida. 

Tctragoncuria petechialis Muttkowski. PI. IX, fig. 5. 

Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 9, pp. 95, loi, 191 1. 

In the original description of the typical material from Texas 
it is stated that the abdomen is long and slender as in stella, seg- 
ments two and three moderately dilated. "Segment 8 as long as 
9 + 10. Dorsum black, a yellow stripe occupying the lateral 
fifth of each side of 3 to 9, reduced on the posterior segments. 
Male appendages intermediate between cynosura and Stella, 
though more nearly related to the latter . . . Wings hyaline, 
membranule white, slightly fumose at the lower end. Fore wings 
with small basal spot in C and Sc half way to or reaching the 
first antenodal, the first and second antenodals with a small 
fuscous spot surrounding the intersection at Sc. A linear spot 
surrounding the nodus. Hind wings with costal and subcostal 
streak half way or to the first antecubital. All antenodals with 
fuscous at the intersections, nodus with linear spot. A brown 
spot in the cubital space at the extreme base reaching to the 
marginal vein. A spot in the lower half of the anal triangle, 
following the oblique vein which divides this triangle, or filling 
the lower half. Costa of the fore wings yellow at base . . . 

98 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL xxrill 

This species is at once distinct from the others by the narrow 
abdomen, the form of the appendages and the conspicuous spots 
at each antenodal of the hind wing." Muttkowski, 191 1. 

In the Bulletin, Kansas University, 191 7, Clarence H. Kennedy 
shows that there is considerable variation in the color pattern of 
the wings in this species. In some specimens the ventral angle on 
the superior appendages in the male, is not as prominent as in 
the figure copied from Kennedy. 

The specimen here figured is Paratype C 4., Cypress Mill, 
Texas, April 10, 1895 (1893 of Muttkowski's paper), kindly 
loaned to me by the Acad. Nat. Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Tetragoneuria zvilliamsoni Muttkowski. PI. X, figs, i and 2. 

Bull. Wis. Natural History Soc. (2) 9, pp. 95, 122. 1911. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Williamson we are enabled to 
figure the male type from Wister, Oklahoma, June 3, 1907. 


A second male from Tampa, Florida, February 28, 1921 (E. L. 
Bell), Davis collection, is also figured. These illustrations will 
show the character of the wing maculation, the slender abdomen, 
and the rather long and slender appendages. 

June, 1&33 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 99 

Tetragoncuria mono Muttkowski. PL X, fig. 3. 

Bull. Wis. Natural History (29), pp. 96, 125, 191 1. 

The original description states : "Male appendages in dorsal 
view like those of spinigera, that is twice curved and with the 
tips approximated. In lateral view somewhat like cynosura, but 
with a longer, slightly produced angle, and no lateral ridge." 
"Wings hyaline, fore wings without color, hind wings with brown 
reaching the first antenodal in C and Sc. Brown at the inter- 
sections of the arculus, at the ends of the triangles and anal 
veins. A large blot in the lower anal triangle and the adjoining 
two series of veins." 

The above description was made from the male type from Solon 
Springs, Wisconsin, a male from Maine now in the Williamson 
Collection, and two females, one from Maine and the other from 
Detroit, Mich. Through the kindness of Mr. T. E. B. Pope of 
the Milwaukee Museum, I have been able to examine the type and 
the two lower left figures in Muttkowski's cut, here reproduced, 
fairly represent the appendages. Muttkowski states that they are 
from the type. Mr. E. B. Williamson writes: "Of Muttkowski's 
figs. p. 125, the two lower left hand agree fairly well with the 
paratype which does not agree at all with the right hand figures." 
We do not know the source of the lower right hand figures. 

In the original description the species is recorded from Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan and Maine. In his Manual of the Odonata of 
New England, Dr. Howe adds New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts, and states that it is rare. 

Tetragoneiiria spinigera (Selys) Selys. PI. X, figs. 4 and 5. 
Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 31, p. 269, 1871. 

Syn ? costalis Selys, Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 31, p. 273, 1871. 
Syn. indistincta Morse, Psyche. 7, 210, 1895. 

100 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

The original description states that in the male : "The upper 
anal appendages bear below on the inner side a long spine which 
is inclined downwards (instead of a single angular tubercle)," 
and that there is : "A brown basal droplet in the fore wings be- 
tween the subcostal and the median vein." The female was un- 
known to de Selys. 


Muttkowski in 191 1, states: "This species is more easily dis- 
tinguished than any of the preceding, notably by the male ap- 
pendages which have an inferior spine, and by the female vulvars 
which approximate each other also by the female appendages 
which usually reach a length of 2.7 to 3 mm." He also quotes a 
letter from Dr. Calvert giving the results of his examination of 
the female type of T. indistincta Morse from Winchendon, Mass., 
and the conclusion reached that it is probably the same as 
spinigera. Muttkowski adds : "In placing indistincta with 
spinigera I base its identity upon the black T-spot, the length of 
the appendages and color description, all of which agree perfectly 
with spinigera." 

In the original description of indistincta it is stated that "the 
basal part of median space and basal antecubital cell of each 
series fuscous." Dr. Calvert states, as cited above, that this 
"refers only to the hind wings, not to the front, on which there 
is merely a very small brown spot in the subcostal space." 

The writer has collected spinigera at Newfoundland, N. J., in 
May and June; also at Portageville, Wyoming County, and at 
West Point, N. Y., in June. From the localities given by Mutt- 
kowski and in the writer's experience, this species appears to be of 
northern range. I have no records from the southern states. 

Tetragoneuria spinigera var. suffusa new variety. Plate XI, figs. 
I and 2. 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 101 

Among the specimens of spinigera there is a female from New- 
foundland, N. J., May 28, 1910, and a female from West Point, 
June 4, 1916, that differ from typical spinigera in the same way 
that subsp. simtilans Muttkowski differs from typical cynosura 
Say, namely, in having the dark markings of the hind wings reach- 
ing the triangle or beyond. There is also in the writer's collection 
a male of this variety, here designated as Tetragoneuria spinigera 
var. suffiisa from Hudson Highlands, June 25, 1916 (F. M. 
Schott). The type from Newfoundland, N. J., and the male 
from the Hudson Highlands are figured on the accompanying 
plates. Figure 5, Plate X, may be considered an intermediate. 

Tetragoneuria spinosa (Hagen) Selys. Plate XI, figs. 3 and 4. 

Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 45, p. 188, 1878. 

The original description states that this species described from 
Georgia is: "Related to cynosura and spinigera male. In size it 
is nearest to spinigera. It differs from that species as also from 
the five allied species or races in the upper anal appendages which 
have above on their last quarter a short, thick, but sharp tooth, 
very distinct if one looks at the appendage in profile. Spinigera 
has no such tooth, but has a spine on the first third below. The 
other species, cynosura, semiaquea, complanata, have neither of 
these spines." 

"T- s'P iMO'SA^ Hag-en 

This well-marked species, of which we figure a male from 
Clementon, N. J., April 27, 1903 (V. A. E. Daecke), and a female 
from Old Bridge, N. J., April 23, 1910 (Wm. T. Davis), is rare 
in collections. A male now in Mr. Williamson's collection was 
also captured at the time the female was taken at Old Bridge. 

Tetragoneuria canis MacLachlan. 
Mag. 23, p. 104, i( 

Plate XI, fig. 5. Ento. Mo. 

102 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxvill 

The original description states : " Appendages black. The su- 
perior appendages (3 mm.) not quite as long as the 9th and loth 
segments combined : viewed above, they are straight, convergent, 
and sub-cylindrical, but somewhat before the apex they dilate, 
and become almost two-branched, the inner branch forming a 
short triangular tooth, the outer being much longer, curved out- 
wardly, and stout and obtuse at the apex, its inner edge excised : 
viewed from the side, the appendages are very straight, gradually 
thickened, with a triangular production or tooth near the middle 
of the lower edge; the apical portion in this position may be com- 
pared in form to a dog's (or wolf's) head, with long profile and 
short erect ears. Inferior appendage extending to the portion of 
the superior, where these latter become suddenly altered in form 
(yellowish internally above), rather broad, slightly curved up- 
ward, the apex broadly excised, leaving the outer angles very 

/. CANis, Ha^Iachlah 

This species has a wide distribution extending across the con- 
tinent from Maine and New York to Washington and California ; 
also in Canada. The male figured is from Napa, California, June 
9, 1914 (C. H. Kennedy Collector). The writer captured a male 
at West Danby, N. Y., May 30, 191 5. 

In Bulletin 47, N. Y. State Museum, 1901, plate 22, fig. 2, Dr. 
Needham, under the name of Tetragoneuria spinosa (referred to 
canis by Muttkowski) gives an illustration of a female which he 
states " exhibits a singular type of coloration for this genus. The 
wings were of a rich flavescent brown, with spots of black on a 
number of the antenodal crossveins " of the hind wings. The 
figure is said to be " nat. size," but as the insect is shown as having 
an expanse of wing of 100 mm., it is remarkable in that particular 

Tetragoneuria costalis (Selys) Selys. Bull. Acad. Belg. (2) 31, 
p. 273, 1871. 

Type 5, British Museum, L. C. (2) 37, p. 20, 1874, notes. 
Costalis is at least a variety or race and may be a species, but 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 103 

this cannot be determined at this time for lack of specimens from 

It was considered a subspecies of cynosura by de Selys, but he 
says that it differs " in having the costal margin of the four [4] 
wings opaque brown between the costal vein and median to the 
nodus, and in the same manner to the pterostigma, between the 
costa and the principal sector, as also the hypertrigonal space. In 
the hind wings the brown basal spot against [or close to] the 
membranula does not exist but one notices the two small brown 
drops of the extreme base." The type from Georgia, America, 
was stated to be in the British Museum. 

On pages 132 and 133 of his 191 1 paper, Muttkowski published 
a more detailed description of the type of costalis from a letter 
from W. F. Kirby, June 14, 191 1. From this description we learn 
that the appendages are " straight, black, 4.5 mm. long," and that 
there is a " broad subhyaline brown bar extending along the whole 
costal and subcostal areas of all the wings as far as, and includ- 
ing the cell. The lower basal cell, the upper more faintly, and the 
space above the upper sector of the arculus to the level of the 
nodus, the space above the triangle, and even the triangle itself on 
the hind wings, are less deeply stained with smoky brown." 

Muttkowski adds: "It is chiefly because of the length of the 
female appendages that I regard this species as distinct. These 
are the longest of any known species of Tetragonciiria, the near- 
est species spinigera, reaching 3.3 mm." He thinks it is not closely 
related to cynosura, but more likely to spinigera," and probably 
spinosa (of which the female is unknown to me)." 

The appendages of the female spinosa taken at Old Bridge, 
N. J., are but 2 mm. in length, so it is not closely related to that 

Muttkowski in 1915, p. 60, states: "It appears to me that an 
identity of this form [costalis] with T. canis as an aberration of 
the latter, is not a too far fetched assumption." In his 191 1 de- 
scription of the type of costalis, Kirby states that there are " 4 
antenodals and 7 postnodals on hind wing." In canis the hind 
wings generally have 5 antenodal cross veins according to Dr. 
Needham, and I also find that to be the case in the specimens I 
have examined. Also the female appendages do not appear to ex- 
ceed 3 mm. in length and are not straight, nor 4.5 mm. long, as 
described in costalis by Kirby. It appears, therefore, that Mutt- 
kowski's surmise in 191 1, that costalis is more nearly related to 
spinigera, may be correct. However, as we know the species spin- 
igera has not yet been found as far south as Georgia. In wing 
markings costalis and pctcchialis appear to be somewhat alike. 

104 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^VIII 

Explanation of Plates 

Plate IX 

Fig. I. Tetragoneuria cynosura Say. Concord, Mass. (R. 

Heber Howe, Jr.) 
Fig. 2. Tetragoneuria cynosura subsp. simulans Mutt. Bluffton, 

Ind. (E. B. Williamson.) 
Fig. 3. Tetragoneuria semiaquea Burmeister. Southern Pines, 

N. C. (A. H. Manee.) 
Fig. 4. Tetragoneuria stella Williamson. Rockledge, Fla. 

(Mrs. C. C. Deam.) Williamson Collection. 
Fig. 5. Tetragoneuria petechialis Mutt. Paratype. Cypress 

Mill, Texas. Collec. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. 

Plate X 

Fig. I. Tetragoneuria wiUiamsoni Mutt. Type. Wister, Okla. 

Williamson Collection. 
Fig. 2. Tetragoneuria zmUiamsoni Mutt. Tampa, Fla. (E. L. 

Bell.) Davis Collection 
Fig. 3. Tetragoneuria morio Mutt. Concord, Mass. (R. Heber 

Howe, Jr.) Williamson Collection. 
Fig. 4. Tetragoneuria spinigera (Selys). West Point, N. Y. 

(Wm. T. Davis.) Davis Collection. 
Fig. 5. Tetragoneuria spinigera (Selys). Squam Lake, N. H. 

(R. Heber Howe, Jr.) 

Plate XI 

Fig. I. Tetragoneuria spinigera var. suffusa Davis. Type. 
Newfoundland, N. J. (Wm. T. Davis.) Davis Col- 

Fig. 2. Tetragoneuria spinigera var. suffusa Davis. Hudson 
Highlands, N. Y. (F. M. Schott.) Davis Collection. 

Fig. 3. Tetragoneuria spinosa (Hagen). Clementon, N. J. (V. 
A. E. Daecke.) Davis Collection. 

Fig. 4. Tetragoneuria spinosa (Hagen). Old Bridge, N. J. 
(Wm. T. Davis.) Davis Collection. 

Fig. 5. Tetragoneuria canis MacLachlan. . Napa, Calif. (C. 
H. Kennedy.) Williamson Collection. 

Bull. B. E. R. Vol. XXVIIT, No. 3 

Plate IX 

1. T. cynosura Say. 
3. T. semiaquca Rurm. 
3. T. i)clcchialis Mutt. 

2. T. cynosura subsp. simulans Alutt. 
4. T. Stella Williamson. 

Bull. B. E. S. Vol. XXVIII, No. 3 

Plate X 

I. 'I', williamsoni Mult. 
.^ T. niorio Mull. 
4. T. sjiinigcra Scl\'s. 

2. T. williamsoni jMutt. 
5. T. spinigcra Selys. 

r.ULL. D. ]•:. «. Vol. XXVIII, No. 3 

Plate XI 

I. T. spinigcra var. suffusa Davis. 
3. T. .spinosa Hagcn. 
5. E. caiiis MacLachlan. 

_'. '1\ s. \ ar. suffusa L)a\ is. 
4. T. s])inosa Hagen. 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 105 


By Kenneth W. Cooper, Flushing, N. Y. 

Dissection of specimens of the genus Alobates Mots. {Nycto- 
hates Guer.) has brought to light some interesting information 
concerning the separation of the species by the use of the male 
genital tube. Barbata Knoch., which at one time was regarded by 
some as no more than a variety of pennsylvanica DeG., differs radi- 
cally from pennsylvanica in the shape and structure of the penis, 
and may be separated at a glance from that species. A large num- 
ber of pennsylvanica and barbata were dissected and showed a re- 
markable constancy in their respective forms. However, a Florida 
form of pennsylvanica shows a slight, yet immediately noticeable, 
difference from the typical form of genital structure found in 
that species. Whether or not this difference in structure is 
actually of specific, subspecific or varietal value is difficult to 
state, but in view of the remarkable difference in genital struc- 
ture found in comparing two known species, pennsylvanica and 
barbata, the differences noted in the Florida form appear too 
slight for the establishment of a new species. Nor does it seem 
advisable to establish a new subspecies or variety on this struc- 
ture, which does not differ materially in shape or size from a 
typical pennsylvanica form, and thus possibly add still another 
synonym to the long list following pennsylvanica in the catalogs. 
However, as all of the previously described forms of Alobates 
have had mention made only of their external structures, and as 
the species of this genus are notorious for their variable sculpture 
and form, any definite determination of this Florida form with a 
previously described species does not seem probable. 

The accompanying plate represents comparative form only, no 
attempt has been made at reproducing these organs on paper to 
a set scale. Because of the corrosive action of the reagents upon 
the softer parts, the fleshier structures of the ventral surface of 
the basal piece must not be allowed to bear too much weight in 
consequent determination of species. The more set characters 
are found in the variations of the median and lateral lobes. 

Barbata is at once separated from pennsylvanica by the peculiar 
acuminate process formed by the lateral lobes. In neither species 
is the median lobe visible from above, and in barbata it is much 
narrower than in pennsylvanica. The suture separating the 
lateral lobes dorsally is much more prolonged basally in barbata 

106 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^vm 

than pennsylvanica. It is interesting to note that, even when the 
specimen of barbata is much larger than a pennsylvanica, its 
genital tube will almost invariably be found smaller in size than 
in the latter species. 

Repeated attempts to procure specimens of Horn's subnitens all 
resulted in failure, but for determination purposes the abberant 
third joint of the antennae should easily separate it from the other 
forms of Alobates. It is included in the following table with the 
hope that it may soon be brought to light, for to the best of my 
knowledge it has not been found since it was first described. 

Key to U. S. Species of Alobates Mots. 

1. Antennae with third joint nearly equalling the three following 

together; prosternum convex between the coxae, elevated 

in a slight tubercle at tip subnitens Horn. 

Antennae with the third joint approximating in length the two 
following together; prosternum slightly convex between 
the coxae but not tuberculate at tip (2) 

2. Under surface of mentum tufted with long, yellowish hairs ; 

elytral rows of punctures usually coarser. Male genital 

tube spine-like at apex (fig. 3) barbata Knoch. 

Under surface of mentum not tufted with yellowish hairs; 
punctures of elytral rows finer, more minute. Male 
genital tube truncated at apex, not acuminate (fig. i) 
pennsylvanica DeG. (for comparison of the Florida form 
a third statement and alternate has been introduced) . (3) 

3. Basal suture of the lateral lobes of the male genital tube not 

emarginate medially on the dorsal surface ; outer apical 
angles of the lateral lobes rounded ; dorsal suture of the 
lateral lobes shorter ; median lobe broader, extending 
visibly beyond the apical half ; sutures of lateral lobes 
ventrally extending nearly to basal fourth ( fig. i ) 

pennsylvanica (typical) 
Basal suture of the lateral lobes of the male genital tube with 
very evident median emargination ; outer apical angles of 
the lateral lobes obtuse, angulate ; dorsal suture of the 
lateral lobes longer ; median lobe more narrow, visible 
only in apical half ; sutures of lateral lobes ventrally 
extending only to anterior portion of basal half 
(fig. 2) Florida — pennsylvanica aberration 

The Florida form does not differ materially in external aspect 
from the more deeply punctate forms of pennsylvanica. The 
easily noted difference in genital habitus is so slight in compari- 
son with the vast differences between pennsylvanica and barbata 
that it, is published only for interest's sake. Description of the 

Jime, 19S3 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 107 

shell of this form would not suffice to separate it from pennsyl- 
vanica, and certain recognition can come only from examination 
of the male genital tube. 

Explanation of Figures 

(all of male genital tube) 

a. — dorsal aspect h. — ventral aspect 

1. pennsyhanica DeG. 

2. Florida variation of above 

3. barbata Knoch. 


108 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^z. XXVIII 


By George P. Engelhardt, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Inquiries regarding the cleaning of greasy insects are frequently 
addressed to the Editorial Board or the Bulletin. 

Our method is simple, effective and well-known. It is the use 
of high test gasoline in a shallow covered glass container, to the 
depth of about one and one-half inches. 

The number of specimens to be cleaned at one time, of any 
Order, will be governed by the size of the container. The insects 
should be completely immersed, but not crowded. Name and 
locality labels may be left on the pins. The time for the degreas- 
ing process depends upon the condition, age, nature and size of 
the specimens. One or two days may be enough; one, two, or 
even more weeks will not do any harm. It is a good policy to sub- 
ject all insects with a tendency to become greasy to this treatment 
as a part of their preparation, either before or after mounting. 

Upon removal from the benzine (gasoline) the insects are 
placed in another shallow container filled with fine corn-meal. 
They should rest reversed upon the thorax and abdomen to assure 
rapid absorption of moisture. Corn-meal is preferable to plaster 
of Paris and gypsum because its fine grains do not adhere to the 
specimens after drying. Butterflies, moths and hairy insects in 
general while drying should be exposed to a slight circulation of 
air to effect the natural readjustment of fringes, hair, etc. 

Some entomologists prefer other grease solvents, such as chlo- 
roform, ether, carbon bisulphide, gasoline, benzol. All, no doubt, 
will accomplish the same purpose in the same way, the difference 
being largely one of cost, inflammability and efficiency of the 
liquids as solvents of greases. Carbon tetrachloride is being rec- 
ommended of late. This is non-inflammable and if mixed with 
other solvents at the rate of 25 per cent, to 50 per cent, it wiH ren- 
der them non-combustible to a greater or less degree. A favorite 
medium in England is toluol, formula CjHg, used in the following 
way: Take three shallow covered containers fiUed to a suitable 
depth with toluol. Immerse your specimens for 24 hours in the 
first container, then for another 24 hours in the second one and 
lastly for 24 hours in the third, which process is said to bring 
about complete rejuvenation. This process can be made a con- 
tinuous performance by replacing the first lot of specimens by 
others as they are removed from one container to the next. 

Juw, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 109 




By W. E. Britton and Charles Rufus Harte, 
New Haven, Conn. 

In bygone days when the senior author used to collect butter 
flies in New Hampshire and later in Connecticut, he neither col- 
lected nor saw the orange sulphur butterfly, yet in 1932 this was 
a common species in both states. The distribution given in some 
of the publications is as follows : Morris, Synopsis of Lepidoptera 
of North America, 1862, " California, Mexico and some of the 
States "; Scudder, Butterflies of New England, 1889, records this 
butterfly as a western species and gives a half page of localities, 
ending with the following paragraph : "Single specimens have also 
been taken a few times in New England, namely, in Norwich, 
Conn. (McCurdy) ; Wollaston (F. H. Sprague) and Belmont, 
Mass. (Maynard) ; Montpelier, Vt. (P. S. Sprague) and Mt. 
Desert, Me., a single specimen seen (Thaxter)"; French, Butter- 
flies of the Eastern United States, 1890, " Western States to the 
Pacific ; occasionally in Middle States to Massachusetts " ; Blatch- 
ley. Butterflies of Indiana, 1891, two forms of eiirytheme " occur 
occasionally in various parts of the State, but are nowhere com- 
mon." " Food plant, white and buffalo clover " ; Beutenmiiller, 
Butterflies of the Vicinity of New York, 1893, " A single pair of 
this species was taken by the late S. L. Elliot at Astoria, Long 
Island"; Dyar, List of Lepidoptera, 1902, "Rocky mountains, 
Pacific States " ; Comstock, How to Know the Butterflies, 1904, 
" The species is most abundant in Mississippi Valley, but it is 
found on the Pacific coast and also along the Atlantic coast as far 
as Maine" ; Smith, Insects of New Jersey, 1910, " very occasional 
and hardly a regular inhabitant of the State. It is common in the 
Central States"; Weed, Butterflies, 1917, states that is rarely 
found north of latitude forty degrees ; Elrod in Butterflies of 
Montana, 1906, says " It extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
and from Canada to the far south, though it is rare in the south," 
and Montana records are given. Holland's Butterfly Book (both 
editions) gives a similar range for eiirytheme but says it is rare 
" in the lower parts of Florida and Texas in the hot lands." 

From Canadian Entomologist, we learn that Dr. Bethune cap- 
tured a specimen in 1871, at Sault Ste. Marie, after a difficult 
chase, and he describes the flight habits of this butterfly in con- 

110. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. xxvill 

trast with those of philodice ; that Pearson collected a spechnen 
in Montreal, in 1875; that Sprague captured a specimen at 
Wollaston, Mass., October 8, 1879; in recent years according to 
Bulletin Brooklyn Entomological Society, Carroll collected this 
butterfly in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1914 and 1918; and from Journal 
of the New York Entomological Society, Shoemaker took it in 
New York, in 1916; on Saten Island, Ragot took it in 1925, and 
W. T. Davis in 1927; Watson reported it as fairly abundant 
around New York City in 1927, and as common in 1930; Klots 
mentioned the abundance of this species at Ithaca, N. Y., in 
August, 1928, and Brower captured several specimens there in 
July and September, 1930. 

Leonard's List of the Insects of New York (1928), gives ten 
localities from Long Island to Rochester, at two of which it is 
"reported fairly common." Saunders in Butterflies of the 
Allegany State Park (New York), 1932, states that this butterfly 
is of regular occurrence in the park and is not uncommon. 

According to Clark, Butterflies of the District of Columbia, 
1932, this species was rare in the vicinity of Washington, until a 
few years ago. In 1925, it was occasional in certain meadows 
"the greatest number seen in one day was three." Since then it 
has been much more common, and in 1930, both sexes of 
eurytheme outnumbered the corresponding sexes of philodice. 
Mr. Clark captured or observed the orange sulphur in eastern 
Massachusetts at Ipswich, August 25, 1925, and August 28, 1930; 
Essex, August 30, 1925 ; Newton, August 25, 1930. 

Eurytheme is not included in Fernald, Butterflies of Maine, 
1884; Mcintosh, Butterflies of New Brunswick, 1899; Fiske, 
Butterflies of New Hampshire, 1901 ; Davis, Illustrated Catalogue 
of Butterflies of Lackawanna County, Pa., 191 5; or Britton, 
Check-List of the Insects of Connecticut, 1920, although some 
Connecticut records have since come to hand. 

In Entomological News, Vol. XXXVII, p. 97, 1926, Roswell C. 
Williams published a list of butterflies collected at Avon, Conn., 
where he spent from two to four week-ends each summer from 
1902 to 1914, but C. eurytheme is not included and probably was 
not taken or observed by him. 

On October 14, 1930, a specimen of eurytheme was received at 
the Experiment Station collected at Fairfield, by Aretas A. 
Saunders. On October 13, 1930, J. R. Haskin (see Ent. News, 
xlii, 201) collected a female eurytheme at Waterford. On 
October 3, 1931, the junior author collected two males and a 
female in the clay pit of a brick yard at Berlin, and in 1932 he 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 111 

collected the species at Berlin, Cheshire, Goshen, Hamden, Mill- 
dale, New Haven, New London, Plainville, Plantsville, Old Say- 
brook, Torrington and West Haven. In 1932, the senior author 
collected a male at North Branford, July 24; D. S. Lacroix col- 
lected a female specimen at Windsor, August 7; J. P. Johnson 
collected a female specimen at Nichols, October 4; and J. C. 
Schread picked up a dead female specimen on the sidewalk near 
the Experiment Station, November 4. On August 5, the senior 
author observed a specimen in flight when driving through Morse 
Street, Hamden, and on August 8 he saw a brilliant specimen 
flying over the New Haven Green. 

When on vacation, the senior author, September 23, 1932, 
collected a male and female in Surry, New Hampshire, about two 
miles north of the village. He also saw this butterfly in flight at 
the village, on Mine Hill about four miles southwest of the vil- 
lage and on the hills some four miles north of the village near the 
Alstead line. The first week in October he saw an orange butter- 
fly flying over a field in Unity about six miles south of Claremont. 

A. E. Brower, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Vol. XL, p. 510, 1932, 
reports that five females and one male were collected at Bar 
Harbor, Mt. Desert Island, Maine, in August and September, 
1932. Three specimens were taken and three others seen in July 
and August in the vicinity of Lincoln and Enfield in the Penobscot 
Valley. Two specimens were observed in southeastern Maine 
near Northfield about 20 miles from the New Brunswick border. 

Professor C. P. Alexander writes that he observed two or three 
specimens of this butterfly flitting over fields of legumes on the 
College farm at Amherst, Mass., on August 14, 1932. 

The valley of the Connecticut River above Middletown, Conn., 
and of that portion of the Quinnipiac River which at one time 
doubtless was the lower valley of the Connecticut, has large de- 
posits of excellent brick clay which have been worked for a great 
many years. Many pits still are being worked ; others, for one 
reason or another, have been abandoned. Occurring in low 
ground, the majority require pumping, and as soon as this is 
stopped fill up with water, but there are some localities where 
the evaporation is sufficient to dispose of the inflow, and of this 
character are many of the pits about Berlin, some 26 miles north 
of New Haven. 

Like many other similar spots the low ground of Berlin seems 
to be of much higher average summer temperature than the sur- 
rounding broken country, while the deep pits afford unusual 

112 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society f^ol. XXVIII 

shelter from the wind. On various occasions the junior author 
has found butterflies apparently at home in these pits although 
when seen elsewhere in the territory they behaved as strays. 
When, therefore, on August 3, 1931, a small deep-orange-colored 
butterfly was seen at Berlin, fighting with a male roadside yellow, 
he was overjoyed at seeing, as he supposed, an old friend of his 
childhood in southern Ohio : nicippe. In fact he was so delighted 
that he threw caution to the winds, and once more learned how 
easily a two-inch butterfly can evade a fourteen inch diameter 
net. Nicippe, however, had been remembered as a rather lazy 
flyer, and the powerful, erratic flight of this Berlin butterfly was 
rather surprising. At that, however, it did not act like an 
accidental visitor, but flew across the clover field in which it first 
had been seen, into one of the pits at the nearest point as if it 
knew just where to go. 

Opportunity did not offer to get to Berlin again until on 
October 3, but on that date, in the dry pit into which the sup- 
posed nicippe had fled, two males and a female which proved to 
be eurytheme, were seen and taken, while a faded creature which 
escaped had what later proved to be very characteristic of the 
species : a vigorous erratic flight markedly different from that of 
the roadside yellow. 

The junior author always has been greatly interested in the 
out-of-doors. As a small boy he actively collected butterflies in 
southern Ohio ; when, therefore, during the period from 1909 to 
191 5 he again collected with his two boys, in Connecticut, he had 
a background to help him recognize any southern forms, as well 
as to assist him in field recognitions, and while an unhappy ex- 
perience with pests which destroyed practically the entire collec- 
tion somewhat dulled his enthusiasm, he kept fitful notes until 
discussion with the senior author regarding the butterflies of New 
Haven led him again to active collecting. The fact, therefore, 
that up to August 3, 1931, he had neither noticed nor heard of 
any record of a butterfly so characteristic — at least, in the orange 
form — as eurytheme, while no real proof, warrants as reasonable 
the inference that during that earlier period the butterfly at least 
was uncommon, for so far as we have been able to learn, the 
junior author's records for 193 1 are unique. What occurred in 
1932, therefore, is little short of astounding, and can best be 
described as an explosion of the species. 

Berlin furnished the first record, a single male, on June 5 ; on 
July 2, however, at Cheshire, it was almost as common as the 
roadside yellow, and by the middle of that month over certain 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 113 

fields of clover and of alfalfa in that locality it was appreciably 
more numerous. An appended table gives the record for the 
year, and it is to be noted that except for the Berlin cases, these 
records were made incidental to business or other trips, and not 
at all as the result of special or systematic efforts. By August 
the butterfly seemed pretty generally distributed through the 
southern half of the state ; August 9 it was common at Goshen, 
in the northwest corner; September 18 four specimens were taken 
at Simsbury, near northerly boundary at the center line of the 
state; October 2 it was common at Granby, at the center of the 
north boundary, and on October 4 it was common at Bennington, 
Vermont. The last record for the season was at Westville, a 
westerly section of New Haven, where it had been present most 
of the summer, a single specimen being seen on October 25. 

It should be remembered that these records are random ones ; 
it is entirely possible that euryihcme was common at the points 
named at much earlier dates without having been recorded, as 
the 1932 records for Surry, New Hampshire, and Amherst, 
Massachusetts, given in the earlier section of this paper would 
indicate. It is interesting, too, to note that while Mr. Williams 
saw no specimen at Avon, Connecticut, in 1926, the junior author 
found it there on three occasions in September, 1932, and that 
on the loth of that month it was common. 

The orange form is so noticeable from its coloration that there 
is little reason to suppose it has heretofore escaped the many 
nature students of the territory, and while on the score of colora- 
tion alone the paler forms might well have been mistaken for the 
roadside yellow, the flight is so different from that of its common 
relative that it would seem that no good observer could fail to 
note it. At the same time, there is the fact that with the excep- 
tion of Dr. Bethune at Sault Ste. Marie in 1871, no one until 
very recently seems to have commented on this peculiarity of the 

Just what is this difference in flight, while very obvious to the 
eye, is not easy to describe, for what may be termed the flight 
patterns are very similar, but there is a vigor and determination at 
all times on the part of eiirythemc that is absent in the case of 
philodice, even when in frightened flight. 

It will be very interesting to see if this robust and thriving 
butterfly does not crowd out the roadside yellow, just as the 
European cabbage butterfly has replaced our native species. 

Some occurrences of the eurytheme in Connecticut and to the 
northward : 

114 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. XXVIII 



193 1 






















Common, faded 


*West Rock 



















* '( 




Old Saybrook 




New London 
















New Haven Green " 




*West Haven 





*Woody Crest 





* << ■ '< 







Very Common 


















* <' 



September 5, 






*West Rock 
















* " 










































Very Common 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 115 


" *Westville 




" Tariffville 




" Congamond, 




" *Westville, 



* Very close to, or suburb of, New Haven. 

Rating scheme. 

Very Common 10 or more to be seen in course of an hour. 
Common 5 or 6 to be seen in the course of a morning or 

an afternoon. 
Not Uncommon i or 2 to be seen in the course of a day. 
Uncommon 2 or 3 to be seen in the course of a season. 
Rare Not more than i on an average to be seen in 

the course of a season. 
Accidental Not found oftener than once or twice in 5 or 
6 years. 

Xenorhipis brendeli Lee. from Long Island. (Coleoptera- 
Buprestidae) — There occurs in the New York State List of Li- 
sects but a soHtary record (Brooklyn, L. L [Horn]) for this 
interesting species which Mr. A. S. Nicolay remarks as "prob- 
ably the rarest of our eastern buprestids." The larva is listed 
by Dr. Felt as occurring in oak, while Dr. Fisher here records the 
larva from hickory. During the summer of 1929 a single female 
specimen of a buprestid species was taken on the trunk of a 
beech tree in Flushing; it was subsequently determined by Dr. 
W. S. Fisher of the U. S. National Museum as Xenorhipis 
brendeli Lee. In Dr. Fisher's reply letters he mentions that the 
National Museum has specimens from Texas and South Carolina, 
and material reared from dead hickory limbs collected in North 
Carolina. These localities give some idea, when supplemented 
with Illinois as mentioned in Blatchely's Coleoptera of Indiana, 
of the interesting and wide range of the species. The Flushing 
specimen here recorded is now in the collection of the U. S. 
National Museum. — K. W. Cooper, Flushing, L. I. 

116 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^z. XXVIII 


By Eva L. Gordon, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

These notes are based on a study of the species of Leptophlebia 
found in eastern United States, particularly in the region about 
Ithaca, New York. When this study was begun, scarcely an 
American species of the genus was known in all stages of its life 
cycle. My work on the group involved especially the association 
of the immature and mature forms of the local species and obser- 
vations on their habits. The work of F. P. Ide, in Ontario, 
during the summers of 1928 and 1929, resulted in the publication 
(Can. Ent. 62: 204-213, 1930) of descriptions of the nymphs and 
notes concerning several of the species involved in my study. 
These notes, therefore, will supplement this previously published 

The studies of Dr. Paul R. Needham at Cornell University 
indicate that the genus is of considerable importance as fish food. 
Quantitative studies of the insect life in selected areas of the 
hill streams about Ithaca showed that 14.63 per cent of the 5,201 
Mayfly nymphs taken during two summers' work belong to the 
genus Leptophlebia. Only the genera Ephemerella and Baetis 
were more abundant. In rapid water bottoms Mayflies consti- 
tuted the largest single food element taken, while in pool bottoms 
they were second only to Dipterous larvae and pupae (Needham, 
1927, p. 197) ; in stream drift (defined as including all forms of 
available food, both plant and animal, carried by the current), 
Mayflies made up 28.94 per cent of the total, being second only 
to Diptera in abundance. Studies of trout stomachs, made by the 
same authority (Needham, 1928, p. 224, 225), showed that May- 
flies formed 29.70 per cent of all food consumed, being the 
"most available food" and "consumed by trout more than any 
other food." 

Nymphs of the genus Leptophlebia were found chiefly in 
shallow, moderately swift riffles, eight inches or less in depth, 
over a bottom of loose stones, with almost no vegetation of any 
considerable size, but with a slippery coating of algae usually 
present on the stones. They were found also in regions of quieter 
water where the more gravelly, sometimes somewhat muddy, 
bottom was covered thickly with leaf-drift; and in situations 
where the depth of water was as much as two feet. Grassy 
stream borders, where comparatively coarse vegetation grew partly 

June, 193S Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 117 

in the water were also populated by Leptophlebias; they were 
often found in tufts of moss and submerged vegetation on stream 
bottoms. They were taken from areas where the banks were 
low and the water almost unshaded, as well as from well-shaded 
woodland and gorge streams. Width of streams where collec- 
tions were made ranged from four or five feet to twenty or more. 
No one of the species studied appeared to be restricted closely to 
any one type of environment. 

Imagos of the species studied seem to emerge in a fairly definite 
succession, although the time of emergence of any given species 
varied in different streams and seasons, and the seasons for 
several species overlap. The length of the period of emergence 
apparently varies from a few days to several weeks. Mating 
swarms observed differed enormously in size, but without ex- 
ception appeared between noon and early evening. The genus is 
diurnal. The height of the season of emergence apparently is 
passed by the first of August except in the case of L. debilis. 
The eggs of the local species are very similar, and all are of the 
type shown in figure 2, plate 3. The insects evidently winter 
either in the egg stage or as partly grown nymphs. 

Collecting and rearing — Collections were made during 1929, 1930 
and 193 1, in streams within a radius of about twenty-five miles 
of Ithaca. In Fall Creek, which borders the Cornell University 
campus on the north, collections were made at various points 
between the campus and Freeville, about eight miles northeast 
of Ithaca. Collecting was done in Cascadilla Creek, to the south 
of the campus, over a distance of about three miles. Further 
collecting was done in Salmon Creek, ten miles northeast of 
Ithaca; in The Glen, a spring-fed Ithaca stream; near Harford, 
which is about thirteen miles east of Ithaca, in the East Branch 
of Owego Creek, a part of the Susquehanna drainage ; in Six 
Mile Creek, south of Ithaca ; in Slaterville Wild Flower Preserve, 
ten miles to the southeast; in North Spencer stream, fifteen miles 
to the south ; in Enfield Glen, seven miles to the south ; in Coy 
Glen, three miles southwest, and in Van Buskirk's Creek, twelve 
miles in the same direction ; in Taughannock Creek, ten miles to 
the northwest ; and in a small stream near Watkins, about twenty- 
five miles to the southwest. 

The nymphs were collected by means of a small hand screen, 
separated according to species and locality, and placed in cages 
for rearing. Rearing was carried on first under nearly natural 
conditions in a small spring-fed pool and later in wooden 
troughs, set up in a pumphouse on the shore of Beebe Lake, and 

118 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^oi. XXVIII 

supplied with running water pumped from Fall Creek. Cages of 
fine meshed wire netting were used for rearing many of the 
nymphs, although oval cylinders about fourteen inches long, and 
seven inches in their greater diameter, made of silk bolting cloth 
on a framework of aluminum wire, proved more satisfactory. 
The cages were placed obliquely in the water with their upper 
portions extending well above the water level, thus offering an 
easy slope up which the subimagos could crawl when they 
emerged. The cages were visited once and often twice a day so 
that subimagos might be removed as soon as possible. The sub- 
imagos were placed in paper bags, labelled with the place and date 
of collection, and the date and approximate time of emergence. 
These bags were hung up in a moist atmosphere and left until 
the subimaginal molt had been made. The rough surface of 
the bags provided a satisfactory support to which the insects could 
cling while they worked themselves out of the subimaginal skin. 
This method permitted specimens of nymphal and adult stages of 
the species reared to be secured, together with observations on 
the length of time required for the subimaginal molt. This 
ranged from twelve to seventy-two hours, but was most commonly 
about forty-eight hours. 

Specimens were kept in 70 per cent alcohol or mounted in 
Canada balsam. Mouthparts of nymphs and genitalia of male 
adults were boiled for a minute in a ten per cent solution of caus- 
tic potash before being mounted. Wings were mounted dry, 
under a cover glass secured to a slide by two strips of gummed 
paper. In addition to personal collections, material for study 
was found in the Cornell University collection. I am indebted 
to Dr. J. McDunnough,. of Toronto, for specimens of several 
species, of both eastern and western forms. 

The Species — Twenty-one of the twenty-four known species in 
the genus Leptophlehia are found in North America. Ten of 
them are found in eastern North America : L. adoptiva McD., L. 
dehilis Walk., L. guttata McD., L. johnsoni McD., L. moerens 
McD., L. mollis Hag., L. praepedita Etn., L. volitans McD., L. 
Ontario McD., and L. assimilis Bks. The first eight of these are 
the major concern of this paper, since all of them have been 
recorded in northeastern United States. Six of these species 
have been reared by me during the past two years. Adults of 
L. volitans, L. johnsoni, and L. Ontario have been available for 
examination. The specific differences among adults of these nine 
forms and of nymphs of seven of them are here summarized in 
keys and tables. The latter are based on study of the species 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 119 

reared except in the case of L. volitans, characters of which were 
taken from the description by Ide (1930, p. 207). 

Key to Male Imagos of Nine Northeastern American 
Species of Leptophlebia 

a. Middle segments of abdomen conspicuously pale whitish 
b. Basal segment of forceps conspicuously enlarged at base 
c. Segments 3-6 pale whitish with narrow brown band 

posteriorly L. moerens 

c. Segments 2~y pale whitish, grayish posteriorly 

L. dehilis 
b. Basal segment of forceps not conspicuously enlarged at base 
c. Segments 2-7 pale 

d. No black markings in spiracular area of pale segments 

L. mollis 
d. Distinct black dot in spiracular area of each pale 
e. Legs pale, tinged with brownish, dark spot at junc- 
tion of tibia and femur L. guttata 

e. Legs uniform brown, the foreleg deep brown, 2nd 

and 3rd pale golden L. johnsoni 

c. Segments 3-7 pale, with narrow brown posterior bands 

L. volitans 
a. Middle segments of abdomen not conspicuously pale whitish 
b. Penial lobes distinctly shorter than basal segment of forceps 
c. Penes with triangular, wing-like appendages ; second seg- 
ment of forceps enlarged on the inner side 

L. adoptiva 
c. Penes with cylindrical hook-like appendages ; second seg- 
ment of forceps not enlarged on the inner side 

L. Ontario 
h. Penial lobes as long or longer than the basal segment of the 
forceps ; penes with slender, cylindrical appendages 

L. praepedita 

Key to Female Imagos of Eight Northeastern American 
Species of Leptophlebia^ 

a. Seventh abdominal segment distinctly prolonged ventrally into 

an ovipositor L. praepedita 

a. Seventh abdominal segment not distinctly prolonged ventrally 
into an ovipositor 
b. Excavation of 9th sternite plainly more than y^ length of 

^ The female of L. volitans is undescribed. 

120 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. xxrill 

c. Legs whitish, tinged with brown 

d. Femora distinctly brown, darker beyond the middle, 
lobes of 9th sternite broad and blunt . . . .L. debilis 
d. Femora faintly brown, a distinct brown spot at junc- 
tion of tibia and femur; lobes of 9th sternite nar- 
row and pointed L. guttata 

c. Legs uniform light brown L. moerens 

b. Excavation of 9th sternite not more than ^ length of plate 

c. Legs pale whitish L. mollis 

c. Legs brown 

d. Fore-wing less than 7 mm.; hind-wing about 1.5 

mm L. Ontario 

d. Fore-wing 7 mm. or more ; hind-wing 2 mm. or more 
e. Excavation of 9th sternite a shallow rounded notch, 

lobes pointed L. johnsoni 

e. Excavation of 9th sternite broadly U-shaped, well 
rounded at bottom, lobes rounded . . .L. adoptiva 

Key to Nymphs of Seven Northeastern American 
Species of Leptophlebia 

a. Main tracheae of gills with conspicuous branches ; lateral 
spines on segment 9 only 
b. Color pale brown ; canines of mandibles not strongly directed 
inward, a line along upper edge of molar surface passing 

through bases of canines L. adoptiva 

b. Color uniform dark brown; canines of mandibles strongly 
directed inward, a line along upper edge of molar surface 

passing well below bases of canines L. mollis 

a. Main tracheae of gills without conspicuous branches 

b. Well-developed lateral spines on segment 9 only; second 
and third joints of maxillary palp i^ times the length 

of the first L. guttata 

b. Well-developed lateral spines on segments 8 and 9 ; second 
and third joints of maxillary palp about equal the 
length of the first 

c. Legs pale, barred with darker brown L. debilis 

c. Legs uniform brown or nearly so 

d. Gills hairy L. volitans 

d. Gills not hairy 

e. Segments of abdomen nearly twice as wide as long; 

spines on 8 and 9 equal L. moerens 

e. Segments of abdomen nearly equal in length and 
width ; spine on 9 longer than on 8 

L. praepedita 

Jiine, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 121 

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124 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

Descriptions and notes. — Herewith I offer descriptions of 
hitherto undescribed stages of the six species reared by me, and 
notes on ecology and Hfe history. 

LeptopJilehia adoptiva McDunnough. 
Subimag O.- 
Male. — Head dark brown. Thorax brown with light tan 
median line and similar light submedian patches on the meta- 
thorax ; wings pale smoky gray, plainly ciliate on the anal 
margin ; legs deep brown. Abdomen nearly uniform dark 
brown, often showing traces of the median pale line and the 
pair of submedian pale dashes diverging from the median 
line at the anterior border of each segment which were evi- 
dent in the nymph ; tails, dull brown, hairy. Length of body 
7 mm. ; of fore-wing, 7 mm. ; of hind-wing, 2.4 mm. ; of tails, 
7 mm. ; of foreleg, 5 mm. The genitalia are similar in form 
to those of the adult; the forceps show the inwardly broad- 
ened second segment and the rather abrupt, distinct enlarge- 
ment on the inner side at the base of the first segment. 

Female. — Similar to the male in coloring, but of redder 
cast. Length of body, 8 mm. ; of fore-wing, 7 mm. ; of hind- 
wing, 2.4 mm. ; of tails, 7 mm. The excavation of the sub- 
anal plate is like that of the adult. 

This species reaches maturity earlier in the spring than any 
other taken in the Ithaca region. In 1930, well-grown nymphs 
were collected in Salmon Creek as early as March 16. The ear- 
liest collection in 193 1 was April 11, the last. May 5. On the 
latter date only a very few nymphs were collected, where the spe- 
cies had been abundant on April 19. Both imagos and subimagos 
were taken in flight on May 5, 1931. On June 17, neither nymphs 
nor adults could be found. A number of nymphs of this species 
were reared in pans in the laboratory, being kept alive for more 
than a month in quiet water, on a diet of Elodea, rubbed to a pulp 
on a coarse file. The length of the subimaginal stage varied from 
24 to 48 hours. Half-grown nymphs were collected in Salmon 
Creek, Nov. 23, 1930. There is probably only one brood a year. 

Leptophlehia debilis Walker. 
Sitbimago : 

The very brief description of the subimago given by Eaton 
(1883-88, p. 97: L. mollis), which may pertain to either L. 
debilis or L. mollis may be amplified as follows : 

7lfo/e.— General color dark reddish brown ; mesothorax 
bordered with darker. Wings dull grayish white, margined 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 125 

with very fine short hairs. Legs pale whitish, the foreleg 
about 5 mm. long. Abdomen lighter in the middle segments ; 
genitalia and tails pale whitish ; dilation of the forceps limb 
at the base very similar to that of the imago. Length of body, 
6.5 mm.; of fore-wing, 7.5 mm.; of hind-wing, 2 mm.; of 
tails, 7 mm. 

Female. — Similar in color to the male, but the abdomen 
uniform reddish brown. Excavation of the subanal plate 
narrow and deep, rounded at the bottom; apices of the divi- 
sions narrowly rounded. 
During the seasons 1929 and 1930 this species was collected in 
only one locality, The Glen, Ithaca. The species matured late, 
well-grown nymphs having been collected on September 26, and 
adults taken in flight October 31 and November i, 1929. The 
specimens taken slightly exceeded Eaton's measurements (which 
were of dried specimens), averaging about 7.5 mm. in body 
length; tails of the female, 8 mm. The species is widely dis- 
tributed through North America. A study of the dates on which 
adults were taken, especially in the New York State region sug- 
gests a succession of life cycles similar to that discovered by 
Murphy for Baetis posticatus (Murphy, 1922, p. 41, 42) : a six- 
month's cycle, May to October; a nine month's cycle, October to 
August ; a nine month's cycle, August to May. Recorded dates of 
emergence of adults of L. debilis include May 17-28; August i- 
September 3, and October 31— November i. 

Taxonomic confusion involving L. debilis and L. mollis necessi- 
tates mention of the fact that the L. mollis of Needham (1907, p. 
189), and of Morrison (1919, p. 143) is really L. debilis. The 
same may be true of other early published mention of the species. 
Eaton's Monograph gave the name L. debilis Walker to a species 
described from a female taken in Nova Scotia. McDunnough 
(192 5-1, p. 169), reported the collection of a similar female "on 
the same day (August 22), at the same locality as a male which 
is evidently separata Ulmer," and regarded it " as without doubt 
the female of L. separata, which name will fall therefore as a 
synonym of debilis." The L. mollis described by Eaton in 1871 
and in 1884 (1871, p. 88; 1883-88, p. 97) were shown by Ulmer 
(1921, pp. 254-256) to have been two different species, the two 
descriptions having been made from different specimens. Conse- 
quently he restricted the type of the species to the specimen de- 
scribed by Eaton in 1871, designating the L. mollis of the Mono- 
graph as L. separata. This last name yielded to L. debilis as a 
result of the work of McDunnough referred to above. 

126 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^<^^- X^vm 

Leptophlebia guttata McDunnough. 

To the descriptions of McDunnough (1924, p. 95; 1925-2, 
p. 209) may be added measurements of the imagos : 

Male. — Length of body, 6 mm. ; of fore-wing, 6.5 mm. ; of 
hind-wing, 1.8 mm. ; of tails, 9 mm. ; of foreleg, 6.5 mm. 

Female. — Length of body, 6 mm. ; of fore-wing, 6.5 mm. ; 
of hind-wing, 1.8 mm. 

Subimago : 

Male. — Very much like the adult in general color except 
for the abdomen, which is uniform reddish brown, and the 
wings, which are distinctly smoky gray. The penes appear 
as two imperfectly separated broad-tipped appendages. 

Female.- — Much like the male in coloring. Excavation of 
subanal plate more broadly U-shaped than in the imago. 

Nymphs of this species were collected, though never abun- 
dantly, in many streams near Ithaca, and are represented in col- 
lections from West Virginia and Pennsylvania. In the Ithaca re- 
gion they were almost always found associated with L. mollis, 
except in the latter part of the season, indicating that their period 
of emergence is somewhat later than that of L. mollis. Well- 
grown nymphs were collected in Fall Creek, at Watkins, and in 
Enfield Glen on dates ranging from May 30 to June 7, 1930, 
reared adults appearing about the middle of June. A number of 
adults were reared from a catch at Salmon Creek, July 6, 1930. 
The earliest, and largest, swarm of adults was observed over 
Taughannock Creek, June 16, 1931 ; adults were taken swarming 
over Cascadilla Creek, July 17, 1930; subimagos and imagos were 
collected at Slaterville, July 27, 1930. The period of emergence 
is therefore fairly long, although the fact that only a very few 
mature nymphs were collected after July 27 indicates that the end 
of that month probably marks its termination. 

Leptophlebia moerens McDunnough. 

Male. — General color, light red-brown. Length of body, 
6 mm.; of fore-wing, 6.5-7 mm.; of hind-wing, 1.6 mm.; of 
tails, 7 mm. ; of foreleg, 5.8 mm. Head light brown. Thorax 
dark red brown ; legs pale brown, darker at the proximal 
ends of the tibiae ; wings gray-brown, with short, fine hairs 
on the anal margin. Abdomen, red-brown dorsally, darker 
at the joinings of the segments, the middle segments slightly 
lighter in color; paler ventrally. Adult characters of the 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 127 

genitalia fairly well developed, especially the excavation be- 
tween the penial lobes ; tails pale gray-brown, with circlets of 
hairs at the joinings of the segments. 

Female. — General color red-brown, slightly darker than 
the male. Length of body 6 mm. ; of fore-wing, y mm. ; of 
hind-wing, i.6 mm. ; of tails, y mm. The female is much like 
the male in color and markings except that the middle seg- 
ments of the abdomen are not lighter in color. Subanal plate 
with a shallow broadly rounded excavation. 


General color light brown. Length of body, 7.5-8 mm. ; 
of tails, 5-6 mm. Head red-brown, the vertex paler and pale 
areas in front of the median ocellus and lateral to the lateral 
ocelli, also a median pale line ; antennae pale brown, with a 
darker second joint ; mouthparts pale brown, the labrum shal- 
lowly notched anteriorly. Pronotum with light margins ; legs 
pale brown, slightly lighter at the distal ends of the femora. 
Abdomen light brown, each segment with a small pair of sub- 
median pale areas and a larger pair of lateral pale areas; seg- 
ment 7 with a large U-shaped postero-median pale area 
which is confluent with the submedian dashes ; lateral spines 
present on segments 8 and 9; tails pale brown, with few 
short hairs. Gills with the main tracheae branching 1/7 to 
1/8 of the distance from the base to the tip of the gill ; main 
tracheae without conspicuous branches. 

Near Ithaca, nymphs of this species were taken in greatest 
abundance at The Glen, but also from Cascadilla Creek, Six Mile 
Creek, and Gyrinophilus Spring near McLean. Since most of the 
rearing of this species was carried on under almost natural con- 
ditions the dates of emergence of reared adults probably are close 
to the normal for the species. The first subimago to emerge in 
1929 appeared June 26, and adults continued to emerge through- 
out July. In 1930, the first collection of nymphs was made June 
2, the adults transforming June 6-15. The recorded duration of 
the subimaginal stage varied from about fifteen hours to over 
36 hours. No large swarms of the species were observed during 
either summer, and I was unable to verify McDunnough's sug- 
gestion (1925-2, p. 209) that the species may be double-brooded. 

Leptophlehia mollis Hagen. 

Female. — Eaton (1871, p. 88) gave a very brief descrip- 
tion of the female. A more complete description, from reared 
specimens taken at Etna, May 30, 1930, is included here: 
General color, red-brown with pale whitish appendages. 

128 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^oi. xxrill 

Length of body, 7 mm. ; of fore-wing, 7.5 mm. ; of hind-wing, 
1.9 mm.; of tails, 4 mm. Head red-brown, darker than the 
remainder of the body. Thorax dark red-brown above, 
lighter below ; legs pale whitish, faintly colored with brown- 
ish at the bases, especially on the forelegs, which are 3.5 mm. 
long; wings hyaline, with slight iridescence, the veins almost 
colorless. Abdomen nearly uniform red-brown, slightly 
lighter at the joinings; tails pale whitish; excavation of the 
subanal plate narrowly U-shaped, less deep than in the simi- 
lar L. guttata; the apices of the lobes bluntly pointed. 

Subimago : 

A more complete description of both male and female than 
is given by Eaton (1871, p. 88), from specimens taken at En- 
field Glen, June 7, 1930, and from Etna, May 30, 1930, fol- 
lows : 

Male. — General color red-brown. Length of body, 6.5 
mm.; of fore-wing, 6.5-7 mm.; of hind-wing, 1.5-1.7 mm.; 
of tails, 6 mm. ; of foreleg, 4 mm. Head red-brown, the eyes 
less brightly orange-brown than in the adult. Thorax red- 
brown ; legs very pale brownish white ; wings, pale brownish 
gray, the fringe of hairs on the anal margin short and fine. 
Abdomen red-brown, segments 2-7 somewhat paler; geni- 
talia pale brownish white, much like those of the adult (see 
fig. 3, plate XIV), the second segment somewhat enlarged in- 
wardly, but the base of the first segment less enlarged than 
in the imago ; tails, whitish. 

Female. — General color red-brown. Length of body, 6 
mm.; of fore-wing, 6.5-7 i^ini- 1 of hind-wing, 1.5 mm.; of 
tails, 6 mm. The female is much like the male in color ex- 
cept that the abdomen is darker and uniform in color. The 
excavation of the subanal plate is much like that of the 

Thirteen localities are represented in my collections of this 
species, which is apparently the commonest member of the genus 
in this region. Well-grown nymphs were collected from the 
middle of May through the first week in June, both in 1930 and 
in 1931. Reared adults from collections made May 14, 15 and 16 
appeared first May 29 ; subimagos were emerging in numbers in 
Fall Creek at Etna and in Enfield Glen, when collections were 
made May 30 and June 7, 1930. That the height of the transfor- 
mation season, at least in some streams, occurs early in June is 
indicated by the fact that only a very few mature nymphs were 
taken from the brook at North Spencer on June 5, and from Cas- 
cadilla Creek southwest of Turkey Hill on June 8, although both 
localities had yielded abundant catches shortly before those dates. 

Jurie, 193S Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 129 

Available dates of capture of images and dates of emergence of 
reared specimens all fall within the month of June, for the Ithaca 
region. The species seems to be single-brooded. Large swarms 
have been recorded as late as June 26, but the period of emer- 
gence seems to extend over most of that month. The length of 
the subimago period varied from 24 to 72 hours, but in the ma- 
jority of cases observed was about 48 hours. 

The taxonomic history of this species is bound up with that of 
L. debilis, which was discussed briefly in this paper. 

Leptophlehia praepedita Eaton. 
Iniago : 

Male. — Eaton's description (1883-88, p. 99) was made 
from a dried specimen. The general color, in fresh speci- 
mens, is red-brown, the head and thorax darker. Length of 
body, 6 mm. (instead of 5 mm., according to Eaton) ; of 
fore-wing, 6-7 mm.; of hind-wing, i.6 mm.; of tails, 11 
mm. ; of foreleg, 6 mm. 

Female. — General color like that of the male. Length of 
body, 6 mm. ; of fore-wing, 7 mm. ; of hind-wing, 1.6 mm. ; of 
tails, 9 mm. Head and thorax dark red-brown ; legs uniform 
red-brown, the fore femora slightly darker than the other 
segments and than the other legs ; foreleg, 4.5 mm. ; wings 
hyaline, with a faint bronzy tint. Abdomen uniform red- 
brown, lighter than the rest of the body; tails light red- 
brown; posterior margin of 7th sternite prolonged distinctly, 
serving as an ovipositor. 


A dried specimen is described by Eaton (1883-88, p. 99) 
as "Wings sepia-grey, with pitch-brown neuration. Setae 

Male. — General color, dark sepia-brown. Length of body, 
6 mm.; of fore-wing, 6.5-7 mm.; of hind-wing, 1.6 mm.; of 
tails, 8-9 mm. ; of foreleg, 5 mm. Wings dull gray-brown, 
the hind margins distinctly hairy ; legs, much like those of the 
adult, deep, uniform sepia-brown; genitalia distinctly like 
those of the imago in form and color, but clothed with hairs ; 
tails, deep sepia-brown, hairy. 

Female. — General color, wings, legs and tails like the male. 
Excavation of the subanal plate V-shaped, extending a little 
more than half the length of the sternite ; caudad elongation 
of 7th sternite, the ovipositor, almost as in the imago. 
Length of body, 6 mm. ; of fore-wing, 7 mm. ; of hind-wing, 
1.6 mm. ; of tails, 8 mm. ; of foreleg, 4.5 mm. 

130 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 

This species was taken from Six Mile Creek, from North Spen- 
cer stream, from Fall Creek, and from Owego Creek at Harford. 
Well-grown nymphs were collected between the dates May 14 and 
June 5, 1930, only a few individuals being found on the latter 
date, in the North Spencer stream, where shortly before they had 
been abundant. Since all recorded dates of capture of adults in 
the Ithaca region fall in late May or in early June, it is probable 
that the species is single-brooded. Reared specimens showed a 
variation between 24 and 48 hours for the subimago stage. 

Eaton, A. E. 1871. Trans, and Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1871, p. 

. 1883—88. Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Second Se- 
ries, Vol. Ill, Zoology. 

Ide, F. P. 1930. Can. Ent. 62: 204-213. 

McDunnough, J. 1924. Can. Ent. 56: 90-98; 221-226. 

. 1924-2. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 5 : 73-76. 

. 1925-1. Can. Ent. 57: 168-176. 

. 1925-2. Trans. R. S. C. Sec. V, 1925 (3), 19: 207- 


Morrison, Emily R. 1919. Can. Ent. 51, No. 6, p. 139-146. 

Murphy, Helen E. 1922. Contribution from the Limnological 
Laboratory, Cornell University, Bulletin No. 22, Ent. Series, 
No. 2, of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Natural History, 
Pharmacy, and Materia Medica, p. 1-46. 

Needham, James G. 1907 (1908). Mus. Bull. 124, 33rd Report 
of the State Entomologist on Injurious and Other Insects of 
the State of New York, p. 188-198. 

Needham, Paul R. 1927. Suppl. to 17th Annual Report, 1927, 
Conservation Department, State of New York, p. 192-206. 
A Biological Survey of the Oswego River System. 

— . 1928. Suppl. to i8th Annual Report, 1928, Con- 
servation Department, State of New York, p. 220-232. A 
Biological Survey of the Erie-Niagara River System. 

Ulmer, Georg. 1921. Archiv. f. Naturg. 87, Abt. A, Heft 6, p. 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 131 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate XII, Wings and Genitalia of Imagos. 

Figure i 
Figure 2 
Figure 3 
Figure 4 

Figure 5. 

Figure 6 

Figure 7 

Figure 8 

Figure 9 

LeptopJilchia adoptiva. 
Leptophlcbia debilis. 
Leptophlehia guttata. 
LeptopJdebia joJmsoni 

Dunnough, 1924-2, p. 
LeptopJdebia moerens. 
Lepiophlebia mollis. 
LeptopJdebia Ontario. 
LeptopJdebia praepedita 
LeptopJdebia volitans. 


of male after Mc- 


Wings of Male. 

b. Ninth Sternite of Female (except 9b). 
c and d. Genitalia of Male, lateral and ventral as- 
pects (b and c in 9). 
8e. Segment 7 of female, L. praepedita, showing ovi- 


Plate XIII, Gills and Mouthparts of Nymphs. 

Figure i. 

LeptopJdebia adoptiva. 

Figure 2. 

LeptopJdebia debilis. 

Figure 3. 

LeptopJdebia guttata. 

Figure 4. 

LeptopJdebia moerens. 

Figure 5. 

LeptopJdebia mollis. 

Figure 6. 

LeptopJdebia praepedita. 

a. Labrum. 

b. Hypopharynx. 

c. Maxilla. 

d. Left and Right Mandibles. 

e. Labium. 

f. GiHs from Segments i, 4, and 7 

Plate XIV. 

Figure i. Head of Female Nymph of LeptopJdebia moerens. 

Figure 2. Eggs of LeptopJdebia moerens. 

Figure 3. Genitalia of Male Subimago, LeptopJdebia mollis. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 3 

Plate XII 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 3 Plate XIII 

1 adoptiva 2 debilis 3 guttata 4 moerens 5 mollis 6 praepedita 

^5i \r~~^ 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 3 

Plate XIV 


Figure 1 

Fio-ure 2 

Figure 3 

June, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 135 


By H. B. Hungerford, Lawrence, Kansas.^ 

Notonccta compacta Hungerford was described in the Canadian 
Entomologist, Volume LVII, pp. 239-240, 1925, from four fe- 
males. I have just received twenty specimens of this species from 
Guerrero, Mexico. In this lot there are sixteen females and four 
males. Eight of the females are red and black as was one of the 
paratopes. The four males are marked like the dark females but 
are slightly larger. One of these I am designating the Allotype 
and the other three as Paraallotypes. In the male the head is 
slightly more than half the length of the pronotum on its median 
line ; the vertex slightly longer than its anterior width. Lateral 
margins of the pronotum divergent, moderately constricted ; an- 
terior angles embracing the eyes (in both sexes) ; anterior portion 
of the lateral ledge broader than elsewhere but not interrupted. 
(It is interrupted in female.) Anterior trochanter of male with a 
broad blunt hook. Penultimate abdominal sternite enlarged. The 
genital capsule is plump and the clasper is thick and triangular 
with distal base broadly produced. While the lateral margins of 
the prothorax are less constricted than in the female they are 
more constricted than in the male of any other species known. It 
is now possible to state that the male specimen named A'', mexicmia 
by Champion in his B. C. A. paper, and labeled " Amula, Guerrero, 
6,000 ft., H. H. Smith " is A^ compacta Hungerford. 

Notice to Authors. — Minor notes to fill such space as this are 
needed. Longer articles cannot be assured prompt publication. 
— Editor. 

^ Contribution from the Department of Entomology, University 
of Kansas. 

136 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- X^VUI 


In Days Agone, by W. S. Blatchley; pp. 1-338, pis. I-XVI. 
(The Nature Publishing Co., 1558 Park Avenue, Indianapohs, 
Ind. ; $2, plus postage from Indianapolis). 

Here Dr. Blatchley follows "My Nature Nook" by a more ex- 
tensive work on his hunting grounds in primitive Florida, before 
the real estate bubbles, (now deflated) cut up lake and swamp, 
hammock and forest into city lots and orange groves in the midst 
of muck and sand. 

This work is really the progressive story of how our wilder- 
nesses have vanished before the crest of the wave of "progress," 
a wave about as constructive as a tidal wave. 

Dr. Blatchley secured a home by the sea in Dunedin ; within a 
few short years, it was in the middle of a city, with paved streets 
and vacant lots ; the pleasant trees and the lovely flowers were 
replaced by weed-grown plots. 

On the other hand, before all this destruction came to pass, he 
had seen and enjoyed primitive Florida, its lakes and rivers, its 
forests and swales, peopled by animals, birds and insects. His 
narrative, in the form of excerpts from his diary, begins on 
January 9, 1901, and closed on March 30, 1922 — twenty-one years 
of observation and study. 

Essentially a naturalist, Dr. Blatchley deals with living things 
as elements of that phenomenon of nature of which man is a 
part; therefore, worthy of his attention and knowledge. We 
have here no dry catalogue of polysyllables but whole living pages 
out of the book of nature itself. Here we read about birds, 
beasts, fishes, insects, as they are in their natural surroundings. 
In this aspect. Dr. Blatchley's work is a repository of nature lore. 
He tells of finding rare insects, at times in numbers; how they 
live, what they eat, where they hide. In fact, any one who wants 
to know Florida and its wild life as it was and as it is can make 
no mistake in securing this work. The curious fact about is 
that while it is a naturalist's diary, it is also a disillusioning pic- 
ture of that curious recurrent phase of American life, the real 
estate boom. 

J. R. T.-B. 


OCTOBER, 1933 


No. 4 


Brooklyn Entomological 




^^m^^^^ "'*''J^(^ 

a NOV 9 1933 ^ 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 
Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed November 6, 1933 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2,00. 

Honorary President 
President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 








RADO 174 


T.-B 176 


L. I. HETEROPTERA, Torre-Bueno 180 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
February. April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign. $2.75 in advance; single 
copies, 60 cents. Advertising rates on application. Short articles, notes and 
observations of interest to entomologists are solicited. Authors will receive 25 
reprints free if ordered in advance of publication. Address subscriptions and 
all communications to 

J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor, 

S8 De Ealb Avenue, White Plains, N. 7. 



Vol. XXVIII October, 1933 No. 4 





By H. p. Loding, Mobile, Ala. 

In making up a Catalogue of Coleoptera found in the State of 
Alabama it was noticed that nearly one-sixth of the number were 
not recorded in Leng's catalogue as occurring in any of the east- 
ern Gulf States and it was thought, that such information might 
be of interest and value to students of geographical distribution 
and to taxonomists. 

Included in this list are also such species as have been recorded 
only from a single one of these states, and from no other, and 
such species in my collection of which Alabama is the type 

Unless otherwise designated, all species listed have been col- 
lected during the past thirty years either by the author or by his 
good friend Dr. T. S. Van Aller, or by both, and are at the pres- 
ent time represented with full data in his collection. 

Species taken only in the northern half or southern half of the 
state are designated, respectively, by the letters N or S, all others 
have been found in both parts. 

Where the loan of material has been requested for study or re- 
vision the credit for identification is given to such specialist under 
the family or generic name as the case may be. 

For help and assistance with advice and technical knowledge I 
am greatly indebted to many friends, Dr. E. A. Schwarz, Chas. 
Dury, Henry Wenzel, and Frederick Blanchard are gratefully and 
lovingly memorized. From the following I hope to have several 
more years of kindly cooperation, Chas. Liebeck, Chas. Schaefifer, 
Chas. Leng, H. C. Fall, Dr. E. C. VanDyke and my young 
friends Barber, Fisher, Chapin and Buchanan of the National 


140 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxriil 

-'■''■) Dr. Walter B. Jones, Director of the Alabama Museum of 
Natiiral History, who for several years has made possible adequate 
collecting trips into the more remote parts of the State, many 
thanks are due. 


1 08 Cicindela cuprascens Jones collector. 

Lee. N. Dr. W. B. no Cicindela lepidaDej.N. 


127a Scaphinotus her as 

Harr. N. 
162 Sphaerodenis lecontei 

Dej. N. 
308a Pasimachus morio Lee. 

359 Clivina impressifrons 

368 Clivina analis Putz. 
373 Clivina ferrea Lee. S. 
432 Bemhidion americanum 

660 Bemhidion variegatiim 

705 Bemhidion affine Say. 
829 Tachyura tripunctata 

879 Tachys miselliis Laf . S. 
929 Myas coracinus (Say). 

Pseudanopthalmus lod- 

ingi Valentine. N. 

type loc. 
Pseudanopthalmus ala- 

bamae Valentine. N. 

type loc. Dr. Valen- 
tine collector. 
1067 Evarthrus sigillatus 

Evarthrus lodingi van 

Dyke. No type local- 
1080 Ferestria obsoleta 

1083 Ferestria nanula Csy. 

S. type loc. 
18692 Evarthrinus alaham- 

ensis Csy. type loc. S. 

18693 Evarthrinus lilliputicus 

Csy. type loc. S. 
1085 Euferonia relicta 

(Newn.) N. 
1 1 1 1 Gastrosticta amnicola 

Csy. N. 
1 168 Lophoglossus strenmis 

(Lee). S. 
1 173 Omaseus ebeninus Dej. 

1265 Bradytus exaratus Dej. 

1400 Amara cupreolata 

Putz. N. 

1450 Dicaelus dilatatus Sav. 


1 45 1 Dicaelus planicollis 

Lee. S. 
1466 Dicaelus amhiguus Laf. 

1468a Dicaelus angustus Csv. 

1473 Badister maculatus 

Lee. S. 
1508 Platynidius angustatus 

1522 Platymis extensicollis 

1532 Platynus sulcipennis 

Horn. S. 
1556 Platynus ferreus 

1591 Platynus quadrimacu- 

latus Horn. S. 
1609 Atranus puhescens 

1623 Zuphium americanum 


Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 141 

636 Tetragonoderus fascia- 

tiis Hald. 
694 Apristus siibsulcatus 

750a Cymindis mobiliensis 
Csy. S. type loc. 

771 Helluornorpha texana 
Lee. N. 

779 Brachinus mediits Har- 

853 Chlaeniits maxillosns 
Horn. S. 

878 Geopinus incrassafiis 
(Dej.). N. 

886 Cratachanthus dubiits 

897 Harpalus erraticus Say. 

910 Harpalus erythropiis 
Dej. N. 

2009 Harpalus vulpecidiis 

Say. N. 

2010 Harpalus dichrous 

Dej. N. 

2024 Selenophorus fossu!^^^^^ 
Dej. S. 

2070 Triple ctrus carbonaT^u.s 


2071 Triplectrus rusticus 

2085 Cephalogyne lodingi 

(Schffr.). S. type 

2088 Anisodactyliis nigcrri- 

nius Dej. 
2090 Anisodactylus nigrita 

Dej. N. 
2107 Anisodactylus coenus 

2127 Anadaptus balti- 

morensis (Say). N. 
2198 Stenocellus neglectus 

(Lee.). S. 
2245 Tachistodes indistincius 

2251 Agonoderus lineola 

(Fab.). N. 
2256 Agonoderus Iccontei 

Chd. N. 
2359 Laccophilus fasciatus 2473 Hydroporus vitiosus 

2394 Bidessus lacustris 

(Say). S._ 
2396 Bidessus floridanus 

Fall. S. 
2449 Hydroporus lobatus 

Shp. S. 
2452 Hydroporus clypealis 

Shp. S. 
2464 Hydroporus carolinus 

Fall. S. 
2471 Hydroporus striato- 

punctatus Melsh. N. 

Lee. S. 
2508 Hydroporus signatus 

2514 Hydroporus niger Say. 
2523 Hydroporus oblitus 

2651 Acilius semisulcatus 

Aube. S. 

2654 Thermonectes ornati- 

collis (Aube.). S. 

2655 Thermonectes basilaris 

(Ham). S. 
2667 Cybister fimbriolatus 

Hydroporus all determined by Fall. 

Gyrinidae (det. Fall) 

2671 Dineutes vittatus 2687 Gyrinus aeneolus Lee. 

(Germ.). S. S. 

2674 Dineutes discolor Anhki. 19252 Gyrinus pachysomus 

2682 Dineutes emarginatus Fall. S. 


2 ilSX>'i. 

142 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 

27^8 Derallus alius (Lee.)- 2821 

2789 Hydrous triangularis 2843 

2795 Hydrophilus ohiusatns Say. 

2906 Leptinus testaceus Miill. S. 


291 1 Necrophorus ameri- 2964 

camis (Oliv.). N. 

2918 Necrophorus pustulatus 2996 
Herschel. N. 

2927 Silpha novehoracensis 3023 
Forst. N. Dr. Wal- 
ter B. Jones collector. 

Paracymus lodingi 
(Fall). S. type loc. 

Enochrus reflexipennis 
(Zimm.). S. 

Ptomaphagus pusio 

(Lee). N. 
Anisotoma alternata 

(Melsh.). S. 
Leiodcs discolor Melsh. 

PsELAPHiDAE (determinations by Fletcher) 
6190 Batrisodes unicornis 6320 Decarthron longiduin 

Csy. S. (Lee). S. 

6225 Nisaxis tomentosa (Aube.). S. 


6482 Scaphidiuni quadrigut- 6492 Scaphisoma ornatum 
tatuni Say. Fall. S. type loc. 

64S2d Scaphidiuni piceum 6515 Baeocera concolor 

Melsh. (Fab.). S. 

6487 Scaphisoma carolinac Csy. 

HisTERiDAE (determinations by Ballou) 
6605 Hister orbicidus Csy. 

S. type loc. 
6607 Hister osculatus Blatch. 
6664 Phelister sayi Carn. S. 

type loc. 
6670 Phelister mobiliensis 

Csy. S. type loc. 
6674 Phelister saunieri 

Mars. S. 
6676 Phelister aeneomicans 

Horn. S. 
6680 Phelister carnochani 

Csy. type loc. 

6965 Pleotomus sp. ? davisi 6997 Photinus marginellus 

Lee. N. Lee. 

6996 Photinus pyralis (L). 


Caerosternus americanus 

(Lee). _ 


Saprinus obsidtanus 

Csy. S. type loc. 


Saprinus assimilis 



Saprinus convexius- 

cidus Mars. S. 


Saprinus rubriculus 

Mars. S. 


Saprinus sparsus Csy. 

Saprinus dividsus Csy. 



Saprinus patruelis Lee. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 143 

6999 Pliotimis sciiitillaus 7034 Tytthonyx erythro- 

(Say). cephala (Fab.). S. 

7025 Phengodes sallei Lee. 



7228 Collops baltcatus Lee. 7305 Attains scmiruhidus 

S. Fall. S. type loc. 

7232 Temnopsophiis iinprcs- 7306 Attains melanopterns 

sus Sz. S. (Er.). S. 

7304 Attains pallifrons 



7573 Lecontella cancellata 7688 Isohydnoccra longicol- 

(Lec). S. lis (Ziegl.). S. 

7595 Enocleriis qiiadrigutta- 77^7 Cregya mixtiis Lee. S. 

tus Oliv. 7718 Cregya quadrisignatiis 

Spin. S. 


7743 Cupes capitatus Fab. S. 


7757 Xanthochroa trinotata Lee. S. 

MoRDELLiDAE (determinations by Liljeblad) 

7804 Tomoxia bidentata 7^54 Mordellistena pallipes 

(Say). S. Smith. S. 

7806 Tomoxia inclusa Lee. 7856 Mordellistena ornata 

S. (Melsh.). N. 

19602 Mordella atrata Melsh. 7891 Mordellistena fuscipen- 
7829 Glipodes sericans ww (Melsh.). S. 

(Melsh). S. 7920 Mordellistena texana 

7841 Mordellistena limbalis Smith. N. 

(Melsh.). S. 7925 Mordellistena attemiata 

(Say). S. 
7957 Macrosiagon linear e 
(Lee.). S. 


7990 Pomphopoea sayi Lee. 8024a Epicauta marginata 

N. (Fab.). 

7998 Epicauta trichrus 8033 Epicauta pennsylvamca 

(Pallas.). (DeG.); 

8018 Epicauta vittata Fab. 8041 Macrobasis torsa 

S. (Lee.). S. 

8024 Epicauta tinerea 8149 Meloe moerens Lee. S. 

(Forst.). 8191 Nernognatha vittigera 

Lee. S. 

144 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

8220 Neopyrochroa flahellataYzh. N. 



Stereopalpiis vestitus 


Macratria murina 

(Say)_. N. 



Macratria confusa Lee. N 



Notoxus calcaratiis 


Anthicus virginiae 


Csy. S. 


Mecyno tarsus elegans 


Anthicus rixator Csy. 

Lee. S. 



Anthicus formicarius 


Anthicus pubesccns 

Laf. S. 

Laf. S. 


Anthicus ductus Say. S. 



Zenoa picea (Beauv.). 


Sandalus niger Knoch. 



Adelocera impressicol- 


Glyphonyx quietus 

lis (Say). 

(Say). S. 


Meristhus cristatus 


Glyphonyx inquinatus 

Horn. S. 

(Say). S. _ . 


Conoderiis {Monocrep- 


Glyphonyx mimeticus 

idius) scissus 

(Horn). S. 

(Schffr.). S. 


Elater manipidaris 


Conoderiis {Monocrep- 

Cand. S. 

idiits) bellus Say. 


Megapenthes angularis 

Heteroderes fuscosus 

Lee. S. _ 

(Blatch.). S. 


Anchastus signaticollis 


Limonius aurifer Lee. 




Anchastus fuse us 


Athous acanthus 


(Say). N. 


Anchastus digitatus 


Athous cucuUatus 

Lee. S. 

(Say)._ N. 


Anchastus rufus Cand. 


Ludius bivittatus 


(Melsh.). N. 


Melanotus secretus 


Hypnoidiis choris 

(Lee.). S. 



Melanotus depressus 


Hypnoidus ohliquatulus 

(Melsh.). S. 



Melanotus verberans 


Crigmus abruptiis 

(Lee.). S. 

(Say). S. 


Horistonotus exoletus 


Dolopins lateralis Esch. 

(Er.). S. 



Esthesopus praeditus 
Horn. S. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 145 


9127 Isorhipis ruficornis 
(Say). N. 

913 1 Poecilochrus errans 
(Horn.). S. 

9134 Deltometopus rufipes 
(Melsh.). N. Dr. 
W. B. Jones collec- 

9147 Fornax calceatus 
(Say). S. 

9155 Microrhagus andax 

Horn. S. 
9159 Microrhagus bonvonl- 

oiri Horn. S. 
9164 Sarpedon scabrosus 

Bonv. N. 
91 71 Nematodes collaris 

Bonv. S. 
9174 Schizophilus snhrufus 



9349 Dicerca asperata 

9372a Buprestis consiilaris 

Gory. S. 
9377 Buprestis fasciata 

Fab. S. 
9386 Melanophila obtusa 

Horn. S. 

9407 Chrysobothris scitula 

Gory. S. 

9408 Chrysobothris lecontei 

Leng. S. 

9448 Chrysobothris pusilla 

Cast. S. 

9491 Agrilus bilincatus 

(Web.). S. 
9499 Agrilus difficilis 

Gory. N. 
9508 Agrilus lacustris Lee. 

9522 Agrilus cephalicus Lee. 

9539 Agrilus otiosus Say. S. 
9548 Agrilus vittaticollis 

Rand. S. 
9551 Agrilus granulatus 


Dryopidae (det Musgrave) 
9595 Throcimis politus Csy. 9622 Helmis pusilla (Lee.) 



9603 Helichus Uthophilus 

9605 Helichus striatus Lee. 

9615 Helmis vittata Melsh. 

9635 Limnius ovalis (Lee.). 

9638 Heterelmis latiusculus 

(Lee.). N. 
9640 Macronychus glabratus 
(Say). N. 
9659 Eiirypogon nigcr (Melsh.). N. 

9687 Helodes pnlchella 9688 Helodes fuscipennis 

Guer. S. Guer. 

9717 Chclonariuni lecontei Thorn. S. 

9847 Nosodendron nnicolor Say. 

146 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^(^^- Sixriii 

NiTiDULiDAE (determinations by Dietrich) 

10016 Cercometes ahdominalis loiii Aniphotis schivarsi 

(Er.). N. _ Ulke. S. 

10034 Conotehis stenoides 19689 Perthalycra Carolina 

Murr. S. Wickh. S. 

10058 Carpophilus brachypte- Glischrochilus qiiadri- 

rus (Say). signata (Say). N. 

10061 Carpophilus nitens Fall. S. type loc. 


10273 Brontes diihiiis Fab. 10276 Telephaniis velox Hald. 


10282 Languria mosardi Lat. 10324 Tritoma tenehrosa 

S. Fall. S. 

10286a Languria nhleri Horn. 10332 Triplax macra Lee. S. 

10293 Acropteroxys lecontei 10346 Hypodacne punctata 

Cr. S. Lee. S. 
10301a Ischyrus alabaniae Schffr. S. type loc. 

10353 Dcrodontiis niacitlatus (Melsh.). S. 

10501 Mycetophagw! pluri- 10521 Myrmechixenis latridi- 

pimctatiis Lee. aides Cr. S. 

10508 Mycetophagiis obsoletus Melsh. 


1055 1 Coxcliis guttidatus Lee. 

10621 Metophthalmus americanus Mots. S. type loc. 


10777 Olibrus lecontei Csy. S. 


10888 Hyperaspis regalis 11023 Scymnus natcheziamis 

Csy. S. Csy. S. 

10930 Hyperaspis undidata 11071 Scymnus cinctus Lee. 

(Say). 1 1 192 Olla abdoniinalis 

iioii Scymnus creperus (Say). 

Muls. S. 11231 Epilachna corrupta 

Muls. N. 

CiciDAE (determinations by Dury) 
12957 ^^'-^ lodingi Dury. S. 13007 Xestocis castlci Dury. 

type loc. 13030 Ceracis sallei Mellie 

12979 Cis criberrima Nellie. 13037 Octotemnus laevis Csy. 


Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 147 


13047 Canthon vigilans Lee. 13496 
13050 Canthon chalcitcs Hald. 

N. 13502 

13053 Canthon perplexiis 

Lee. 13507 

13073 Phanaeus triangularis 

(Say). N., col. Dr. 13508* 

W. B. Jones 
131 19 Aphodiiis fimetariiis 13514 

(L.). N. ^ 
13180 Aphodiiis hicolor Sav. 13516 

13263 Ochodaeus muscvdus 13523 

(Say). S. _ 
i^^yy Hyhosoriis illigeri 13536 

Reiche. N., col. Dr. 

W. B. Jones. 13539 

Odontaeus alabamensis 

Wallis. S. type loc. 13545 
13297 Geotrupes tdkei 

Blanch. N. 13552 

13322 Acanthocerus aeneus 

McL. 13562 

13355 Serica georgiana Leng. 

N.^* Sericas det. — — 

13357 Serica intermixta 13624 

Blatch. S. 

19969 Serica apatela Daws. 13625 

N. type loc. 

19970 Serica niystaca Daws. 

19976^ Serica parallela Csy. S. 13697 
13377 Diplotaxis rugosioides 13741 

_Schiifr._ S. 
1 341 5 Diplotaxis densicollis '^3742 

Fall. S. 
13456 Diplotaxis texana Lee. 13746 


13488 Phvllophaga uniforniis 13799 

(Blanch.).^" S. 

13489 PhyUophaga forbcsi 13824 

Glascow. S. 
13491 PhyUophaga longitarsis 13859 
(Say). N. 
^* Phyllophagas mostly determined by S 

PhyUophaga gracilis 

PhyUophaga calceata 

(Lee.). N. 
PhyUophaga bipartita 

(Horn.). N. 
PhyUophaga cupulifor- 

mis Langst. S. 
PhyUophaga horni 

(Smith). N. 
PhyUophaga anxia 

PhyUophaga forsteri 

(Burm.). S. _ 
PhyUophaga viUiforns 

(Lee). N. 
PhyUophaga delata 

(Horn.). N. _ 
PhyUophaga alhina 

(Burm.). S. 
PhyUophaga glabricida 

(Lee). S. 
PhyUophaga antennata 

(Smith). N. 
Phyfaliis vanallcri 

Schffr. S. type loc. 
Polyphylla variolosa 

(Hentz.). N. 
Polyphylla comes Csy. 

Gronocarus aiitoiniialis 

Schffr. S. type loc. 
Hoplia limbata Lee. N. 
Pachystethus luciola 

(Fab.). S. 
Pachystethus oblivia 

(Horn.). N. 
Striqoderma texana 

Csy. N. 
Ochrosidia pro tenia 

Csy. S. type loc. 
Ochrosidia seditiosa 

(Lee.). S. 
Ligyrus tiimulosits 

Burm. S. 

148 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^ol. XXVIII 


Aphoniis tridentatus 


Cremastocheilus variol- 

(Say). S._ 

osus Kby. N. 


Aphonus saginatus 


Osmoderma scabra 

Csy. S. type loc. 

(Beauv.). N. 


Strategus sinuatus Csy. 


Trichius parvulus Csy. 

type loc. 

N. _ 


Xyloryctes saiyrns 


Trichius lunulatus 

(Fab.). N. 

(Fab.). S. _ 


Phileiirus texensis Csy. 


Valgus squamiger 


Euphoria limhalis Fall. 



1 403 1 

Valgus canalicidatus L. 


Stephanucha areata 




Pseudolucanus capre- 


Dorcus brevis Say. S. 

olus (L.). 


Dorcus parallelus Say. 


Pseudolucanus placidus 


Say). N. 

1 4041 

Platycerus quercus 


Luc anus elaphus Fab. 




Parandra brunnea 


Brachyleptura circum- 

(Fab.). N. 

data var. with black 


Criocephalus nuhilus 

antennae. N. 

Lee. S. 


Strangalepta lineola 


Methia necydalca 

(Say). S. 

(Fab.). S. 


Strangalepta vittata 


Aneflomorpha sub- 

(Oliv.). N. 

puhescens (Lee.). S. 

1 448 1 

Strangalia abdominaUs 


Anoplium cinerascens 

(Hald.). S. _ 

Lee. S. 


Leptura emarginata 


Anoplium pinorum Csy. 




Leptura atrata Lee. S. 


Heterachthes quadri- 


Typocerus acuticauda 

inacidatus (Fab.). S. 

Csy. S. 


Heterachthes pallidum 


Typocerus lugubris 

Hald. S. 



Curius dentatus Newn. 


Ophistomis acuminata 


(Oliv.). N. 


Acmaeops dire eta 


Molorchus corni Hald. 

(Newn.). N. 



Acmaeops discoidea 


Molorchus seniiustus 

(Hald.). S. 

Newn. S. 


Brachyleptura rubrica 


Cyllene chara (Say). 




Brachyleptura vagans 

1 4741 

Cyrtophorus verrucosus 


(Oliv.). N. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 149 

14746 Euderces pini (Oliv.). 14985a 

14748 Euderces reichei Lee. 14986 

14792b Tragidion fulvipennc 15001 

(Say.). S. found 

frequently in copula- 15011 

tion with T. coquiis. 
14853 Batyle ignicollis (Saiy). 15018 

S. ^ 
14906 Ptychodes trilineatiis 15072 

_(L.). S. 
14923 Microgoes oculatus 15073 

(Lee). N. 
14925 Plectrodera scalator 15 113 

14933 Aeqomorphus morrisi 15113a 

14944 Leptostylus albescens 151 17 

(Hald.). S. 
14953 Leptostylus arcuatus 15 119 

Lee. S. 15124 

Leptostylus knulli 

Fisher. N. 15128 

14960 Astylopsis macula 

(Say). N. 15148a 

14961 Astylopsis guttata 

(Say). S._ 15156 

14976 Leiopus fascicidaris 


15198a Donacia cincticornis 15440 

Newn. S. 
15203 Donacia sitbtilis var. 15461 

tryphera Sehffr. S. 

Donacia vicina Lac. S. I5495e 

15217a Donacia flavipes var. 

lodingi Sehffr. S. 15504 

type loc. 
15226 Zeugophora ahnormis 15507 

(Lee). S. _ 
15282b Bahia tetraspilota Lee. 15534 

15309 Gribiirius equestris ^5545 

(Oliv.). S. 
15407 Pachybrachys atom- 15546 

ariiis (Melsh.). 

Leiopus floridanus 

Hald. S. 
Leiopus foveatocollis 

Ham. S. 
Lepturges querci 

Fitch. S. 
Hyperplatys nigrella 

Hald. S. 
Hyperplatys femoralis 

Hald. S. 
Eupogonius subarmatus 

(Lee). N. 
Eupogonius fraxini 

Knull. S. 
Saperda calcarata Say. 

Saperda adspersa Lee. 

Saperda vestita Say. 

Saperda lateralis Fab. 
Mecas cana (Newn.). 

Mecas marginella Lee. 

Oberea tripunctata 

(Fab.). S. 
Tetrops jucunda Lee. 

Pachybrachys bivittatus 

(Say). N. 
Pachybrachys confusus 

Bowd. S. 
Cryptocephalus ornatu- 

lus Clav. S. 
Cryptocephalus fricona- 

tus Suffr. N. 
Cryptocephalus muta- 

bilis Melsh. S. 
Bassareus mammifer 

(Newn.). N. 
Nodonota tristis 

Nodonota clypealis 


150 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society "^ol- XXVIII 


Nodonota puncticollis 


Xanthoma deccmnotata 

1 5902a 


Metachronia augustn- 
liim Cr. S. 



Zygogramma heter- 
othecae Linell. S. 



Calligrapha big shy ana 
(Kby.). N. 



Lina lapponica (L.). 



Diabrotica balteata Lee. 


Phyllobrotica limbata 


1 581 1 

Luperodes davisi Leng. 

Phyllectlirus dorsalis 





PachyonycJius para- 
doxus Melsh. N. J. 
Dejarnette collector. 


Pseudolampsis guttata 
(Lee). S. 



Oedionychis interjec- 
tionis Cr. S. 

Oedionychis discicoUis 

Dej. S. 
Disonycha leptolineata 

Disonycha discoidea 

Disonycha fiinerea 

(Rand.). S._ 
Disonycha lodingi 

Schffr. S. type loc. 
Disonycha alahamae 

Schffr. S. type loc. 
Longitarsis varicornis 

Suffr. S. 
Metriona purpnrata 

(Boh.). S._ 
Metriona lodingi 

Schffr. S. type loc. 
Metriona marginepimc- 

tata Schffr. S. type 

Coptocycla repndiata 

Suffr. S. _ _ 
Coptocycla pinicola 

Schffr. S. type loc. 

16182 Mylahris hivnlncratus Horn. N. 



Tropideres himacidatus 


Brachytarsiis plumheus 


Lee. S. 


Piezocorynus dispar Gyll. 




Tachygomts lecontei 


Listronotus americanus 

Gyll. S. 

Lee. S. 


Aracanthns pallidns 


Listronotus appendicn- 

.(Say), S. _ 

latus (Boh.). 


Sitona hispidiceps Csv. 


Listronotus floridensis 


Blatch. S. 

Listrodcrcs obliquus 

1 680 1 

Hyperodes solutns 

Fab. S. 

(Boh.). S. 

Listrodcrcs apical is 


Hyperodes subscrib- 

Waterh. S. 

ratus (Dietz). S. 


Listronotiis obliquus 


Hyperodes porcellus 


"(Say). S. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 151 






1 71 76 







Hyperodes lodingi 

Blatch. S. type loc. 
Derolomiis bicolor 

Lee. S. 
Anchodemus hiihbardl 

Lee. S. 
B a gaits magister Lee. 
Oopterinus perforatiis 

(Horn.). N. 
Balaninus pardalis 

Chitt.- S._ 
Balaninus victoriensis 

var. fulvus Chitt. S. 
Lixus amplexus Csy. 

Lixus muscidiis Sav. 

Lixus profundus Chitt. 

Lixus fimhriolatus 

Boh. S. 
Lixus julichi Csy. S. 
Lixus lodingi Chitt. S. 

type loe. 
Lixus tricristatus Chitt. 

S. type loc. 
Lixus regularipennis 

Chitt. S. type loc. 
Boris cuneipennis Csy. 
Boris vagans Csy. 
Boris surrufa Csy. S. 

type loe. 
Boris modicella Csy. 
Boris mohiliensis Csy. 

S. type loc. 
Glyptobaris rugicoUis 

(Lee). S. 
Pseudobaris farcta 

(Lee). S. 

- Determination of Balaninus 
^ Determination of Calendra 

20398 Pseudobaris providens 

Csy. S. 
17603 Pachybaris porosa Lee. 

17624 Limnobaris blandita 

Csy. S. 
17646 Limnobaris rectirostris 

(Lee). S. 
17659 Stethobaris ovata Lee. 

17744 Aideutes tenuipes 

(Lee.). S. 
17747 Auleutes subfasciatus 

Dietz. S. 
17842 Rhinoncns pyrrhopus 

Boh. S. 
17887 Conotrachelus cribicol- 

lis (Say). S. 
17889 Conotrachelus tuber- 

osus Lee. S. 
17892 Conotrachelus leu- 

cophaeatus Fahr. S. 
17986 Cryptorhynchus tristis 

Lee. S. 
18102 Calendra (Sphenoph- 

orus Schon.) aequalis 

(Gyll.). S.=^ 
1 8 106 Calendra latinasus 

(Horn.). S. 
18125 Calendra chitt endeni 

(Blatch.). S. 
18131 Calendra destructor 

(Chitt.). S. 
181 33 Calendra scoparius 

(Horn.). S. 
18155 Calendra oblitus (Lee.) 
206144- Calendra callosipennis 

20616 Calendra deficiens 

Chitt. S. 
and Lixus by Chittenden, 
by Satterthwait. 

152 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxviii 


By Geo. P. Engelhardt, Hartsdale, New York. 

The advance party of about twenty American delegates to the 
Fifth International Congress of Entomology embarked on the S.S. 
Leviathan at New York on June 6 and arrived in Bremen on June 

15, allowing one month for travel before the opening of the Con- 
gress in Paris on July 15, 1932. For this month a carefully se- 
lected itinerary had been prepared by our leader, Dr. J. Chester 
Bradley, in large part devoted to the Scandinavian countries, which 
will be the subject of my report. 

En route to Copenhagen, only one day each was given to hurried 
sightseeing in Bremen and Hamburg and likewise to Luebeck and 
Rostock, Hanseatic cities unchanged since their time of renown as 
shipping centers in the Middle Ages. Rostock still attains to some 
importance because of its university registering 3,000 students and 
its well-equipped Entomological Seminar in charge of Drs. Schulze 
and Friedrichs. Here we put up at the old fashioned Hospiz Maria 
Martha, with rosy-cheeked lassies undergoing their housekeeping 
training under strict supervision of the Mother Superior, looking 
after our comforts. Awakened early in the morning from a sound 
sleep in a featherbed by the rumbling of heavy drays over rough 
cobblestones, I rubbed my eyes to come back to realities. The view 
from my room on the top floor was in line with the red tiled roofs 
of heavily beamed, narrow-gabled houses, a scene setting back the 
clock easily 500 years ! We breakfasted among flower beds of an 
inclosed court, in full view of curious, friendly neighbors wishing 
us "Guten Morgen" and "Guten Appetit." 

Only 6 hours' travel from Rostock, by train and ferry, we ar- 
rived in Copenhagen on the evening of June 18, noting on the way 
the rich verdure of pasture lands, purple and yellow lupines and 
the many red cows. In Germany the black and white Holsteins 

Three and a half days in Copenhagen were busily filled with a 
program covering the principal points of interest in the city and in 
not too distant parts of the country. Denmark has suffered far 
less from the depression following the world war than other na- 
tions in Europe. The shopping centers presented lively marts and 
places of amusement showed no lack of patronage. Traffic prob- 

^ Read at the meeting, Brooklyn Entomological Society, March 

16, 1933- 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 153 

lenis are created chiefly by the hordes of people on bicycles. All 
the Danes, it seems, ride on two wheels. Most of them speak En- 
glish or German. There is little trouble in being understood. Of 
course, every tourist wants to see the famous sculptures by Thor- 
waldsen, but even more enjoyable are apt to prove the composite 
collections of sculptures, paintings and antiquities so beautifully 
housed in the Glypthoteket, one of the finest museums in Europe. 
Natural history is amply provided in the university, not collections 
arranged for exhibition, but rather for purposes of study. 

On crowded streets, in fact everywhere, there is quite a sprink- 
ling of the military, sturdy, upstanding fellows in gay uniforms. 
They are housed in blocks of severe, austere barracks. This im- 
pression of austerity applies as well to government buildings and 
edifices. More lovely sections must be looked for in suburban de- 
velopments. Such charming houses and gardens, some, on hilly 
shores, face the bay across to Sweden. 

At this time, with the modification of our Prohibition Law un- 
der serious consideration, mention should be made of a firm in 
Copenhagen, incorporated for the manufacture of beer — good beer. 
The unique will of the ow^ner and originator, Mr. Carlsberg, pro- 
vided that a large part of the income of the very prosperous brew- 
ery be set aside as a support for museums and institutions of edu- 
cation. Without this support, it is safe to assert, such institutions 
would be greatly handicapped or unable to function. Hence it is a 
patriotic duty in Denmark to drink beer. Even members of our 
party of Puritan ancestry could not resist the appeal. 

A gratifying development, not only in the Scandinavian coun- 
tries, but throughout most of Europe as well, are the so-called war 
gardens, so short-lived in America, but permanently established 
abroad. How much pleasure and keen rivalry they afford the 
working people in the profitable cultivation of vegetables, fruit and 
flowers and how much they have contributed in beautifying the 
usual sordid approaches to cities and towns. Each small garden is 
carefully separated by hedges of oak, beech, maple, linden and 
thorn, the sturdy plants trained and trimmed in expert fashion. 
Our customary hedges of privet and barberry are rarely seen. 
Our common golden rods are rapidly gaining in popularity and 
very striking effects are being obtained in parks and gardens. 

Two days had been reserved for auto excursions from Copen- 
hagen, the first a sightseeing drive along the picturesque shore of 
Ore Sound to Helsingor (Elsinore) where Hamlet is buried, then 
inland to Fredensborg, the king's hunting lodge and to Fredriks- 

154 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. xxvili 

borg, a very large, renovated castle, turned into a historical mu- 
seum exhibiting in 60 rooms the cultural progress of Denmark 
from past to present. This is a magnificent castle, dominating a 
landscape of beautiful parks, lakes, superb avenues of old lindens 
and elms and extensive forests. On the second excursion, as the 
guests of the Copenhagen Entomological Society, we were wel- 
comed by Dr. Cram and his staff at the Agricultural Station on 
Lake Fureso and profited by a thorough inspection of the fine lab- 
oratories and experimental grounds. Their chief problems appear 
to be connected with rusts and fungous diseases rather than insect 
pests. After a delightful luncheon, presided over by Mrs. Cram, 
we indulged in a real cross country ramble, under the expert gui- 
dance of our Danish entomological friends. They certainly know 
the beauty spots of their domain. From a gorse-covered hilltop we 
listened to the song of nightingales and skylarks, all along we 
passed bunches of elk and deer and then entered the ancient forest 
at Ermitage, a veritable fairyland of old, gnarled, weather-beaten 
oaks and beeches, the finest I have ever seen. No wonder folklore 
has peopled them with sprites and gnomes. It spurs one's imagina- 

This unforgetable day culminated with a dinner, again provided 
by the Entomological Society, at the Tivoli, Copenhagen's most 
popular amusement resort. With all the contraptions of Coney 
Island, games of chance, music and dancing, frivolous and refined, 
it maintains to a high degree an atmosphere of respectability, ap- 
preciated by all, rich or poor. We were led through a pretentious 
pavilion and restaurant into a private dining room to behold, at 
first glance, an exhibition of the Danish culinary arts. To our 
wonder and consternation we were invited to take seats at the 
tables piled high with jellied, fantastic creations and hors d'oeuvres 
innumerable in kinds. Dish after dish of delicious novelties had 
to be sampled, then, taking breath standing, while the orchestra 
struck up the American National anthem, the real meal began. 
Fish, meats, fowl, liquid refreshments, followed in endless proces- 
sion and then desserts, but memory fails me there. This was our 
introduction to the undiluted pleasure of dining in Denmark — a 
very commendable custom if practised with discretion. 

On June 22 we ferried across Ore Sound, boarding a waiting 
train at Malvo for Lund, one of the two university towns in Swe- 
den. The very extensive entomological collections there, in charge 
of Dr. Kemmerer, include original specimens in an excellent state 
of preservation, collected by Linnaeus and other early European 
entomologists. The fine botanical garden also should be visited for 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 155 

its careful grouping and labelling. From Lund we proceeded to 
Mjolby, thence by canal-boat through flat, rich argricultural coun- 
try to Linkoping, a quaint, mediaeval little town. Stockholm was 
reached at noon, June 24. 

Of all the European capitals, Stockholm is greatly favored by 
the beauty of its natural setting. The old part of the city is di- 
vided from the new by deep, clear waterways, fronted on either 
bank by many of the principal public buildings, mansions, castles 
and parks. The two parts are linked by numerous bridges of im- 
posing architectural design. For our party many experiences en- 
joyed in Copenhagen were repeated in Stockholm. There were 
sightseeing trips through the city and its environs, visits to mu- 
seums, educational institutions, places of amusement, dinners at 
noted restaurants and a day's boat excursion through a jiicturesque 
chain of rivers and lakes to the historic castle of Stokloster, fa- 
mous for its collection of small arms as well as other worth-while 
objects in the way of tapestries, paintings and antiquities. Re- 
turning we stopped one hour at Sigtuna, a little hamlet with ruins 
of a church and cloister dating back to the loth century. Still 
earlier occupation was indicated by the many Viking stones, small 
and large, strewn about. 

The Natural History Museum (Riksmuseet), the agricultural 
stations and science laboratories have all been segregated in an at- 
tractive hilly, wooded section, several miles outside the city. Dr. 
Lundblad and his colleagues entertained us at the entomological 
laboratory, as well as at his home, and the same courtesy was ex- 
tended to us by Dr. Tragarth of the Forestry College. The Nat- 
ural History Museum will be remembered for the fine modern 
edifice in which its superb collections are housed. It is one of the 
few museums in which full advantage has been taken of the won- 
derful opportunities for highly attractive as well as instructive in- 
sect exhibits. 

Uppsala, the oldest Swedish University town, two hours by 
train from Stockholm, held our interest chiefly as the home and 
headquarters of the world's most famous naturalist — Carl von 
Linne. Here and at Hammarby, his country seat ten miles away, 
he accomplished most of his epoch-making work. Both his old- 
fashioned town house and his country estate have been dutifully 
preserved as public monuments. Following the paths in his gar- 
den and rambling through woods and dales at Hammarby to us 
meant treading on hallowed ground. The same arctic flowers col- 
lected in Lapland and first introduced by Linne are still flourish- 
ing at Hammarby. 

156 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxrill 

Boarding the train at Uppsala at sunset, lO or rather 22 o'clock, 
according to the Swedish reckoning of time, we found our sleep- 
ing compartments ready for the longest stretch of our railroad 
travels, two nights and a day to Lapland within the Arctic Circle. 
How we indulged in the comforts and rest after such strenuous 
days ! 

From agricultural lands, mostly wheat, rye, and red clover in 
pure stands two feet high, we passed through hilly forest sections 
of balsam, spruce, birch and alder, not large trees, very much like 
our north woods. The breed of cattle here runs to tan colors, 
growing still lighter northward. Surprisingly little wild animal life 
was seen, hardly any water birds on the many lakes and swamps. 
Insects also were scarce. Occasionally a Pierid, Colias and Grapta 
among the butterflies, but lots of bumblebees. 

At 23 : 30 o'clock of the second day we passed over the line of 
the Arctic Circle, marked by a sign post, still readable in a sort of 
twilight. Only about two hours of darkness here. The landscape 
now is bleak and barren. Low, sprawling vegetation, long stretches 
of bogs covered with cotton grass, turbulent streams rushing from 
snow covered mountains through deep gorges. 

The beauty and delight of an arctic environment can be truly 
appreciated only through intimate acquaintance, such as was our 
experience after arriving at the tourist station Abisko, in the heart 
of Lapland and the land of the Midnight Sun. This station and 
miles of the surrounding country have been set apart as a National 
Park, within the limits of which the preservation of plants and wild 
animals is strictly enforced. It is a popular resort with good ac- 
commodation for the tourist traffic in a commodious main building 
and in cottages. All meals are served buffet or cafeteria fashion. 
You help yourself and eat as much as you want. Mostly every 
menu includes fresh trout, caught daily in the gorge below a thun- 
dering waterfall north of the hotel or in 'the sixty mile long lake at 
a lower level to the east. Snow fields and rugged mountains are in 
view in all directions. 

Laplanders from a camp at the head of the lake paddle across 
daily to offer their wares of skins, carved reindeer bones and native 
embroideries. One old fellow exhibited his colored crayon 
sketches, truly original work, comparing favorably with some of 
the exhibits palmed off in New York as modernistic art. 

During a two days' stay we managed to get in a motor boat trip 
on the lake to the Lappland camp and some strenuous mountain 
climbing over banks of melting snow. Personally, I was hoping 
to encounter at high altitudes the Lemming, a curious rodent, 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 157 

which after a period of years appears in countless numbers to start 
a resistless migration, which usually ends in disaster over high 
cliffs facing the sea. In off years these animals are rarely seen. 
All we could discover were burrows and pellets among ledges. In- 
sect collecting was done assiduously and successfully by Dr. Van 
Dyke for Carabidae, by Dr. Bradley for bumblebees, by Mr. 
Huckett for Diptera and by Prof. Schadel in all orders. My own 
interests, the Aegeriidae or clear-wing moths, were poorly repre- 
sented, only one species boring in birch, of which Mr. Huckett was 
fortunate in capturing a fine pair for me. A small, miscellaneous 
collection of butterflies, moths and beetles was gathered by me, 
chiefly for the purpose of showing and distributing among mem- 
bers of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 

Spring had barely set in, yet what a profusion of delicate, ex- 
quisite flowers, if looked for in the right locations from lake shore 
to mountain top. Alpine and arctic flora have much in common the 
world over. One meets old friends, close kin and some entirely 
new. It seems that the harder the struggle for existence, the more 
perfect the result. A display of the principal arctic flowers, cor- 
rectly labelled, in a garden patch at the hotel facilitated their deter- 

Time at Abiskgjs not of importance. We had clear weather and 
sunshine for 24 hours. Of course the temperature drops towards 
evening, somewhat subduing animal life, but not the bumblebees, 
they work at all hours. Hotel guests sleep when ever they feel so 
inclined, pulling down their green window shades to give an illu- 
sion of night. 

The midnight sun can be seen at Abisko as well, or nearly as 
well, as at the North Cape. Still we felt the impulse to go on, to 
see the high mountains, the fjords and precipitous coast of Nor- 
way. The train climbs steadily, hugging mountain sides, passing 
through tunnels and snowsheds, at every turn vistas of gorges, 
waterfalls, lakes and often herds of reindeer. It is a wonderful 
scenic route. Then we descended rapidly, close to the shore of 
Fjord Ofaten and on to Narvik, a small but busy seaboard town. 

The warmer climate of the Norway coast from that of Sweden 
is indicated by the larger growth and greater variety of trees. 
Even apple, plum and other fruit trees appear to do fairly well at 
Narvik. The town is built against the side of a high, snow-cov- 
ered mountain, facing a wide bay and many outlying islands. It is 
a stopping place for the coastwise trade and seafaring people, 
hardy Norseman and Laplanders in native costumes crowd the 
narrow streets. Business, of course, is subject to a regulation of 

158 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. XXVIII 

working hours, but there is no time Hmit to other activities among 
the inhabitants during the season of the midnight sun. 

The Httle steamer "Mosken" was waiting at the dock on the 
morning of July 2d, ready for the four-day excursion to the North 
Cape. Our party, meanwhile, had increased to 25, about filling the 
cabin and dining room accommodations of the boat. A large num- 
ber of the town's population had assembled to see us off and to 
listen to the cheery airs played by the steamer orchestra — two 
fiddles and an accordion. The captain and his officers were solici- 
tous in assuring our comfort. Altogether it was a grand feeling. 

The day turned out squally with occasional showers. Sweaters 
and great coats were not amiss on the upper deck. Our route fol- 
lowed closely the rugged coast, sheltered from the Atlantic by an 
archipelago of outlying islands. Stops were made at Finsnes and 
Tromso, the latter a harbor of importance, where autos took us 
through the town into the back country with rich meadows and 
woodlands of birch and aspen. Time was ample for an inspection 
of the many curio shops and trading posts. Arctic furs were of- 
fered at bargain prices — polar bear in prime condition at $25.00, 
silver fox $25.00 to $50.00. 

Under way again late at night, the storm clouds rifted, revealing 
the sun at the northern horizon, its lights sufifusing sky and water 
in unearthly radiance. It was superb — a rarely beautiful view of 
the midnight sun. 

At noon, July 3, we stopped at Hammerfest, reputed as the 
world's northernmost town. A severe climate has forestalled at- 
tempts at beautifying effects. Like the surrounding landscape the 
town seems sturdy, but bleak and barren. Again we were treated 
to a sightseeing auto trip, utilizing odd moments to collect carabid 
and rhynchopherous beetles, fairly common under stones along the 

The climax of scenic grandeur is north of Hammerfest. Tower- 
ing, perpendicular cliffs and narrow fjords to the right and up- 
standing, rocky islands to the left. Marine birds were not too 
numerous until we reached Fuglebjerg (bird rocks) when a blast 
from the foghorn stirred up myriads — gulls, terns, cormorants, 
puffins and whatnot. Shortly after we came to anchor for a fish- 
ing experience — all cod, a dozen or more weighing 5 to 10 pounds, 
speedily caught in deep water by jigging a hand line with stout 
hook and shining spoon. 

North Cape, standing out abruptly, stark and naked to a height 
of 1200 feet, dominates the coast line long before it is reached. 
Rounding the Cape, we anchored in a small bay at 22 o'clock to be 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 159 

taken ashore in a motorboat, heaving in a heavy swell. A narrow, 
zigzag trail leads to the windswept, barren top. At the outer edge 
stands a geodetic monument and nearby a shack labelled "Post 
Office" and another where hot coffee and crullers are served. Both 
did a rushing business. The outgoing mail was literally covered 
with sets of stamps featuring North Cape and the hot coffee and 
crullers made a hit in the chilly mist and drizzle of rain which had 
set in. No midnight sun that day. 

Dog tired and shivering we returned to the ship at 2 a. m. The 
captain awaited us in the dining saloon. Platters heaping with 
boiled cod and butter sauce, boiled potatoes and old port were 
brought in. How we regaled ourselves ! I swear boiled fresh cod 
is the best of fish. 

As in the outward, so in the return passage, we witnessed an 
almost continuous procession of Russian freighters, timber laden. 
What is the portent of developments in the country of the Soviets? 
How will it affect a Europe ridden with traditions ? Are we keep- 
ing abreast of the times? 

Hister semisculptus Leconte. — So far as I have been able to 
find out this species has never been recorded since its description 
by Dr. LeConte in 1863 from Illinois; I think it is represented by 
the unique type, but I am not quite sure of this. 

On May 20, 1933, while I was walking along the main street of 
this town about noon, I grabbed a flying insect out of the air with 
my hand and that evening I found out that I had taken a Hister 
entirely unknown to me ; I also found in my box another specimen 
which had been taken under a pile of lawn grass in the back yard 
on July I, 1929. This too had been set aside as unknown to me. 

I sent both specimens to Mr. Fall who wrote me that it was 
easily identified as semisculptus but probably very rare and not re- 
corded from N.E. and not in his collection. 

It may be that this species is a true city dweller and has there- 
fore been overlooked by our industrious collectors. — C. A. Frost, 
Framingham, Mass. 

160 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXFIII 


By Marston Bates, Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

The following list of the West Indian Trypetidae demonstrates 
quite clearly the inadequacy of our knowledge of the Diptera of 
the region : the large proportion of forms known from only one 
or two specimens shows how much there is yet to be done. The 
fauna is probably poor, as compared with areas of similar size 
on the American mainland or in the Old World tropics, but we 
do not yet have enough material to form any idea of the number 
of species that may exist there, or of the relationships of the 

I have refrained from describing several of the apparently 
new forms because of the inadequacy of the material. It will 
probably eventually be found that many of the species have broken 
up into island races sufficiently distinct to warrant naming, but 
such splitting has little significance except when based on good 
series of specimens. 

The material on which this paper is based is mostly in the col- 
lection of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. A field trip to 
Cuba during the past summer was made possible by a grant from 
the Atkins Foundation of Harvard University. I am ver}^ much 
indebted to Professors Barbour, Bequaert and Banks of Harvard 
and to Mr. F. H. Benjamin of the United States Bureau of 
Entomology for many and varied courtesies and suggestions in 
this, as in all of my work on fruit-flies. Mr. Graham Fairchild, 
who was with me in Cuba, collected many of the specimens. 

I. Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker 

Gerstaecker, i860, p. 194 (St. Jean) ; Hendel, 1914, p. 
10; Knab and Yothers, 1914 (biology, Fla.) ; Wolcott, 
1924, p. 229 (P. R.) ; Greene, 1929, p. 491 (larva. 
Canal Zone). 
Mikimyia furcifera Bigot, 1884, p. 29 (Brazil). 

This species seems always to be very erratic in its local dis- 
tribution. Many wild papayas in the vicinity of the Harvard sta- 
tion at Soledad were examined during the past summer, without 
finding it, although fruit at San Bias, in the near-by Trinidad 
Mountains, was heavily infested. I was very surprised to find 
this species breeding in the seed pods of an Apocynaceous tree, 
probably Tahernaeniontana, in heavy forest near Soledad. The 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 161 

adults seem to be identical with specimens bred from Carica 

2. Anastre pha acidttsa (Walker) 

Trypeta (Tephritis) acidusa Walker, 1849, P- 1014 (Jam.)- 
Anastrepha acidusa Bezzi, 1909, p. 284; Hendel, 1914, p. 15; 

Johnson, 1919, p. 445 (Jam.) ; Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 

Anustrepha fraterculus auct. (nee Wied.) ; Wolcott, 1924, p. 

229 (P. R.) ; Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 (Jam.), etc. 

Mr. F. H. Benjamin secured a photograph of Walker's type, 
and has been able to identify the species as the common Spondias 
form of the West Indies. The dorsum of the thorax has three 
light yellow longitudinal stripes, which will always separate it 
from the following species ; in our series, the V-shaped mark of 
the wing is always connected with the marginal band of the apex. 
The true fratercidus of Wiedemann does not seem to occur in 
the West Indies. 

I bred this species in Cuba from Spondias spp. (jobos) and 
Mangifera indica (mango), finding it rare in the latter fruit. We 
have some 30 specimens of this species from Cuba, Puerto Rico 
and Dominica. 

3. Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) 

Trypeta suspensa Loew, 1862, p. 69, pi. II, f. 5; id., 1873, p. 

222, pi. X, f. 5 (Cuba). 
Anastrepha suspensa Bezzi, 1909, p. 284; Hendel, 1914, p. 16; 

Gowdey, 1926, p. ^y (Jamaica). 

The coloring in Loew's figure is very much exagerated ; the 
type, which is quite well preserved, does not present any striking 
differences from the ordinary fraterculus type of wing pattern 
and coloration. It seems to me very possible that the infuscation 
of the second basal cell — not really prominent — may be an indi- 
vidual variation. I am therefore tentatively placing all Cuban 
specimens with a uniform brown dorsum of the thorax under this 
name, even though all except the type have the second basal cell 

There are 18 captured specimens from Central Soledad (Cuba) 
in the MCZ. 

4. Anastrepha tricincta (Loew) 

Trypeta (Acrotoxa) tricincta Loew, 1873, p. 225 (Hayti). 
Anastrepha tricincta Bezzi, 1909, p. 284; Hendel, 1914, p. 16. 

162 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.XXVlll 

The MCZ has only Loew's type, which was caught on ship- 
board off Haiti. I have seen a female from the National Museum, 
undoubtedly belonging to this species, caught in Cuba. It is a 
very distinct form, very dark, almost like serpentina, with a long 
terminal abdominal segment of the ludens type. 

5. Anastrepha ocresia (Walker) 

Trypeta (Tephritis) orr^'^ia Walker, 1849, p. 1016 (Jamaica). 
Anastrepha ocresia Bezzi, 1909, p. 283; Hendel, 1914, p. 15; 
Johnson, 1919, p. 445; Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 (Jam.). 

I have seen nothing that can be certainly identified as this 
species; it is probably similar to A. tricincta. 

6. Anastrepha serpentina (Wied.) 

Dacus serpentinus Wiedemann, 1830, p. 521 (Brazil). 
. Anastrepha serpentina Hendel, 1914, p. 16. 

This species is recorded from the Lesser Antilles by Ballou, 
1912, p. no. It is common almost everywhere on the continent, 
and may very well occur over these islands, although I have seen 
no specimens from there, and know of no record in the taxonomic 

7. Acidia fallax Johnson 

Johnson, 1919, p. 445 (Blue Mts., Jamaica) ; Gowdey, 1926, 
p. 87 (Jam.). 

This species will probably best be placed in the genus 
Philophylla as defined by Hendel in his 1927 paper on the 
Palearctic Trypetidae; I have seen no West Indian specimens of 
this group. 

8. Blepharoneura poecilosoma poecilogastra (Loew) 

Trypeta {Blepharoneura) poecilogastra Loew, 1873, p. 270 

Blepharoneura poecilosoma var. poecilogastra Hendel, 1914, 

p. 21. 

I have seen no material from Cuba except Loew's type; it 
would be impossible to determine the exact status of the Cuban 
insect without more material. 

9. HexacJiaeta dinia (Walker) 

Trypeta (Euleia) dinia Walker, 1849, p. 1040 (Jam.). 
I have seen no West Indian specimens that could be assigned 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 163 

to Hexachaeta. The literature on dinia seems to consist mostly 
of various people's guesses as to what it may be. 

10. PolymorpJiomyia basilica Snow- 
Snow, 1894, p. 165, pi. VII, f. I (Santo Domingo) ; Hendel, 

1914, p. 28; Wolcott, 1924, p. 229 (P. R.) ; Curran, 1931, 
p. 15 (P. R.). 

I have two Cuban specimens of this beautiful little species, one 
from Soledad, near Cienfuegos, and the other from the near-by 
Trinidad Mountains (San Bias, 2,000 ft. elevation). Wolcott 
bred the species from "an elongate gall on the stem of 
Eupatorium odoraium-." 

11. Tomoplagia discolor (Loew) 

Trypeta discolor Loew, 1862, p. 64, pi. II, f. i (Cuba). 
Trypeta (Plagiotonia) discolor Loew, 1873, p. 250, pi. X, f. i. 
Tomoplagia discolor Hendel, 1914, p. 35. 

There is only one specimen in the MCZ besides Loew's type : a 
male labelled "Cuba, Wright," presumably from Baracoa. This 
is very likely the Tephritis obliqua listed from Cuba by Bigot, 
1857, page 823. 

12. Tomoplagia pitra (Curran) 

Plagiotoma piira Curran, 1931, p. 16 (P. R.). 

I do not know this species. It is said to differ from discolor 
in having the abdomen rusty-reddish with black spots instead of 
all black. Our Cuban specimens show some variation in this 

13. Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston) 

Trypeta {Plagiotoma) incompleta Williston, 1896, p. 378 (St. 

I have not seen this species. 

14. Xanthaciura insecta (Loew) 

Trypeta insecta Loew, 1862, p. 72, pi. II, f. 8 (Cuba). 
Trypeta (Aciura) insecta Loew, 1873, p. 268, pi. X, f. 8 

(Cuba, Hayti). 
Aciura insecta Doane, 1899, p. 182 (Jam.) ; Johnson, 1908, 

p. 78 (Bahamas); id., 1919, p. 445 (Jam.); Wolcott, 

1924, p. 229 (P. R.) ; Curran, 1928, p. 71 (P. R.) ; 

Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 (Jam.). 
Xanthaciura insecta Hendel, 1914, p. 46. 

164 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxvill 

There are 46 specimens in the MCZ from various locaHties in 
the Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica. The aduhs are common in 
the flowers of Bidens, in which the larvae apparently live. 

15. Xanthaciiira phoeniciira (Loew) 

Trypeta (Aciura) phoenicura Loew, 1873, p. 269, pi. XL, f. 

12 (Brazil) ; WilHston, 1896, p. 376 (St. Vincent). 
Xanthaciiira phoenicura Hendel, 1914, p. 47 (Bolivia, Peru). 

There seems to be no record of this widely distributed species 
from the West Indies, except that of Williston. One specimen in 
the MCZ from Habana, Cuba, is close to phoenicura in structure, 
and may represent an insular form. 

16. Paracantha cidtaris (Coq.) 

Trypeta (Carphotricha) cultaris Coquillett, 1894, p. 72 

Paracantha ciilta (partim) Hendel, 1914, p. 50. 

Four specimens from Port-au-Prince, Haiti, are very similar 
to Central American specimens in having a short terminal abdom- 
inal segment in the female, and one brown ray in the submarginal 
cell of the wing, as described by Coquillett. This form seems to 
be quite worthy of specific rank. 

17. Acrotaenia testudinea Loew 

Trypeta (Acrotaenia) testudinea Loew, 1873, p. 272, pi. XI, 

f. 13 (Cuba). 
Acrotaenia testudinea Hendel, 1914, p. 59. 

I have four specimens from Cuba which belong to the genus 
Acrotaenia, apparently including two species. The material is 
partly in a very poor state of preservation, however, and as there 
seems to be considerable variation in wing pattern in the group, 
I hesitate to make a new name without more specimens. The type 
of testudinea is in Berlin, but Loew's description seems quite 
clear. Hendel made a mistake in his key (1914, I.e.) : latipennis 
Wied. has the "ovipositor" equal to the last four segments in 
length, testudinea Loew equal to the last two, according to the 
original descriptions. 

One female from San Jose, Trinidad Mts. (R. Dow), the prey 
of a wasp (Polistes poeyi Lep.) I take to be true testudinea. 
Other specimens from Habana, Jaronu, and Central Soledad. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 165 

i8. Eutrcta sp. 

The MCZ has two females of this genus, one from Haiti and 
the other from Grenada, which seem to represent two distinct 
forms, related to the South American E. sparsa. It is very likely 
that the genus is widely distributed in the West Indies, and that 
further collecting will show the existence of several forms on the 
different islands. 

19. Icterica christophe n. sp. (fig. i). 

This species will trace to Icterica in the generic keys now in 
use for American Trypetidae, and it may well be placed in that 
genus, at least until a more thorough investigation of the South 
American forms of the group can be made. 

$. The head is brown, with a black spot on each side be- 
tween the antenna and the eye, and another, smaller, in the 
antennal groove. The front is flat, not convex as in I. 
seriata, shaped much as in Paracantha: a tendency shown in 
several species of Icterica related to fasciata Adams. The 
bristles, which are long and prominent, are black, arranged 
in much the way as in /. seriata: three lower orbitals; two 
upper, the second weak and colorless; the ocellar pair is well 
developed ; the vertical pair is especially well developed, twice 
as long as any of the other head bristles. The occipitals are 
short, stumpy, white. 

The thorax is brown, thinly covered with short, yellow 
hairs. There is a dark mediodorsal stripe, an indicationof 
a subdorsal stripe, and a broad, less dark, band over the wing 
base. The legs are brown, concolorous with the thorax, 
with dark setae. The usual thoracic bristles are black, 
prominent, arranged much as in /. seriata. The mediodorsal 
stripe extends over the scutellum and includes the apical 
pair of bristles ; the sides of the scutellum are lighter. 

The abdomen is irregularly darker on the anterior margin 
of the segments, and is covered with whitish hairs. The 
tube is brown, tipped with black. 

The wing has a dark brown ground color with small light 
spots — the Eiitreta type of marking — with a broad white 
band across the middle, which begins in the second basal and 
anal cells, and extends to about the middle of the first 
posterior cell, where it ends in a point. This wing pattern, 
so far as I know, is found in no other American Trypetid ; 
the nearest approach is Icterica liinata Hendel. 

The costal margin is uniform brown except for an irregular 
white spot at the end of the first vein, a light point near the 
apex of the marginal cell, and a white spot just beyond the 

166 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society yol.XXVlll 

end of the second vein. Except for their outer borders, the 
marginal and submarginal cells are covered with small light 
spots of varying size and shape, which continue across the 
first posterior cell, the apex of the discal cell and the base 
of the second posterior cell, the lower third of the third 
posterior cell and the apex of the auxiliary cell. The white 
median band of the wing fills the second basal and anal cells, 
cuts across the base of the third posterior cell, crosses the 
discal cell obliquely, covering about half its area, includes 
the lower part of the first basal cell, and extends into the base 
of the first posterior cell. The hind border of the wing is 
marked with white in several places : a band which includes 
the base of the 4th vein, a spot in about the middle of the 
second posterior cell, another band which begins just beyond 
this spot and extends to the middle of the third posterior 
cell, and several spots after that. 

The venation agrees quite well with that of /. seriata. The 
first longitudinal vein is spinose, the second is slightly waved, 
the third is spinose for about the lower third of the first 
basal cell, distinctly bowed upward beyond the small cross- 
vein. The two cross-veins are placed much as in /. seriata, 
but the hind cross-vein is more oblique. The outline of the 
wing tip is not nearly so blunt as in seriata, and the hind 
margin is much more rounded, so that the wing does not have 
the oblong effect so characteristic of seriata and its allies. 

Length of wing, 6.2 mm. ; total body length, 6.5 mm. ; 
length of tube, i mm. 

Fig. I. Icterica christopJie, new species. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 167 

One female, type No. 17052, in the MCZ, from Port-au-Prince, 
Haiti, W. M. Mann. 

20. Ensina picciola (Bigot) 

Acinia picciola Bigot, 1857, p. 824, pi. XX, f. 10, loa (Cuba). 
Trypefa humilis Loew, 1862, p. 81, pi. II, f. 17; 1873, p. 291, 

pi. X, f. 17 (Cuba). 
Ensina humilis Doane, 1899, p. 188 (Jam.) ; Wolcott, 1924, 

p. 229 (P. R.). 
Ensina picciola Johnson, 1908, p. 78 (Bahamas) ; id., 19 19, 

p. 445 (Jam.); Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 (Jam.); Curran, 

1928. p. 70 (P. R.). 
Ensina chilensis (part.) Hendel, 1914, p. 65. 

There are some 74 specimens in the MCZ and my collection 
from various localities in Jamaica, Cuba and the Bahamas. While 
it is quite possible that this little insect ranges all over tropical 
America, I feel that the name picciola should be retained until the 
relative status of the northern insect and chilensis can be definitely 

The larva lives in the flower heads of Bidens in Cuba. 

21. Ensina thomae Curran 

Curran, 1928, p. 70, f. 30 (St. Thomas). 
I do not recognize this form in the specimens before me. 

22. Ensina peregrina Loew 

Loew, 1873, p. 292, pi. X, f. 30 (Brazil) ; Williston, 1896, p. 
377, pi. XIII, f. 130 (St. Vincent) ; Wolcott, 1924, p. 
229 (P. R.). 

The MCZ has three specimens from Moneague and Mandeville, 
Jamaica, which seem to belong to this species. 

23. Tephritis fucata (Fsihr.) 

Musca fiicafa Fabricius, 1794, p. 359 (Is. Am. Mer.). 
Tephritis fucata Loew, 1873, p. 301 (Arg.) ; Doane, 1899. p. 

189 (Jam.) ; Williston, 1896, p. 337, pi. XII, f. 129 (St. 

Vincent) ; Johnson, 1919, p. 445 (Jam.) ; Gowdey, 1926, 

p. 87 (Jam.). 
Euribia fucata Hendel, 1914, p. 67, pi. Ill, f. 56; Phillips, 

1923, p. 150, pi. XIX, f. 65 (Jam.). 

There are four specimens of this species in the MCZ from 
Guantanamo, Cuba, and Kingston, Jamaica. 

168 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^l. XXVIII 

24. Tephritis floccosa Curran 
Curran, 1928, p. y$, f. 31 (St. John). 

I have not seen this species. 

25. Tephritis bruesi new species (Fig. 2). 

Tephritis finalis Johnson {nee Loew), 1919, p. 445 (Jam.) ; 
Gowdey, 1926, p. 87 (Jam.). 

This species may easily be distinguished from finalis Loew by 
the much shorter tube of the female, and the narrower wings, 
which have a complete brown band extending from the stigma to 
and over the hind cross-vein. Both finalis and hruesi seem to be 
close enough to arnicae, the type of Tephritis, to be congeneric, 
the principal difference being that the 3rd vein in arnicae is naked 
beneath, and that the front is somewhat wider, bearing only two 
convergent orbitals; other closely related species show inter- 
mediate conditions in these respects. 

5. The head is much as in finalis in general color and 
proportions. The front is somewhat narrower, with three 
well developed convergent orbitals; the verticals are perhaps 
stronger than is usual with finalis. The dorsum of the thorax 
is much as in finalis: black, covered with a greyish pollen 
and with fine white hairs ; the bristles are long, dark, ar- 
ranged as in finalis. The scutellum is brown, with both pairs 
of bristles well developed. The abdomen is black, each seg- 
ment marked with light brown (the same shade as the tube 
and legs, a shade often called yellow) on its posterior margin : 
this light color being especially broad on the mediodorsal 

Fig. 2. Tephritis hruesi, new species. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 169 

line. The usual fine bristles are black. The last segment 
(tube) is light brown, trapezoid in shape, much shorter and 
more truncate than in finalis, lighter and more uniformly 
colored. The legs are light brown, much lighter than in 
finalis, and with light colored bristles and hairs. 

The wing has the same general pattern as finalis, but the 
hyaline spots tend to be smaller and less numerous, making 
the wing darker. The uniform brown of the tip of the 
discal cell is a striking character, which may not hold good 
for all specimens, however. The wing of bruesi is notice- 
ably narrower than finalis, the proportion of length to breadth 
in finalis being 12:4.5, and in bruesi 12:3.8. The costal 
margin of bruesi is nearly a straight line. 

Length of wing, 4.6 mm. ; total body length, 4.3 mm. ; 
length of tube, 0.6 mm. 

One female, Newton Jamaica, 3000 ft., Jan. 1912, C. T. Brues, 
from the collection of C. W. Johnson. MCZ Type No. 17053. 

26. Euaresta mexicana (VVied.) 

Trypeta mexicana Wiedemann, 1830, p. 511 (Mex.) ; Loew, 

1873- p- 317. pl- X, f. 28. 

Trypeta melanogastra Loew, 1862, p. 90, pl. II, f. 23 (Cuba) ; 
id., 1873, p. 315, pl. X, f. 24. 

Euaresta mexicana Hendel, 1914, p. 71 ; Wolcott, 1924, p. 
230 (P. R.). 

Euaresta melanogastra Hendel, 1914, p. 71 ; Johnson, 1919, 
p. 446 (Jam.) ; Williston, 1896, p. 377, pl. XIII, f. 131 
(St. Vincent) ; Wolcott, 1924, p. 230 (P. R.) ; Gowdey, 
1926, p. 87 (Jam.) ; Curran, 1928, p. 72 (P. R.). 

Euaresta plesia Curran. 1928, p. y2, f. 29 (P. R.). 

Dyseiiaresta mexicana Hendel, 1928, p. 368. 

This synonymy seems unavoidable, as I can find no constant 
characters to separate Central American and West Indian speci- 
mens. The position of the spot in the submarginal cell may be 
either under the basal marginal spot, between the two marginal 
spots, or in various intermediate positions, with no reference to 
locality. Similarly, Curran's plesia, as well as can be judged 
from his figure and very meagre description, falls well within 
the range of variation of mexicana; an examination of the type 
would be necessary to be sure of this, however. The presence 
or absence of the apical spot in the marginal cell seems to be of 
no significance whatever, as I have every sort of intergrade in my 

There are some 26 specimens in the MCZ and my collection 

170 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXFlli 

from Jamaica, Cuba, the Bahamas, and Barbados, as well as 
numberous specimens from various continental localities. 

2/. Euaresta obscuriventris Loew 

Loew, 1873, p. 313, pi. X, f. 26 (Brazil) ; Hendel, 1914, 
p. 73; Curran, 1928, p. 73 (P. R.). 
Tetreuaresta obscuriventris Hendel, 1928, p. 368. 

We have some 20 specimens from Jamaica and Cuba which 
seem to belong to this species. One specimen has an extra 
scutellar bristle: a not uncommon type of aberration in the family. 

28. Euaresta bella (Loew) 

Trypeta bella Loew, 1862, p. 88, pi. II, f. 23 (Wash., N. Y.). 
Euaresta bella Johnson, 1908, p. 78 (Bahamas). 

There are several specimens in the MCZ from the Bahamas. 

29. Try pan ea abstersa (Loew) 

Trypeta abstersa Loew, 1861, p. 91 (N. Am.) ; id., 1873, p. 
322, pi. XI, f. 7 (Cuba). 

The three Cuban specimens in the MCZ from the Loew collec- 
tion are not types, but the specimens described by him in 1873. 
The 1861 type, from North America, is in the Winthem Collection. 
It is probable that the North American species passing currently 
under this name is the true abstersa, and that these Cuban speci- 
mens represent a distinct form: a question that cannot be settled 
without fresh West Indian material. 

30. Trypanea polyclona (Loew) 

Trypeta (Urellia) polyclona Loew, 1873, P- 3^4- 

I have seen no West Indian material of this species except the 
type which, as pointed out by Loew, is in rather bad condition. 

31. Trypanea Solaris (Loew) 

Trypeta Solaris Loew, 1862, p. 84, pi. II, f. 19 (Ga.). 
Trypeta (Urellia) Solaris Loew, 1873, p. 325, pi. X, f. 19; 

Williston, 1896, p. 377, pi. XIII, f. 132 (St. Vincent). 
Trypanea daphne (part.) Hendel, 1914, p. 76. 
Urellia Solaris Wolcott, 1924, p. 230 (P. R.). 
Trypanea mevarna Curran, 1928, p. 71 (P. R.). 

We have 11 specimens of this species from various localities in 
Cuba, and Barbados. The identification of this form with daphne 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 171 

of W^iedemann, described from Uruguay, needs confirmation. 
Walker's description of mcvarna reads more like polyclona than 
Solaris, but its exact standing cannot be determined without an 
examination of the type. 

32. Trypanea dacetoptera Phillips 

Phillips, 1923, p. 148, pi. XIX, f. 59; Curran, 1928, p. 71 
(St. Croix). 

I have seen no West Indian specimens of this species, although 
we have a fair series from the eastern United States. 


Ballou, H. A. 1912. Insect Pests of the Lesser Antilles. 

Pamphlet Series No. 71, Imp. Dept. Agric. West Indies, 210 

pp., ill. 
Bezzi, M. 1909. Le specie dei generi Ceratitis, Anastrepha e 

Dacus. Boll. Lab. Zool. R. Sc. Agr. Portici, III, pp. 273- 

313, 4 figs. 
Bigot, J. 1857. Dipteres, in Ramon de la Sagra, Historic 

physique, politique et naturelle de Tile de Cuba, Animaux 

Articules, pp. 783-829. 
■ — -. 1884 Mikimyia fnrifera, n. gen. et sp. Bull. Soc. 

Ent. France, 1884, pp. 29-30. 
Coquillett, D. W. 1894. New North American Trypetidae. 

Can. Ent., XXVI, pp. 71-75. 
Curran, C. H. 1928. Diptera, in Scientific survey of Porto 

Rico and the Virgin Islands, XI, pt. i. Insects. 118 pp., 39 

. 193 1. First supplement to the 'Diptera of Porto 

Rico and the Virgin Islands'. Am. Mus. Xovitates, No. 456. 

23 PP-, 4 figs. 
Doane, R, W. 1899. Notes on Trypetidae with descriptions of 

new species. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, \^II, pp. 177-193, pi. 

Fabricius, J. C. 1794. Entomologica systematica emendata et 

aucta. Tom. IV, Hafnia. 472+11 pp. 
Gerstaecker, A. i860. Beschreibung einiger ausgezeichneten 

neuen Dipteren aus der Familie Muscariae. Ent. Ztg. Stettin, 

XXI, pp. 163-202, pi. II. 
Gowdey, C. C. 1926. Catalogus insectorum jamaicensis. Dept. 

Agric, Jamaica, Ent. Bull. No. 4. pt. i. 114, 14 pp. 
Green, C. T. 1929. Characters of the larvae and pupae of 

certain fruit flies. lourn. Ag. Res., XXXVIII, pp. 489-504, 

6 pi. 
Hendel, F. 1914. Die Bohrfliegen Siidamerikas. Ab. u. 

172 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxvill 

Berichte des Konigl. Zool. u. Anthrop.-Ethn. Mus. zu 
Dresden, XIV, No. 3. 85 pp., 4 pi. (1912). 

1928. Neue oder weniger bekannte Bohrfliegen 

meist aus dem Deutschen Ent. Inst. Berlin-Dahlem. Ent. 

Mitt., XVII, pp. 341-370. 
Johnson, C. W. 1908. The Diptera of the Bahamas, with notes 

and description of one new species. Psyche, XV, pp. 69-80. 
. 1919. A revised list of the Diptera of Jamaica. 

Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XLI, pp. 421-449. 
Knab, F. and Yothers, W. W. 19 14. Papaya fruit fly. Journ. 

Ag. Res., II, pp. 447-453. 2 pi. 
Loew, H. 1861. Diptera Americae Septentrionalis indigena. 

[Centuriae] Berlin, 266 pp. [Vol. I.] 
. 1862. Monographs of the Diptera of North Amer- 
ica, part I. Smith. Misc. Coll., Washington, 221 + 24 pp. 

2 pi. 

1873. id., part III. 351 pp., 4 pl- 

Phillips, V. T. 1923. A revision of the Trypetidae of north- 
eastern America. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, XXXI, pp. 119- 
155, pi. XVIII-XIX. 

Snow, W. A. 1894. Descriptions of North American Trypet- 
idae, with notes. I. Kans. Univ. Ouart., II, pp. 159-174, 
pi. VI-VII. 

Walker, F. 1849. List of specimens of dipterous insects in the 
collection of the British Museum. Part IV. London, pp. 

Wiedemann, C. R. 1830. Aussereuropaische zweifliigelige In- 
sekten. Part II. Hamm, 684+ 12 pp., 5 pi. 

Williston, S. W. 1896. On the Diptera of St. Vincent (West 
Indies). Trans. Ent. Soc. London, pp. 253-446, pi. VIII- 

Wolcott, G. N. 1924. Insectae Portoricensis. Journ. Dept. 
Agric. P. R., VII (1923), pp. 1-313. 




By Geo. P. Engelhardt, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

An unusually destructive outbreak of the Fall Canker Worm 
during May and early June caused great alarm and much annoy- 
ance to the inhabitants of Westchester County and adjoining re- 
gions crossing the state line into Connecticut. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 173 

Observing people were not surprised by this invasion, for in De- 
cember and January the winged males and the wingless females of 
the moth appeared in countless numbers, covering tree trunks, 
fences and walls, thus predicting the outbreak of the so-called 
measuring or inch worms in the spring. 

For several years at the meetings of the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society the writer has called attention to the ever-increasing num- 
bers of the Fall Canker Worm in Westchester County. It is to be 
hoped that the outbreak in 1933 signifies a numerical climax, which 
in ensuing years will be followed by a steady decrease brought 
about by the attacks of parasites and bacterial diseases. Insec- 
tivorous birds can play only a minor part in combating a pest of 
such proportions. 

The destruction wrought is evident by the number of defoliated 
trees and shrubs in woodlands, along shaded streets and in gardens. 
The principal suiTerers are oak, elm, linden, ash, hickory, willow 
and apple trees. Remedial measures, the spraying with arsenate of 
lead of shade trees on streets and in gardens, as usual, were applied 
too late to do much good. The caterpillars were approaching ma- 
turity and most of the damage had been done. If nature does not 
step in to give a helping hand, man is practically helpless to deal 
with such a problem. 

During the height of the caterpillar invasion it was impossible to 
pass under shade trees or through woodlands without finding one- 
self covered with the measuring worms suspended in myriads by 
silken threads from the branches above. 

In the writer's garden the caterpillars showed decided prefer- 
ence for rambler roses, eating into or cutting off the developing 
flower buds. A young quaking aspen, one morning, showed itself 
almost completely defoliated. The leaves had been cut off cleanly, 
l)ut not eaten, leaving only the bare stems on the tree. 

It is to be expected that most of the trees will succeed in re- 
plenishing their foliage during the summer. Yet, unquestionably 
they have been weakened and a subsequent attack may have dire 

Newspaper accounts have credited the caterpillar invasion to the 
Spring Canker W^orm, Paleacrita vernata, an indigenous American 
species, closely resembling the introduced European Fall Canker 
Worm in larval and adult form. No doubt this species has con- 
tributed to the injury, but only in a minor part. The principal 
damage was done by the Fall Canker Worm, Alsophila ponictaria. 

174 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxviil 


Fighting the Insects — The Story of an Entomologist, by L. O. 

Howard. (Pp. i-xvii + 1-333. The Macmillan Company, 

N. Y. $2.50.) 

Dr. Howard completes in this recent work his trilogy. In the 
first work of the series, "A History of Applied Entomology," he 
tells of the origin, growth and progress of the economic side of the 
science, in which he is one of the great factors ; and of the men 
who have made it a world-wide work of the greatest importance to 
mankind. In the second work, "The Insect Menace," he sets forth 
the vast problems with which it deals and the ways in which they 
have been solved or attacked. This third work tells us of Dr. 
Howard, the man, in his personal contacts. The three together re- 
veal the personality of one of our great Americans. In his own 
modesty, he is unaware of this, but the vast importance of his fun- 
damental work will become more and more evident to all in the un- 
faltering march of time. 

His personal charm, his wit, his broad human spirit, his love of 
his fellows and their doings, appear on every page. We have now 
the full-length self-portrait of a MAN. 

Today, in his nominal retirement, the activity of his keen and 
alert mind still infuses the Department which for so many years 
he led. To appreciate why this is so, read these three works. All 
who have the least secret thought of ranking in the science of en- 
tomology may well ponder them ; and by thus learning to know the 
man they may set their own courses upward and onward. 

Dr. Howard shows one gift above all others — his sympathetic 
understanding of his fellow-men. This is the true key to his emi- 
nence ; added to this, he has the true scientist's unslakable thirst to 
know and to know exactly. 

No American entomologist should be without these three indis- 
pensable contributions to the science by one who is a leader, in the 
truest way, in an aspect of science of basic importance to mankind 
and its welfare. 

J. R. T.-B. 

Jungle Bees and Wasps of Barro Colorado Island (Panama), 

by Phil Rau. Pp. (5 unnumbered) + 1-324, figs, i-ioo, 18 
unnumbered illustrations, and 2 plates; Appendix by J. Be- 
quaert, on Three New Species of Polyhia, with figs. 1-3. (Phil 
Rau, Kirkwood, Mo. $2.75.) 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 175 

This is a most fascinating work, even to one who, hke the writer, 
is interested only in the most unsocial, and even anti-social, of in- 
sects. Here we have a study of those insects in which instinct is 
the basis of purposive actions, so much so that in these bees and 
wasps we see instinct with deviations into intelligent and seemingly 
reasoned actions. May it not be that all instincts in origin are pur- 
jiosive, which by trial and error and habit have congealed into set 
patterns, from which in turn other instincts or automatic habits 
arise? Many of man's so-called instinctive or automatic reactions 
may have arisen in this way in the long-forgotten dawn of the 
race; and social memory has preserved them and handed them 
down as so-called tropistic or mechanistic habits. 

"Jungle Bees" brings out these and many other psycho-biolog- 
ical facts. It adds materially to our knowledge of the ways of the 
social insects in their natural state and also of their adaptability to 
new and unknown conditions brought about by the handiwork of 

The first five chapters deal with the Neotropical bees and wasps 
and their habits. Chapter VI refers to the ecology and behavior 
of spiders and of other insects, including records of observed spe- 
cies in sundry Orders. "The Fallen Sand-Box Tree and Its In- 
sect Inhabitants," and "A Day at New Limon" form chapter VII. 
Chapter VIII is taken up with a discussion of the behavior of the 
Carpenter Bee and the origin of its instincts, of interest because 
it is a Tropical bee working its way North. Biological philosophy 
makes up Chapter IX, on mind as a forerunner of evolution, which 
ends Mr. Rau's fascinating work. 

In an xA-ppendix, Dr. Bequaert describes three new species of 
Polyhia, heretofore unknown to science, on which certain of Mr. 
Rau's studies were made. But, Mr. Rau describes the structure of 
their nests and their habits, under the names given by Dr. Be- 
quaert, in the fore part of the book. Now, a nice question arises, 
to be solved by the finesse of our entomological precisians. Since 
an insect may be (and has been) described by its galls or other 
structures, may not Mr. Rau in this aspect, and quite unwittingh-. 
be the valid namer of these undescribed species mentioned by him, 
by page priority? This question is set for the benefit of our ento- 
mological illuminati. 

The work is carefully indexed and excellently printed, with the 
fine illustrations from photographs. 

Dr. W. M. Wheeler says of this work: "It is in my opinion one 
of the most outstanding recent contributions to natural historv. . . . 

176 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^L XXVIII 

It will undoubtedly rank among the leading works on instinctive 
behavior of insects." 

No words of ours could more fittingly, and above all, more au- 
thoritatively characterize this splendid work. 

J. R. T.-B. 

Insects — Man's Chief Competitors, by W. P. Flint and C. L. 

Metcalfe. (Pp. i-viii + 1-133, figs. 1-12. The Williams & Wil- 

kins Co., Baltimore, Md. $1.) 

This is one of the volumes of the Century of Progress Series 
published by this house. 

The second paragraph of this brief but informing work states its 
entire purpose and content in these words: "During the past one 
hundred years man has learned more about insects than during any 
other corresponding period in the world's history. Discoveries of 
the greatest importance to the material prosperity and to the health 
of the human race have been made during this century." 

"This book is intended to set forth some of the important facts 
concerning insects and some of the interesting things about their 

In lucid and entertaining style these authors set out in twelve 
chapters how insects fight man and how man fights insects ; the 
structure and life of insects, and then discuss seven of the many 
insects which afifect our well-being and our future as a race. 

The work is of necessity brief, yet sufficient for the purpose in- 
tended — a busy non-entomologist can read it in a couple of hours. 
Our wife, who has been exposed to entomology for many years, 
says that it has given her the first real idea of what it is all about, 
and very entertainingly, too. This is a real dictum from a sample 
of the public at which it is aimed, and with great success, in this 
writer's estimation. 

All those with contagion-resistant families and friends might 
well recommend it to them. They can't help reading it when they 
get it — if for no other reason, in order not to waste their dollar. 

J. R. T.-B. 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 177 


Meeting of December 15, 1932. 

A regular meeting "of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, December 15, 1932, 
at 8.20 p. m. 

President Davis in the Chair and ten other members present, 
viz., Dr. M. D. Leonard, Messrs. Engelhardt, Lemmer, Moennich, 
Nicolay, Schaeffer, Sheridan, Siepmann, Torre-Bueno and Wurs- 
ter, and three visitors, Messrs. Pollard, Ragot and Stecher. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Engelhardt presented the monthly report of the treasurer and 
Mr. Torre-Bueno presented a preliminary report on a new edition 
of the Glossary. 

Mr. Davis read an article reporting the death of our Honorary 
Member, Dr. W. J. Holland, at the age of 84 years. A general dis- 
cussion on the work of Dr. Holland followed and a resolution 
that the secretary be instructed to write a letter to the family of 
the deceased expressing the sympathy and sorrow of the society 
was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Davis appointed a nominating committee to consist of 
Messrs. Lemmer, Nicolay and Moennich. 

Mr. Schaeffer said that he had looked over the Coleoptera in 
the collection of the late Charles J. Martin, which had been pre- 
sented to the Children's Museum. The collection contained three 
specimens of Leptura emarginata, from three different Long 
Island localities : East New York, Forest Park and Jamaica. This 
species was not recorded from Long Island in the New York State 
List, but two records had since been recorded, one from the 
Weeks Collection and one collected by Mr. Latham (see Bulle- 
tin, XXVII, 213). There was also a specimen of Adalia frigida 
variety humeralis, from Bedford, New York. This is a new rec- 
ord for the state ; although the species is recorded in the New 
York State List, the earlier records were based upon misdeter- 
minations, as mentioned at the November meeting of the society. 

Two other specimens of interest are in the Martin Collection : 
a specimen of a Cassidinid beetle labelled East New York, and a 
series of six specimens of a species of Glischrochihis, labelled 
Bedford, New York, neither of which agree with any species 
known from North America. 

Mr. Wurster exhibited some beautiful chrysalides of the Japa- 
nese Papilio alcinons, which look like manufactured ornaments 

178 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxrill 

rather than dormant insects. He also showed a Polyphemus 
cocoon spun to a Cecropia cocoon, collected out-of-doors. 

Dr. Leonard said that about eight years have elapsed since the 
New York State List closed, in which time a great many additions 
have come to light. He said that it would be a good plan to pub- 
lish a complete list of all the additions, published and unpublished, 
in some entomological journal, when ten years shall have passed. 

Mr. Davis spoke on the swarming habits of the ant Lasius 
claviger, of which a note will be published separately in the Bul- 
letin. He also exhibited portion of a pouch or communal cocoon 
spun by an African species, probably Anaphe. 

Mr. Torre-Bueno presented the paper of the evening, on his 
trip to the Catskill Mountains in search of Heteroptera. Most of 
his collecting was done in the vicinity of Hunter and Tannersville, 
and on Onteora Mountain, N. Y. He illustrated his talk with 
specimens taken during the trip. 

Mr. Engelhardt again referred to the fall canker worm, Al- 
sopkiia pometaria (see minutes for December, 1930, and Decem- 
ber, 1931) and said that this species was now becoming a real pest 
in Westchester County, thousands of specimens being seen in the 

The meeting adjourned at 10.10 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, 

Meeting of January 12, 1933. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, January 12, 1933, at 
8.15 p. m. 

President Davis in the chair and twelve other members present, 
vij:., Messrs. Ballou, Cleff, Engelhardt, Lacey, Lemmer, Moennich, 
Nicolay, Schaeffer, Sheridan, Shoemaker, Siepmann, and Torre- 
Bueno, and five visitors, Mrs. Moennich, and Messrs. Erb, Fish, 
Hollander, and Stecher. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
Mr. Engelhardt presented the annual report of the treasurer and 
spoke at length on the progress of the society. The report of the 
publication committee for 1932 was presented by Mr. Torre- 

An article on the late Dr. W. J. Holland was read by Mr. Engel- 
hardt, which will be published separately in the Bulletin. A 

Oct., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 179 

letter from Mr. Moorhead B. Holland, the son of Dr. Holland, 
was read by the secretary. 

Mr. Torre-Bueno exhibited a copy of a new book by W. S. 
Blatchley, entitled " In Days Agone," which contains much infor- 
mation concerning Florida collecting grounds and the habits of 
Floridan insects. 

The nominating committee, represented by Mr. Lemmer, pre- 
sented the following recommendations for the coming year : Presi- 
dent, William T. Davis ; Vice-President, J. R. de la Torre-Bueno ; 
Treasurer, George P. Engelhardt ; Recording Secretary, Carl Geo. 
Siepmann; Librarian, Charles Schaeffer; Curator, J. M. Sheridan; 
Delegate to the N. Y. Academy of Sciences, George P. Engel- 
hardt; Publication Committee, J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, George P. 
Engelhardt, and Carl Geo. Siepmann. 

Mr. Torre-Bueno proposed the name of Mr. Lemmer for Corre- 
sponding Secretary. 

There being no further nominations, it was moved and seconded 
that the nominations be accepted as proposed, which was accord- 
ingly done. 

Mr. Lemmer proposed for membership Mr. David Hollander, 
141 5 Wythe Place, Bronx, N. Y. C. Mr. Hollander being present, 
it was regularly moved and seconded that the By-laws be sus- 
pended, and the secretary was directed to cast one ballot for his 
election, which was accordingly done. 

Mr. Davis exhibited some Coccinellidae collected by Mr. Roy 
Latham at Orient, L. L, including three new records for Long 
Island: Anisocalva quatuordecimguttata, Anisocalva duodeciin- 
inacnlata, and Exochomus marginipennis variety latiiisculits. Mr. 
Latham also obtained a specimen of Neoharmonia venusta at 
Northwest, L. I., which is not recorded in the State List, but 
which had recently been taken by K. W. Cooper at Flushing, L. 
Lacey at Pelham, and H. Moennich at Little Neck. 

Mr. Davis exhibited a number of cocoons, some of which had 
been pierced by the downy woodpecker and sucked dry. He ob- 
served that only cocoons which were attached to fair sized branches 
which did not give way when the woodpecker started to drill, had 
been opened. The cocoons which were attached to comparatively 
slender twigs could not be opened by the woodpeckers. Mr. Davis 
also exhibited a collection of Colorado Cicadas, of which there are 
now 29 species, six more than were known at the time Mr. Davis 
wrote his bulletin about them. Only three of the Colorado species 
also occur in the East. 

180 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 

Mr. Engelhardt read a letter from Mr. E. Irving Huntington, 
expressing his desire to resign from the society; the matter was 
left in the hands of the treasurer to be taken up again at the next 

Mr. Torre-Bueno exhibited some rare water bugs which he had 
received from Dr. Bequaert, collected in Guatemala. A separate 
note will be published elsewhere. The insects exhibited consider- 
able variation in color, and Mr. Torre-Bueno pointed out that color 
was a very unreliable character for the identification of water bugs. 

Mr. Engelhardt showed a specimen of the Japanese Papilio al- 
cinous, only recently emerged from a chrysalis presented to him 
by Mr. C. Wm. Wurster. In the warm temperature of Mr. Engel- 
hardt's office the beautiful butterfly hatched on January ist. 

Mr. Engelhardt also showed a series of Aegeriids or clear-wing 
moths, which biologically may be termed the wild buckwheat 
borers, all western in distribution. Of the four species exhibited, 
only one, Synanthedon polygoni Hy. Edw., heretofore had been 
connected with its food plant, Polygonum paronychia, discovered 
by that keen observer, F. X. Williams. Last summer the second 
species, Synanthedon praetans Hy. Edw., was bred by the ento- 
mologists of the U. S. Experiment Station at Puyallup, Washing- 
ton, from the crown roots of Eriogonum compositum, another wild 
buckwheat. To the unique male type three females have now been 
added. The third species, Synanthedon fragerin Hy. Edw., ranges 
from California northward through British Columbia to Alaska 
and the fourth, Synanthedon helianthi Hy. Edw., is not uncommon 
in the Rocky Mountain regions. The last two species have not 
been bred as yet and will be subjects of investigation by Mr. Engel- 
hardt on a collecting trip to the Pacific Coast next summer. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.15 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepman^ 


Long Island Records of Heteroptera. — In 1930, Mr. Kenneth 
W. Cooper secured the following bugs at Flushing, L. I., N. Y. : 
Four AmaurocJirous cinctipes Say on March 15; one Aradiis ro- 
bustus Uhler on March 9 ; and one each Cryphvda parallelograma 
Stal on March 15, Heraeiis plehejiis Stal and Scolopostethus at- 
lanticHS Horvath, March 9. The first two seem to be new records 
for Long Island, as they do not appear in the State List as from 
that locality. — J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 




No. 5 


Brooklyn Entomological 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 

Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 
Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed January 2, 1934 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 


Honorary President 


President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary Librarian 

Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 


NEW LAMIINAE, Linsley 183 














ON MOUNTING, J. R. T.-B 219 









EDITORIAL: TO AUTHORS, Publication Committee 235 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

I'uhlishetl in 
February, April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign, $2.75 in advance; single 
L'opies, 60 cents. Advertising rates on application. Short articles, notes and 
observations of interest to entomologists are solicited. Authors will receive 25 
reprints free if ordered in advance of publication. Address subscriptions and 
Mil communications to 

J. U. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor. 

3S De Kalb Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 



Vol. XXVIII December, 1933 No. 5 


By E. Gorton Linsley, Oakland, Calif. 

The following descriptions are offered preliminary to a revision 
of the tribe Pogonocherini which is now in preparation. At least 
two of the species have been wrongly understood and it seems ad- 
visable to correct the synonymy of these and make known certain 
other new species at this time. It is felt that the majority of our 
species which have been previously placed in Pogonocherns are not 
congeneric with the Old World members of this genus and are 
more correctly referable to Poliaemis Bates. The forms described 
below are therefore placed in the latter genus. 

Poliaenus batesi Linsley, n. sp. 

Robust, subcylindrical, dark brown, clothed with rather 
sparse, short, grayish-white and brown pubescence, intermixed 
with longer, scattered, flying hairs. Head pubescent with 
white and brownish hairs ; antennae fuscous, annulated, dis- 
tinctly longer than the body; scape slender, third segment 
slightly longer than scape, remaining segments diminishing in 
length toward apex. Prothorax transverse, lateral and discal 
tubercles prominent, obtuse. Elytra about twice as long as 
broad, convex ; lateral costae distinct, evanescent at base, 
median costae evanescent at apical third, subsutural costae in- 
dicated only by the prominently crested sub-basal tubercle, 
and small tufts of setae at apical third; pubescence pale brown 
and white, the latter predominating in discal and ante-median 
areas; the hair pencils of darker brown mixed with orange; 
puncturation coarser and more distinct in basal region ; apices 
rotundate-truncate. Legs fuscous, clothed with long pale 
hairs. Length 9 mm., breadth 3.3 mm. 

Type, female, S. Geronimo, Guatemala (Champion), in the col- 
lection of the British Museum of Natural History, London. The 




184 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

writer is indebted to Mr. K. G. Blair for permission to study this 

This species is near P. Iiirsittus Bates, but differs from that spe- 
cies in size, coloration, puncturation, and in the shape of the elytral 
apices. In P. liirsutus, the legs and antennae are pale rufescent, 
and the hair pencils of the elytra brownish. In P. batesi the inner 
angle of the elytral apices is distinctly rounded and the pubescence 
of the elytra much more sparse and the puncturation, as a result, 
more conspicuous. P. batesi also resembles P. negundo (Schffr.), 
but in the latter species the elytral costae are less distinct, and the 
scape of the antennae shorter. 

Poliaenus schaefferi Linsley, n. sp. 

Pogonocherus vandykei Schaeffer, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 

XXVII, 1932, p. "153. 
Pogonocherus calif ornicus Van Dyke, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 

XV, 1920, p. 46; Linsley, Pan-Pacific Ent. VII, 1930, p. 


This species which has stood in collections for many years as 
Pogonocherus calif ornicus has been recently described by Mr. 
Schaeffer as P. vandykei. The latter name is unfortunately preoc- 
cupied, and is here re-named schaefferi as a slight tribute to Mr. 
Schaeffer for his many contributions to our knowledge of this 

Poliaenus schaefferi is near P. obscurus (Fall), but the elytral 
puncturation is less coarse and the dark markings and tufts or 
erect setae are more numerous and more conspicuous. 

Poliaenus albidus Linsley, n. sp. 

Pogonocherus concolor Van Dyke, Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. 
XV, 1920, p. 46; Linsley, Pan-Pacific Ent. VII, 1930, p. 

Robust, subcylindrical, piceous, densely clothed with a uni- 
form grayish-white pubescence, with longer, scattered, flying 
hairs on head, antennae, legs, and entire upper surface. Head 
finely, densely pubescent ; antennae annulated, slightly longer 
than the body in the female, distinctly so in the male; scape 
moderately slender, third segment slightly longer than scape, 
remaining segments diminishing in length toward apex. Pro- 
thorax broader than long, about two-thirds as wide as elytra 
at base ; lateral and discal tubercles large, obtuse ; pubescence 
fine, dense, intermixed with flying hairs. Elytra about twice 
as long as broad ; lateral costae feeble, inner costae scarcely 
evident except where emphasized by small tubercles armed 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 185 

with tufts of erect black hairs; pubescence uniformly gray or 
gray and black. Body beneath, covered with grayish-white 
pubescence. Legs clotlied with alternating bands of gray and 
white pubescent; third tarsal segment padded beneath with 
dense yellow hairs. Length 5-9 mm., breadth 1.5-3 mm. 

Type, male (No. 3729 Calif. Acad. Sci.) and allotype, female 
(No. 3730 Calif. Acad. Sci.), collected by the writer at Havilah, 
Cahf., May 16, 1930, from dead branches of Pinus sabiniaua. 
Paratypes: Havilah, Calif., May 16, 1930; Mt. Diablo, Calif., 
April-May, 1931 ; Cedar Mtn. Ridge, Alameda Co., Calif., May, 
193 1 ; and Pope Valley, Napa Co., Calif., May, 1932, in the collec- 
tions of Dr. E. C. Van Dyke, Mr. A. T. McClay. and the writer. 

This species has long been known as Pogonoclients concolor 
Schffr., but the latter species has no long erect hairs on the head or 
pronotum and the lateral tubercles of the prothorax are much more 
acute at the apex. P. concolor also has no tufts of erect black 
hairs on the elytra and all of the tarsal segments are clothed be- 
neath with dense yellow hairs. Poliacnus alhidus is much nearer 
P. schaejferi and P. obscurns (Fall), but in these last two species 
the pubescence is much sparser, darker, the markings more con- 
spicuous, and the elytra more coarsely punctured. In addition the 
antennae are clothed with long brown and whitish hairs (in albidiis 
these hairs are uniformly white). 

Poliacnus vandykci (Linsley), subsp. grandis Linsley, n. subsp. 

I have before me two examples of P. vandykci from Southern 
Mexico, that agree with the type in most important structural char- 
acters, but differ in size, coloration and pubescence. The Mexican 
specimens are much more conspicuously marked, and the pubes- 
cence is much more dense and of a darker brown than the Texan 
example. These characters and the difference in distribution seem 
to warrant the giving of a subspecific name to this form. 

Type, male (No. 3731 Calif. Acad. Sci!) and allotype, female, 
in the collection of the writer, collected at Tejupilco, Mexico, alt. 
4000-6000 ft., July, 1932, by Mr. Howard Hinton, who very 
kindly presented the specimens to me for study. This is the largest 
and most robust of the known members of this genus. Measure- 
ments: Type, length 11.5 mm., breadth 4.7 mm., allotype, length 10 
mm., breadth 3.5 mm. 

Authors are urged to read our statement of policy in this 

186 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXVIII 


By T. D. a. Cockerell, Boulder, Colo. 

It has been known for some time that in the vicinity of Creede, 
Colorado, there are extensive exposures of Miocene shales similar 
to those of Florissant. Creede is the county seat of Mineral 
County, and is 8,840 feet above sea-level. It is almost a hundred 
miles from Florissant. Knowlton, in 1923, published an account 
of a small collection of plants from this Creede formation, recog- 
nizing in the flora several of the characteristic Florissant species. 
Now Mr. Allan Caplan, a senior in the Creede High School, has 
been fortunate enough to find fossil insects, and has been good 
enough to send me a very interesting species, herewith described. 

Cephaleia caplani n. sp. (Pamphiliidae.) 

Length 14 mm., parallel-sided ; abdomen about 8 mm. long 
and 4 wide ; width of head 3 mm. ; anterior wings about 9.5 
mm., hyaline, with brown veins and stigma; the abdomen as 
preserved is light brownish fulvous ; legs brown. The vena- 
tion agrees with Cephaleia, and compared with MacGillivray's 
figure (Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus., XXIX, pi. XXVI, f. 42 (C. 
abietis) it shows the following characters (following the 
nomenclature of Rohwer and Gahan, 1916) : 

Intercalaris about the same, but narrower at point of 
origin of vein to subcosta (Sc. 2 of MacGillivray), the latter 
vertical ; stigma about the same ; first cubital cell considerably 
more elongate, being about 2 mm: long and .7 wide (deep) ; 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 187 

first radial similar to that figured, but longer; first discoidal 
considerably longer (length 2 mm.), with the lower basal 
angle less than a right angle, and the face on brachial con- 
spicuously longer; lower apical angle of submedian cell con- 
siderably more produced and acute ; anterior and posterior 
sides of upper part of brachial cell parallel. The upper part 
of the head is divided into three approximately equal parts 
by strong grooves ; the same grooves are very evident in the 
living Neurotoma fasciafa Norton. 

This insect belong to a primitive group of sawflies, peculiar to 
the Northern Hemisphere. Two somewhat related species {Ato- 
cus defessus Scudder and Neurotoma cockerelli Rohwer) have 
been found fossil at Florissant. The larvae of Ccphaleia are 
known to live on coniferous plants, which are especially well rep- 
resented in the fossil flora of Creede. 

(LEP. HET., ARCT.). 

By Edwin P. Meiners, M.D., St. Louis, Mo. 

• The only published records of the distribution of Euerythra 
phasina that I am able to find are contained in Dyar's List^ and an 
article by John B. Smith. ^ Both of these give the state of Texas 
as the locality wherein it is to be found. It may, therefore, be of 
interest to record the fact that I have six specimens of this pretty 
Arctiid which were captured in the vicinity of St. Louis, Mo. 
Two males and a female were taken on May 28, 1932, resting on 
the twigs of a small red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) on the 
grounds of the Missouri Botanical Garden Extension at Gray 
Summit, Mo. Three other specimens taken at Meramec High- 
lands, St. Louis County, Mo., on the following dates: April 3, 
1904; April 18, 1909, and April 23, 191 1. All are fresh specimens 
apparently just emerged. 

Both of the above mentioned localities are situated on the Mera- 
mec River which, with its surrounding hills, forms the boundary of 
the northern slope of the Ozark uplift. It would be of interest to 
hear of other records so far north. 

1 Bulletin 52, U. S. N. M. 

2 Proc. U. S. N. M., X, 1887. 

188 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^L xxrill 


By H. C. Fall, Tyngsboro, Mass. 

Ludius rufopleuralis n. sp. 

Something like forty years ago Dr. John Hamilton, in an article 
in the Canadian Entomologist entitled " Notes on Coleoptera No. 
6," in concluding some remarks on Corymbites nigricornis Panz. 
wrote as follows: " From the more southern parts of Canada and 
from Massachusetts comes a form with a narrow margin and the 
hind angles of the thorax, the inflexed sides, the prosternal lobe, 
the epipleura of the elytra, sides of the abdomen and narrow pos- 
terior margin of the central segments rufous; the feet varying in 
color as in the typical forms. Except in color there appears to be 
no other separative, but this is so striking that it is not obvious, 
without some study, that the forms are all one thing." 

Most of the color characters mentioned by Hamilton affect only 
the under side, and viewed casually from above this form may 
easily be confused with either nigricornis or aratus, with both of 
which in fact it is mixed in the Le Conte collection. 

Quite recently Mr. Frost brought me one of the specimens with 
red propleura for an expression of opinion. It had been identi- 
fied for him by Blanchard many years ago as " nitidulus " and 
more recently by Hyslop as " nigricornis var. nitidulus." I found 
similar specimens in my aratus series, but critically examined they 
did not look right there and further study instead of leading me 
to the conclusion that " the forms are all one thing " as Dr. Ham- 
ilton puts it, convinces me that this particular form with the red 
propleura is specifically distinct from both aratus and nigricornis 
(metaUicus Payk. ; nitidulus Lee). 

The color characters of this species, for which I propose the 
name rufopleuralis, are well stated by Hamilton, though it should 
be said that the side margin of the thorax and the hind margins 
of the ventral segments are in some specimens scarcely at all 
paler, and in addition it may be mentioned that in most examples 
the front margin of the pronotum is narrowly dull rufous. The 
sides of the abdomen are usually rather narrowly but sometimes 
much more broadly reddish. 

None of these color characters exist in nigricornis, while in 
aratus only the prosternal lobe and the epipleura are distinctly 
reddish in fully colored examples ; the hind angles of the thorax 
showing occasionally vague indications of a paler tint. Nor is it 
true as Hamilton intimates that color is the only separative. As 

Dec, 193S Bulletin of the BrooTilyn Entomological Society 189 

compared with riifopleuralis, aratus is as a rule slightly larger and 
more robust and of duller lustre ; the pronotal punctuation is per- 
ceptibly coarser and closer, especially antero-laterally ; the third 
antennal joint is noticeably longer than the fourth, whereas in 
rufopleuralis the third and fourth joints are equal or very nearly 
so. In both species the sides of the thorax are rather strongly 
rounded before the middle, in distinction from nigricornis, in 
which the sides are more oblique in front. Nigricornis is also 
smaller than rufopleuralis, the pronotal punctuation still sparser 
and finer and scarcely at all coarser or closer at sides than at mid- 
dle, the third and fourth antennal joints are nearly equal in length, 
as they are in rufopleuralis. On the whole rufopleuralis appears 
to me to be closer to aratus than to nigricornis and its proper posi- 
tion is between these two species. 

The i6 examples of rufopleuralis studied vary in length from 
I0.2 to 1 1.3 mm. They are from Quebec (Montreal and Berthier- 
ville), and various points in Maine, New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts. Of the three examples in the Le Conte collection one is 
without locality and the other two are labeled Detroit and " Can." 
The type is from Tyngsboro, Mass., and bears date 7-30-16. 

The principal distinguishing characters of the three species 
above considered are for convenience tabulated below. 


Prothorax strongly rounded in front, as wide before the middle as 
at base of hind angles. 

Pronotal punctuation a little coarser and denser, especially at 
sides ; propleura entirely dark ; 3rd antennal joint evidently 
longer than the 4th ; size generally a little larger, surface 
less shining aratus 

Pronotal punctuation somewhat finer and at sides notably 
less dense; propleura entirely rufous; 3rd antennal joint 
not longer than the 4th ; size as a rule a little smaller and 

surface more shining rufopleuralis 

Prothorax not strongly rounded in front, the sides anteriorly more 
oblique, the width before the middle less than at base of 
hind angles. 

Pronotal punctuation finer and sparser than in the above spe- 
cies, not appreciably closer laterally than at middle ; pro- 
pleura aeneo-piceous throughout ; 3rd and 4th antennal 
joints equal in length; size generally smaller . . .nigricornis 

In Dr. Van Dyke's table of Ludiiis in his recent California 
Academy of Sciences paper (Vol. XX, March, 1932) his charac- 

190 Bulletin of the Brooklyn E^itomological Society ^^z. XXVIII 

terization of aratus does not fit that species but applies in most 
respects to rufopleiiralis. 

Liidius appressns Rand. 

Not long since I received from Mr. C. A. Frost among other 
things sent for determination a black Elaterid which looked 
strange to me. It was about ii mm. in length, broad, depressed, 
and posteriorly inflated. I judged it to be a Ludms but there was 
nothing among my black Ludii anything like it, nor could I find 
anything in the literature corresponding to it. The specimen bore 
the label " Wallface Mt., N. Y. ; 12-VII-1922; Quirsfeld."- I 
promptly sent Mr. Quirsfeld a letter of inquiry, to which he re- 
plied as follows : " I have made a number of attempts to find a 
name for it but my efforts were never crowned with success. 
However I have fostered a wild opinion that the thing may be the 
female of Randall's appressns, of which I have only seen male ex- 
amples." He adds the further information that " Wallface Mt. is 
located in Essex Co., New York, and is a peak rising from Indian 
Pass directly opposite Mt. Macintyre. The specimens (three al- 
together) were taken at an elevation of about 3,500 feet, in dense 
spruce woods, all resting on ferns in company with appressns and 
species of the subgenus Eanus. To the best of my knowledge 
Howard Notman and I are the only ones who succeeded in mak- 
ing any captures. How many Notman took I cannot say but I 
do know that his specimens were found under similar circum- 
stances, although in another part of the Adirondacks. I believe 
they were collected on Mt. Marcy." 

Although I had not suspected any such relationship, Mr. Quirs- 
feld's " wild guess " at once impressed me as possessing elements 
of sanity, and was favored by the fact that he found at the same 
place and under similar conditions specimens of typical appressns, 
all of which were males, while his black examples were all fe- 
males. A comparison of the black female with my specimens of 
appressns shows that they are identical in their structural fea- 
tures, notably so in the strongly flexed tip of the prosternal inter- 
coxal process, a rare character in Ludius proper, while the 
broader more depressed and posteriorly widened form of the 
black examples is merely a marked instance of a type of sexual 
divergence exhibited by the females of many species. 

In quest of further information I wrote to Mr. Notman. His 
reply came from Tucson, Arizona, and being away from his col- 
lection he was only able to say " I think I have more than one 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 191 

specimen and that they were taken in the Moss Pond region near 
the summit of Mt. Marcy." 

Mr. Liebeck writes me from Philadelphia that he has been able 
to find and examine i6 specimens altogether in various collections, 
that they are all of the typical form and all males so far as he is 
able to judge. He says : " I searched all through the Ludius and 
boxes of odds and ends in Elateridae at the Academy but there is 
nothing like the example you submitted." 

From Washington Mr. Fisher writes: "I have examined our 
material of the genus Lttdiiis and find that we have lO examples 
of the typical form in regard to color and markings of appressus 
Rand. All of these examples were collected by Hubbard and 
Schwarz, eight at White Fish Point, Lake Superior, and two at 
Marquette, Michigan. Nine of these examples are males and the 
other is probably also a male but the abdomen is in such a position 
that I could not extract the genitalia. I have looked over the col- 
lection as you suggested for specimens of the black form which 
might be erroneously placed under some other species, but did not 
find a single example." 

The Le Conte collection at Cambridge contains only two ex- 
amples of appressus, both of the typical form and both males. 
The Blanchard, Bowditch and general collections of the museum 
do not contain a single specimen of either sex. In my own col- 
lection are six specimens of typical appressus and all are certainly 

From a consideration of the above facts the astonishing infer- 
ence may be drawn that all specimens of Ludius appressus in col- 
lections are males, and that in the nearly one hundred years since 
Randall described the species the female, if taken at all, has never 
before been recognized. If any one has the necessary evidence to 
controvert this rather incredible assumption the writer would be 
glad to see it published or to be personally so informed. Even if 
females of the typical form should be found it W'Ould still be true 
that we have in L. appressus an instance of sexual dichromatism 
as remarkable as it was unexpected. 

Ludius appressus has always been a comparatively rare species 
and most of the examples known to me in collections are from 
very few sources. Randall described the species from Maine in 
1838 but I have no knowledge of its having since been found 
there. There are in my collection two examples taken by the late 
Mr. Emerton, the spider specialist, on Mt. Mansfield. Vermont. 
The remainder of my specimens, and according to Mr. Liebeck 
nearly all those in the Philadelphia collections, were distributed 

192 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 

back in the '90's by Mr. Frank S. Daggett, who once took them in 
some numbers in " washup " on the shore of Lake Superior at Du- 
luth, Minnesota. As already stated all the specimens in the Na- 
tional Museum collection were taken by Hubbard and Schwarz at 
White Fish Point and Marquette on the south shore of Lake Su- 
perior, and Le Conte's type of mirificus (1850) came from Eagle 
Harbor, an intermediate point on the same south shore. To these 
records we must now add Quirsfeld's and Notman's captures in 
the higher parts of the Adirondacks. It would certainly seem that 
the species should also occur in the White Mts. of New Hamp- 
shire but it is not on any available White Mt. list and I know of 
no one who has taken it there. 

(Since writing the above I learn from Mr. Frost that he has a 
specimen taken on Mt. Washington.) 

The Sting of a Tarantula Wasp. — Our largest Hymenoptera 
are the large Psammocharid wasps of the genus Pepsis, commonly 
known as " Tarantula hawks." As they successfully overpower 
the so-called Tarantulas (Eurypelma and related genera) in the 
Southwest, one might surmise that their stings would be for- 
midable. The largest Texas species is Pepsis nephele which 
reaches a length of 63 millimeters. A large individual of this spe- 
cies stung me on the tip of the second finger of the left hand as I 
was removing it from the net (College Station, Texas; June 21, 
1932; 5.45 p. m.). The pain was sharp at first, followed by a 
gradual swelling of the finger. By 7.30 p. m. there was little pain, 
but the distal portion of the finger had become definitely swollen ; 
by 10.30 p. m. the swelling had extended to the back of the hand; 
and by the next morning, the entire hand and wrist had become 
swollen. By afternoon, the swelling had extended up the forearm 
to within two inches of the elbow and had become by this time 
rather painful. No measures whatever were taken to relieve the 
condition, as it was not considered serious. The swelling con- 
tinued during the next day, and although still painful and throb- 
bing on the third day, it began to go down rapidly and by the 
fourth day was nearly back to normal, although there was consid- 
erable itching. By the fifth day this also had disappeared. I must 
admit, however, that I am susceptible to insect poisons, and in 
justice to the insect I might say that probably some of the natural- 
ists who have been- in the habit of subjecting themselves experi- 
mentally to the efifects of venomous insects, would have been little 
inconvenienced by the experience. — Stanley W. Bromley, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. 

Bee., 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 193 


By George O. Hendrickson, Ames, Iowa. 

This list is an addition to previous papers by the author (1930a, 
b) which are surveys of the insects of the prairies of Iowa. 

Thanks are due to Mr. Emil Liljeblad for determinations of 
these species of MordelUdae. 

Mordellistena crratica Smith. 

At Andropogon scoparius-Boiitcloua curtipendida (beard grass- 
mesquite grass) association, i mile west of Hamburg State Park, 
July 30, 1928, one specimen. 

Mordellistena ccrvicalis Lee. 

Swept from flowers of Erigeron ramosus, i mile south of 
Amana, June 23, 1928, one specimen. 

Mordellistena aspersa Melsh. 

Chiefly at Stipa sparteor-Andropogon scoparius (needle grass- 
beard grass) association, June 23-Aug. 6, 1928; several stations. 

Mordellistena infima Lee. 

At Andropogon scoparius— B out eloiia curtipendula association, 4 
miles south of Westfield, July 26, 1928, one specimen. 

Mordellistena pustulata Melsh. 

Chiefly at Stipa spartca— Andropogon scoparius association, June 
23-30, 1928; several stations. 

Mordellistena unicolor Lee. 

Chiefly at Stipa spartea^Andropogon scoparius association, June 
30-Aug. 9, 1928; several stations. 

Mordellistena suturella Hellm. 

Swept from flowers of Silphiuui laciniatum, July 9, 19, 1928, 
three specimens. 

Literature Cited. 

Hendrickson, George O. 1930a. Studies on the Insect Fauna 
of Iowa Prairies. Iowa State Jour. Sci. 4: 49-179. 

. 1930b. Further Studies on the Insect Fauna of 

Iowa Prairies. Iowa State Jour. Sci. 5 : 195-209. 

^ Contribution from Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Iowa State College. 

194 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXVIII 


Paul B. Lawson, Lawrence, Kans.^ 

The name Fitchiella was given by Van Duzee in 191 7 to the 
Fulgorids of the genus Naso Fitch because the latter name was 
found to be preoccupied. The name Naso referred to the swollen 
apex of the head process as found in the species robertsoni and 
fitchi. F. melicJiari, however, while clearly allied to the preceding 
species, does not have this swollen process. This character, there- 
fore, cannot be considered as of generic value. A striking and 
definite generic mark, however, is present in the flattened fore and 
middle tibiae, which coupled with the produced head, makes the 
genus a readily recognized one. 

Five new species, which lack the swollen process but have the 
flattened tibiae, are described in this paper. 

Key to Species of Fitchiella. 

1. Head process knobbed at apex 2 

Head process not knobbed at apex 3 

2. Light species marked with black, females 4 mm. long; fore and 

middle tibiae slightly expanded robertsoni Fitch. 

Brownish species, females 5 mm. long; fore and middle tibiae 
greatly expanded fitcJii Melichar. 

3. Front with longitudinal white stripe albifrons sp. n. 

Front entirely dark 4 

4. Venter of head process and most of legs reddish. 

rufipes sp. n. 
Venter of head process black and legs (except in minor) usu- 
ally entirely black 5 

5. Head process very large and quadrate apically. 

grandis sp. n. 
Head process smaller and rounded apically 6 

6. Head process quite short; fore tibiae reddish . . . .minor sp. n. 
Head process longer ; fore tibiae usually dark 7 

7. Head process longer; fore tibiae very wide . . . .mclichari Ball 
Head process shorter; fore tibiae narrower . . .mediana sp. n. 

Fitchiella albifrons sp. n. (Fig. i, la.) 

A black species with front and legs marked with white. 
Length, female 3 mm. ; male 2 to 2.5 mm. 

^ Contribution from Department of Entomology, University of 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 195 

Head produced into rather long process which is bent 
downward at about a 45 degree angle, its ventral margin 
straight half way to eyes; not swollen apically. Front with 
strong lateral carinae, median carina faint at base but strong 
apically where it is continuous with apical margin of process ; 
a row of pustules laterad of lateral carinae and a short row 
just cephalad of eyes. Vertex very short. Pronotum nearly 
three times as wide as long, with distinct median carina and 
many pustules. Scutellum with three strong carinae laterad 
of which are many pustules. Elytra short and reticulated, 
distinctly longer in male than in female. Abdomen with 
dorsal median carina and with two rather definite rows of 
pustules on each segment laterally. Fore and middle tibiae 
expanded but not as strongly as in some other species. Last 
ventral segment of female triangular; posterior margin some- 
what produced and truncate on median half. 

Color: Black above, except for light frons which has all 
three carinae dark, a faint continuation of this light line on 
to pronotum and scutellum; eyes tinged with red. Mostly 
black below except sometimes for brown sides of head 
process, pale spots on legs and distinctly white dorsal margins 
of tibiae, especially first two pairs. 

Holotype, female, and male allotype, Santa Rita Mts., Ariz., 
July 17, 1932, R. H. Beamer. Paratypes: One male and two 
females, same data; two females, July 18, 1931, and July 11, 1932, 
Santa Rita Mts., Ariz., E. D. Ball. 

Last two paratypes in Dr. Ball's collection ; other types in Snow 
Entomological Collection. 

This species is smaller than F. melichari, the head process is 
straighter below apically, the front is distinctly more concave and 
the white markings of the front and legs seem characteristic. 

Fitchiella rufipes sp. n. (Figs. 2, 2a.) 

A black species with head process and legs tinged with 
reddish. Length, female 3.25 to 4 mm. ; male 2.75 to 3 mm. 

Head produced into rather long process which is bent 
downward at about a 45 degree angle, its apex more rounded 
than in preceding species, its ventral margin straight half 
way to eyes ; not swollen apically. Front with three carinae, 
the middle one continuous with apical margin of process; a 
row of pustules laterad or lateral carinae and a short row 
cephalad of eyes. Vertex very short. Pronotum twice as 
wide as long, with median carina and covered with pustules. 
Scutellum with three carinae laterad of which are many 
pustules. Elytra short in both sexes. Abdomen with in- 
distinct median carina and with lateral pustules. Fore tibiae 

196 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Etitomological Society ^(^^- s:xvin 

very greatly expanded ; middle tibiae somewhat less so. 
Female last ventral segment triangular, posterior margin 
somewhat produced and truncate along median half. 

Color: Black, tinged with bronze. Lower half of head 
process and first two pairs of legs down to upper third of 
tibiae reddish. Hind legs pale, tinged with red to near end 
of tibiae; rest of tibiae and tarsi black. 

Holotype, female, and male allotype, Zion National Park, Utah, 
Aug. 13, 1929, R. H. Beamer. Paratypes: two females, above 
data; female, Oak Creek Canyon, Ariz., Aug. 14, 1927, R. H. 
Beamer ; two males and two females, Kanab, Utah, E. D. Ball ; 
female, Provo, Utah, Aug. 10, 1930, E. D. Ball ; three females, 
Granite Dell, Ariz., Aug. 16, 1929, E. D. Ball; two females and a 
male. Granite Dell, Ariz., Aug. 17, 1929, E. D. Ball. 

Specimens taken by Dr. Ball in his collection ; all other type 
specimens deposited in Snow Entomological Collection. 

This species is close to F. melichari but the head process is not 
so angulate below, the fore tibiae are relatively larger being the 
largest in the genus, and the reddish color of the head process 
and legs seems characteristic. 

Fitchiella mediana sp. n. (Figs. 6, 6a.) 

A black species close to F. melichari but with head process 
shorter and with fore tibiae smaller. Length, female 3 to 4 
mm. ; male 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Head process moderately long, not swollen apically, 
rounded in female, somewhat obliquely truncate in male, 
ventral angle sharp and cephalad of half the distance to eye. 
Front with median carina distinct for its entire length. 
Vertex very short. Pronotum slightly over twice as wide 
as long, median carina distinct, with many pustules. Scutel- 
lum longer than pronotum, with three distinct carinae, lateral 
portions with many pustules. Elytra short and reticulated, 
relatively longer in male than in female. Abdomen with 
dorsal median carina rather distinct and with few pustules 
laterally on each segment. Last ventral segment of female 
triangular ; posterior margin somewhat produced and 
truncate on median half. 

Color: Nearly uniformly black. Eyes sometimes reddish 
and parts of legs pale. 

Holotype, female, and male allotype, Sabino Canyon, Ariz., 
June 14, 1932, R. H. Beamer. Paratypes: Three males, same 
data; three males, same data except taken on June 12, 1932; 
female, Tucson, Ariz., Mar. 22, 1931, E. D. Ball; male, Tucson, 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 197 

Ariz., Apr. 2, 1929, E. D. Ball; two females, Bisbee, Ariz., Oct. 
14, 1931, E. D. Ball; two males, Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., July 16, 
1932, E. D. Ball ; female, Baboquivari Mts., Ariz., June 9, 1932, 
E. D. Ball. 

Types from Sabino Canyon deposited in Snow Entomological 
Collection ; all others in Dr. Ball's collection. 

This species seems to stand between F. melichari and the fol- 
lowing species. 

Fitchiella minor sp. n. (Figs. 3, 3a.) 

A black species close to F. mediana but with shorter head 
process and with reddish fore and middle tibiae. Length, 
female 3.75 mm. 

Head process quite short, ventral notch cephalad of middle 
of distance to eye. Front with median carina fading out at 
base. Vertex very short. Pronotum about twice as wide 
as long, with strong median carina and many pustules. 
Scutellum longer than pronotum, with three carinae and 
many lateral pustules. Elytra short and reticulated. Fore 
and middle tibiae distinctly smaller than in mediana. Last 
ventral segment of female triangular; posterior margin pro- 
duced and truncate on median half. 

Color: Black, with suggestion of white stripe along sutural 
margin of elytra. Fore and middle tibiae reddish. 

Holotype, female, Tucson, Ariz., Mar. 10, 193 1, E. D. Ball. 

Type in Dr. Ball's collection. 

This species has the shortest head process in the series of 
closely related species composed of this, F. mediana and F. meli- 
chari (Fig. 5), the last having the longest process. This species 
also has the smallest fore tibiae of the three, with melichari (Fig. 
5a) having the largest. 

Fitchiella grandis sp. n. (Fig. 4, 4a.) 

A black species with very large, apically quadrate, head 
process. Length, female 4.25 mm. 

Head process very large and truncate apically, straight 
ventrally fully half way to eyes. Front very large and wide, 
extending almost to tip of head process, median carina not 
strong, fading out on basal third. Vertex very short. 
Pronotum a little over twice as wide as long, median carina 
distinct, with many pustules. Scutellum longer than 
pronotum, tricarinate, lateral portions pustulate. Elytra 
short and reticulated. Fore and middle tibiae not as large 
relatively as in melichari. Posterior margin of last ventral 

198 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXVIII 

segment of female slightly produced on median half which 
is slightly concave. 

Color: Black, except for few light markings on legs. 

Holotype, female, Santa Rita Mts., Ariz., Alt. 4500 ft., Sept. 
9, 1925, A. A. Nichol. 

Type in Dr. Ball's collection. 

This species is easily recognized by its very large, apically 
quadrate, head process. 

The writer is indebted to Dr. Ball for the loan of specimens for 
study, including the type of F. melichari which is here figured. 

The drawings figure the lateral views of the head and the fore 
tibia of the several species. 


Archips georgiana. Orient, August 17, 1927. One bright 
specimen at light. 

Loxostege helvialis. Orient, Greenport, Bridgehampton, and 
Montauk; August 3, 1932, to October i, 1924, at Orient. All at 

Loxostege commixtalis. Montauk, East Hampton, Orient, and 
East Marion ; common in Orient in 1932, July 4 to September 30, 
six to over fifty coming to light during certain nights in August 
and September. 

Loxostege dasconalis. Three-mile Harbor, July 9, 1928. 
Sandy field. 

Rhodoneiira myrsusalis. Montauk, July 26, 1927. At light. 
Fresh specimen. 

Cirrhololina mexicana. Orient, July 9, 1928. At light. Faded 

Melipotis fasciolaris. Montauk, June 17, 1926. At light. 
Condition of specimen indicates a stray. 

Fagitana littera. Orient. Four specimens, all at light. June 
17, 1932, to August 17, 1927. All freshly emerged individuals. 

Lepipolys perscripta. Greenport, September i, 1929. At auto- 
mobile light in woods. 

Oligia bridghami. Montauk, Bridgehampton, Greenport, and 
Orient ; August 4, 1927, Montauk, to September 7, 1927, Orient. 
All at light. — Roy Latham, Orient, Long Island, N. Y. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 5 

Plate XV 

5 f meliclnari 

6 F mediana 

200 Bulletin of the Brookhjn Entomological Society '^^l. xxvili 


By Melville H. Hatch, Seattle, Wash. 

Ptinus {Gynopteriis) tectus Boieldieu, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (3) 
IV, 1856, p. 652. — Beare, Ent. Mo. Mag. XL, 1904, p. 4, 85. 
— Champion, ibid., p. 85. — Heyden, Reitter, and Wiese, Cat. 
Col. Eur. ed. 2, 1906, p. 425 (subg. Ptinus). — Fowler, Col. 
Brit. Isl. VI, 1913, p. 146, pi. XV, fig. 12. — Koltze in Reitter, 
Fauna Germ. Kaf. V, 1916, p. 316. — Winkler, Cat. Col. reg. 
pal. 1927, p. 811 (subg. Pseudobruchus Pic). — Joy, Handb. 
Brit. Beetles, 1932, p. 455. — ? pilosus White (nee Miill., 
1821), Voyage Ereb. Terror XI, 1846, p. 8. — Broun, Man. 
New Zeal. Col. I, 1880, p. 338. — Pic, Col. Cat. 41, 1912, p. 35. 
— ocellus Brown, Can. Ent. LXI. 1929, p. 109. 

BiONOMY : Durrant and Beveridge, II. Roy. Army med. Corps 
(London) XX, 191 3, p. 615. — Walker, Ent. Mo. Mag. LI, 
191 5, p. 18. — Scholz, Ent. Blatt. XVI, 1920, p. 23-24; XXIX, 
1933, p. 42. — Carpenter, Econ. Proc. R. Dublin Soc. II (15), 
1920, p. 259-272 (IX, 153).^ — Bur. Bio-Technology Leeds, 
Bull. 2, 1921, p. 52 (IX, 145). — Knapp, Bull. Imp. Inst. Lon- 
don XIX, 1921, p. 189-200 (X, 21). — Zacher, Die Umschau, 
Frankfurt a. M. XXVI (5), 1922, 4 pp. (X, 443); Verb. 
Deutsch. Ges. angew. Ent. 3 Mitgliederversamml. Eisenach 
28. bis. 30. Sept. 1921, 1922, p. 55-59 (XI, 131) ; 5 Mitglied- 
erversamml. Hamburg 16. bis. 20. Sept. 1925, 1926, p. 68-69 
(XIV, 437) ; Die Vorrats-, Speicher- und Materialschadlinge 
und ihre Bekampfung (Berlin) 1927, p. iii. — Theobald, 
Ann. Rep. Res. and Adv. Dept. S. E. Agric. Coll. 1926-27, 
16 pp. (XVI, 148). — von Lengerken, Mitt. Ges. Vorratschutz 
V (22), 1929, p. 21-26, 2 figs. (XVII, 428) ; Z. angew. Ent. 
XIV, 1929, p. 450-460, 8 figs. ; XV, 1929, p. 639, fig. (XVIII, 
187). — Munro, Rep. on Ins. Infestations of Stored Cacao, E. 
M. B. 24, 1929, 40 pp. (XVIII, 176). — Patton, Ins., Ticks, 
Mites and Venomous Animals of Medical and Veterinary Im- 
portance II, 1931, p. 492-493, fig. 267. — Hatch, Ins. Pest 
Surv. Bull. XIII, 1933, p. 27. 

Probably originating in Tasmania, this pest is now known from 
Australia, New Zealand (Broun), Tierra del Fuego and Falkland 

^ These references in parentheses refer to the volume and page 
of the Review of Applied Entomology, Series A, where an abstract 
of the paper cited may be found. 

Bee, 1.933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entoriiological Society 201 

Islands (K. G. Blair), Chile, Jamaica, Grenada and Dominica in 
the West Indies, west Africa, Natal, Afghanistan, Smyrna, Great 
Britain (since 1901), and Ireland and Germany (since 1916) 
(Patton). Under the name of ocellus it was recorded from Vic- 
toria in British Columbia in 1928 by Brown, and I' have taken it 
recently in Seattle, Washington : a single specimen without further 
data in February, 1930, and an extensive series from a warehouse 
on the waterfront in October, 1932. Accompanying the latter 
were lesser numbers of Trigonogcniiis globulus Sol. and an occa- 
sional specimen of Ptinus fur L. 

Ptiniis tectus Boield. has been recorded from a considerable 
series of dried organic products : cayenne pepper, chocolate pow- 
der, dessicated soup, cacao, nutmegs, almonds, ginger, figs, sul- 
tanas, dried pears, dried apricots, beans, rye, fish food, maize, 
casein (Patton), stored hops (Theobald), poultry food and pa- 
prika pepper (von Lengerken), fish meal (Brown). It has been 
found in granaries, ware-houses, bakers' shops, and biscuit fac- 
tories, and eating holes in carpets in Ireland (Patton). 

According to the accounts of Scholz, von Lengerken, and Pat- 
ton, four or five months are required for the life cycle. In Europe 
the eggs are said to be laid in early summer, the larvae spin cocoons 
and pupate in September and October and normally emerge in 
early spring. In warm buildings, however, they appear to emerge 
in numbers between October and December, but .whether such 
adults oviposit at once or wait until summer is not indicated. 

This species has been misreferred by Heyden, Reitter, and 
Weise to the subgenus Ptinus and by Winkler to the subgenus 
Pseudobruchus Pic. Its affinities appear, rather, to be with the 
members of the subgenus Gynopterus Muls. characterized by the 
similar form of the elytra in the two sexes. It has, however, the 
sides of its elytra somewhat more broadly rounded than do most 
of the other species placed in this subgenus. In Fall's key to the 
Nearctic species of this subgenus (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XXXI, 
1905, p. 112-114) tectus runs to category "2," whereupon it is dis- 
tinguished from all the Nearctic species of the subgenus by the 
absence of setae from the punctures of the elytral striae. From 
most of our species it is further distinguished by the uniform red- 
dish yellow pubescence of the elytra, the intervals each with a 
median series of longer more erect setae of the same color, the 
elytra devoid of subbasal or subapical spots of paler vestiture. 
Length 2.5-4 mm. The details of Mr. Brown's excellent descrip- 
tion need not be repeated. Figures of the adult are given by Fow- 
ler and by Patton. 

202 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Societij ^ol. xxvill 

Acknowledgments: To Mr. K. G. Blair, of the British Mu- 
seum of Natural History I am indebted for the identification of 
my Seattle specimens and for distributional notes; to Mr. W. J. 
Brown I am indebted for paratypes of ocellus; to Dr. H. C. Fall 
I am indebted for suggestions. 


By Roy Latham, Orient, Long Island, New York. 

During the gale of November lO, 1932, a large thirty-year-old 
white lilac, Syringa vulgaris, shrub was uprooted on the lawn of 
my home in Orient, Long Island. Intermingled amongst the 
earth, decayed root-wood of the lilac, and the roots of the lawn 
sod were the remains of approximately 200 Rhinocerus beetles, 
Xylorycetcs satyrus. This insect is reported as injurious to ash. 
The lilac is in the Oleaceae, Olive family, which includes the 
Fraxinus, Ash. The genus Fraximis is represented in Orient, as 
far as I can discover, by a single cultivated tree of Fraxinus 
americana. The lilac is common in cultivation throughout Orient 
and also persists as an escaped species. 

Xylorycetes is very local in Orient. It has been common in the 
vicinity of where this uprooted lilac grew, for twenty years, 
swarming in large numbers during the month of July and early 
August. The swarming usually starts about July tenth. They 
commence to fly just before dark and continue for about two 
hours, the numbers gradually diminishing. The humming or 
buzzing caused by their flight can be distinguished from that of 
the several Lachnosterna which are usually in flight at the same 
time. They are attracted commonly to lights. They have varied 
in abundance from year to year, and were comparably uncommon 
in 1932. 

My observations in other parts of eastern Long Island indicate 
Xylorycetes to be localized and rare. Fraxinus grows as a native 
in Greenport and Southold, its range in that section being a con- 
tinuation of the same colony of trees. I have not recorded Frax- 
inus elsewhere on the eastern end of Long Island. Syringa, of 
course, is cultivated commonly throughout all of Long Island. 

As for Xylorycetes. — This large, handsome coleopteron may be 
injurious where it is present in great numbers ; however, it does 
not appear to be generally common enough to cause serious dam- 
age to Syringa, this very popular flowering shrub on the eastern 
half of Long Island. 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 203 


By Alexander B. Klots, University of Rochester. 

The following records are mostly the result of collecting done 
around Rochester during the past year, but a few are of old cap- 
tures, now finally determined. In view of the fact that compara- 
tively little collecting has been done in the past around Rochester, 
there are many new records for this locality. Rochester records of 
generally distributed species have been omitted. 

The number of records of Southern species is noteworthy, and 
significant to a student of the distribution of eastern North Amer- 
ican insects. It is apparent that New York State has been popu- 
lated by immigration from the South along two main routes, the 
first up the coastal strip and into the state by way of the New York 
City region and Long Island, the second up the Mississippi and 
Ohio drainages and into the state by way of Buffalo. Rochester is 
directly in the path of this second wave of dispersal ; as a result we 
would expect to find here, and indeed do, more traces of a South- 
ern fauna than to the East or South. There is still an enormous 
amount of work to be done in tracing out the exact ranges of most 
of our New York insects, and Rochester is at a strategic point for 
some of the most interesting of this work. 

As in former years the type of record has been indicated by a 
prefixed abbreviation, "state" signifying that the record is of a 
species not hitherto recorded from New York, "local" signifying 
that the record is from a locality in New York from which the spe- 
cies has not hitherto been recorded, and " ! !" signifying a record 
of other unusual interest. The Barnes and McDunnough Check- 
list numbers have also been given. 

A great many of the species here recorded were collected by 
Drs. A. Glenn Richards, Jr., and J. D. Hood, and Messrs. E. A. 
Maynard, R. C. Lewis and R. L. Post. The records for the Noc- 
tiioidea were prepared by Dr. Richards and are based largely on 
specimens determined by him. 

Family Incurvariidae. 
local 8471 Tegcticiila yuccasclla Rly. Rochester, 7 Aug. 

Family Eucleidae. 
local 4816 Eiiclea delphinii Bdv. Rochester, 17 July. 

204 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^c^- ^^Vlll 

local 4839 Cochlidion biguttata Pck. Rochester, 2 Aug. ; Lake- 

ville, 12 Jly. 
local 4841 Cochlidion y-invcrsa Pck. Rochester, 23 Jly., 2 Aug. 

Family Tineidae. 
local 8241 Mouopis dorsistrigclla Clem. Rochester, 9 June-9 

local 8242 Monopis crocicapitcUa Clem. Rochester, 5-12 Sept. 
local 8238 Monopis biflavimaculella Clem. Rochester, 7 Aug. 
state 8309 Diachorisia (Homosetia) cristatcUa Chamb. Ithaca, 

26-30 June, 1 93 1, 
local 8234 XylcsfJiia pniiiirainicUa Clem. Rochester, 13 July. 

Family Opostegidae. 

local 8419 Opostcga alhogalericlla var. quadrisirigcUa Chamb. 
Rochester, 3 & 8 July. 

Family Gracilariidae. 

local 7991 Acrocercops astericola F. & B. Rochester, 3 July-7 

state 7972 Creviastohonihycia solidagiiiis F. & B. Rochester, 27 

local 7923 Lithocollctis ostensackcnclla Fitch. Rochester, 16 


Family Coleophoridae. 

local 7762 Coleophora coruscipennclla Clem. Rochester, 17 July- 
7 Aug. 

Family Oecophoridae. 

local 6426 Psilocorsis ohsoletella Z. Rochester, 5-16 June, 
local 6449 Agonopteryx pulvipennclla Clem. Rochester, 22 July- 

31 Aug. 
local 6478 Dcprcssaria heracliana DeG. Rochester, 28 July, 
local 6642 Ethinia longimacidclla Chamb. Rochester, 26 June, 
local 6490 Schiffernmclleria aygoificiiictclla Clem. Rochester, 

12 July, 
local 6499 Oecophora newmanclla Clem. Canandaigua, 18 June. 

Family Xylorictidae. 
local 6606 Stenoma schlaegeri Z. Rochester, 31 July. 

Bee, 1.933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 205 

Family Gelechiidae. 
local 6236 Gcleclua fliivialclla Bsk. Rochester, 12-28 June, 
local 6122 Gnoriuwschcnia gallacsolidaginis Rly. Rochester, 31 

Aug.-i7 Sept. 
local 6361 Trichotaphe alacella Clem. Rochester, 11 Aug. 
state 6357 Trichotaphe serrativittella Z. Rochester, 3 & 8 July, 
local 6362 Trichotaphe purpureofusca Wals. Rochester, 18 June, 
local 6351 Anorthosia punctipcnnclla Clem. Rochester, 13 June— 

9 July. 

local 6185 Duvita iiigratoiucUa Clem. Rochester, 22 June. 

local Duvita tahavusclla Fbs. Rochester, 26 June & 9 July. 

local 6182 Stouwptcr\x palpilinccUa Chamb. Rochester, 6-31 


local 6040 Glance pcctcnalacclla Chamb. Ithaca. 18 June, '31. 

local Aristotclia roscosuffuscUa auct. nee Clem. Rochester, 

June-July, common, 

local 6052 Aristotclia absconditella Walk. Rochester, June-July, 

state 6044 Aristotclia ruhidella Clem. Ithaca, 20 June, '31. 

state 6045 Aristotclia fiingivorclla Clem. Rochester, 18 June, 

local 6135 Reciirvaria apicitripunctclla Clem. Rochester, 28 July, 

local 6160 Epithectis attribiitclla Walk. Rochester, 4 & 6 July, 

local 6062 Evippe priinifoliella Chamb. Rochester, 31 July, 

local 5972 H el ice (Thcisoa) constrict clla Z. Rochester, 26 June. 

Family Lavernidae. 
local 5989 Lyninaccia phraguiitclla Stt. Rochester, June-July, 
local 6008 Lophoptilus eloisella Clem. Rochester, 13 June-6 

local 5998 Psacaphora lucifcrclla Clem. Ithaca, 23 June, '31. 

The first definite record for the state. 

Family Yponomeutidae. 
local 7723 YpojionicUta niultipunctclla C\em. Rochester, 28 July ; 

Morton, 18 July. 

local Cerostonia xylostclla L. Rochester, 30 July. 

local 8080 Scythris eboracensis Z. Rochester, 16 June; Canan- 

daigua, 18 June. 

Family Aegeriidae. 
local 6681 Conopia albicornis H. Edw. Lakeville, 14 June. 

Family Tortricidae. 

state Hcniiincnc (Panuncnc) fclicitana Heinr. Rochester, 

16 & 18 June. 

206 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 

state 7214 Laspeyresia {Grapholitha) auglcscana Kf . Rochester, 

18 June, very common, 
local 7210 L. (Grapholitha) interstinctaiia Clem. Canandaigua, 

18 June, 
local 7216 L. (GrapholitJia) ccUpsana Z. Rochester,. 16 June, 

very common, 
local 7253 Ecdytolopha insiticiaiia Z. Rochester, 18 June, 6 July, 
local 7174 Anchylopera miheculana Clem. Rochester, 5-18 June, 
local 7178 Anchylopera semiovaua Z. Canandaigua, 16 June, 
state Anchylopera inira Heinr. Ithaca, 28 May & 8 June, 

state 6957 Epiblcma sitffitsaiia Z. Rochester, 5 July. 

local 6981 Epiblcma strenuana Walk. Rochester, 18-22 June. 

local 7014 Epiblcma scuddcriana Clem. Rochester, 20 June-8 

state 6914 Eucosnia inandana Kf. Rochester, 18-22 June, 
state 6973 Eucosnia zomonana Kf. Rochester, 6 July & 7 Aug. 
local 6880 Eucosnia robinsonana Grt. Rochester, 12 & 22 June, 
local 7036 Eucosnia sonibrcana Kf. Rochester, 9-23 July, 
local 6394 Eucosnia cataclystiana Wlk. Rochester, 22 June-28 

local 6917 Eucosma pergandeana Fern. Rochester, 18-22 June, 
local 7029 Eucosma dorsisignatana Clem. Rochester, Aug. 
local Eucosma derelicta Heinr. (= juncticiliana auct. nee 

Wals.). Rochester, 28 July-7 Aug. 
local 7065 Thiodia striatana Clem. Rochester, 5 June, 
local 7062 Thiodia imbridana Fern. Rochester, 28 Aug. 
local 7061 Thiodia olivaceana Rly. Rochester, 26 June, 
state 7074 Thiodia kiscana Kf. Rochester, 18 June, 
local 6971 Sonia constrictaiia Z. Rochester, 3 July-7 Aug. 
local 7130 Protcoteras aesculana Rly. Rochester, 26 June, 
state G ret china dcrclictana Heinr. Ithaca, 20 May & 13 

June, '30. 
local 6992 Exentera improbana f. orcgoiiana Wals. Rochester, 

16 Apr. 
state 6790 Bactra furfurana Haw. Rochester, 26 June, 
local 6869 Olcthreutes bipartitana Clem. Rochester, 26 June-7 

local 6865 Olcthreutes glaciana Mosch. (in State List as fuscal- 

bana Z.). Canandaigua, 18 June, 
local 6864 Olcthreutes (Badebecia) urticana Huebn. (in State 

List as campestrana Z.). Rochester, 12 June; Can- 
andaigua, 18 June. 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 207 

local 6853 Olcfhrciifcs alholineana Kf. (in State List as abictaiia 
Fern.). Rochester, 21 June. 

state 6861 Olcthrentes {Endothenia) antiquaiia mtbilaiia Kf. 
Rochester, 20 Sept. 

local 6859 Olethrcutes duplex Wals. Rochester, 18-22 June. 

local 6847 Olethrcutes chionosema Z. Rochester, 26 June. 

local 6827 OlctJu'cntcs hchcsana Walk. Rochester, 5 June-17 

local OlctJircittcs varicgana Huebn. Rochester, 9 July. 

local 6873 Pliaccasiophora nivcignttana Grt. Rochester, 9-28. 

local 6799 Cymoloinia (Esartciiia) olivaccana Fern. Canan- 
daigua, 18 June. 

local 6801 Cxniolomia (Exartenia) punctana Wals. Rochester, 
6 July. 

local 6806 Cymoloinia (Exartema) cxolcta Z. Rochester, 2 Sept. 

state Cymolomia {Exartema) furfuranum McD. Ithaca, 

17 June. 

local 7303 Sparganothis irrorea Rob. Rochester, 9 June. 

local 7296 Sparganothis diluticostana Wlsm. Rochester, 9 June. 

local 7294 Sparganothis rcticulafaiia var. gracUana Wis. Roches- 
ter, 22 July. 

local 7281 Coclosfathuia discopiiuctannm Clem. Rochester, 26 

state 7415 Pcronca oxycoccaua Pck. Rochester, 29 Oct., com- 

local yzyy Cnephasia vircscana Clem. Rochester, 31 July. 

local 7390 Eidia velutinana Wlk. Rochester, July. 

local 7399 Eidia juglandana Fern. Rochester, 3-8 July. 

local 7398 Eidia qiiadrifosciana Fern. Rochester, 2-13 July. 

local 7363 A re hips confiictana Wlk. Lakeville, 3 July. 

local 7356 Archips fractivittana Clem. Rochester, 9 June. 

local 7342 Archips pcrsicana Fitch. Lakeville, 3 July. 

local 7341 Archips dissitaiia Grt. Otsego Lake (Charles 

local /^^^h Archips mortnana Kf. Rochester, 9 July. 

local 7357 Archips viclalcucana Wlk. Canandaigua, 18 June. 

local 7336 Pandemis liuiifata Rob. Rochester, 13 June-8 July. 

Family Thyrididae. 
local 4888 Thyris iiiacidata Harr. Oswegatchie, 12-18 June. 

208 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXVIII 

Family Pyralididae. 

Condylolomia participialis Grt. Rochester, 28 July. 
Paralispa tcrrcncUa Z. Rochester, 3 July.; Lakeville, 

3 July- 

Glaphyria sesquistrialis Huebn. Rochester, 8-29 July. 

Glaphyria psychicalis Hist. Rochester, 6-14 July. 

Glaphyria Icntiftualis Z. Rochester, 29 July. 

Lipocosma cripalis Grt. Rochester 14 July. 

Lipocosma fuliginosalis Fern. Rochester, 9-14 July. 

Dicyniolomia julianalis Wlk. Rochester, 7 Aug. 

Blcpharoiiiastix ranalis Guen. Rochester, 16 June & 
6 July. 

Blepharomastix stenialis Guen. Rochester, 9 July. 

Pantograpta limata G. & R. Sodus Point, 25 July. 

Eudioptis nitidalis Cr. Rochester, 14 Sept. 

Crocidophora scrratissiiiialis Z. Rochester, 9 June. 

Loxostegc sticticalis L. Rochester, 9 June-12 Sept. 

Tholcria reversal is Guen. Rochester, 23 July. 

Cindaphia hicoloralis Guen. Rochester, 28 June- Aug. 

Phlyctaenia fumalis Guen. Rochester, 7-15 Aug. 

Pyrausta illibalis arsaltealis Wlk. Oswegatchie, 13 
local 5140 Pyrausta unifascialis sitbolivalis Pck. Canandaigua, 

18 June, 
local 5155 Pyrausta ochosalis, Holl. Rochester, 5 June, 
local ^ic^za. Pyrausta subsequalis var. madestisalis Wlk. Roches- 
ter, 6 July, 
local — ■ — ■ Bocotarcha deiiiaufrialis Druce, Rochester, 28 July, 
local 5178 Thelcteria piipiila Hbn. Rochester, 3 June-9 July, 
local 5206 Nymphula gyralis Hulst. Rochester, 9 July-17 Sept. 
local 5217 Elophila fulicalis Clem. Rochester, 26 June-6 Aug.; 

Lakeville, 28 June; Morton, 18 July, 
local 5225 Geshna primordialis Dyar. Rochester, i July; Can- 
andaigua, 18 June, 
local 5238 Scoparia penumbralis Dyar. Canandaigua, 18 June, 
local 5255 Pyralis discifcralis Dyar. Rochester, 9 June, 
local 5250 Aglossa cuprina Z. Rochester, 15-20 July, 
local 5268 Herculia olinalis Guen. Rochester, 3 July, 
local 5430 Chilo plejadellus Zinck. Rochester, 2 Aug. 
local 5421 Argyria auratella Clem. Rochester, 18 July. 

local Argyria critica Fbs. Rochester, 9, 14 & 22 July. 

local 5403 Thaumatopsis pexella Z. Rochester, 5 Sept. 





































Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 209 

local Cramhiis bigittteUus Fbs. Rochester, 9 June. 

local 5467 Epipaschia superatalis Clem. Rochester, 8 July. 
local 5720 Eiizophera semifuneralis Wlk. Rochester, 13 June, 
local 5835 Peoria approximcUa Wlk. Rochester, June-Aug. 

Family Epiplemidae. 

local 4790 Callcdaptcryx dryopterata Grt. Otsego Lake (Charles 

Family Geometridae. 
state 4387 Macaria orillata Wlk. Ithaca, 17 July, '31. 

Family Notodontidae. 
local 361 1 Odoiitosia clcgans Strkr. Oswegatchie, 9 June, '31. 

Family Noctuidae. 

local 3574 Anepischctos minualis On. (in State List as A. citata 

Grt.). Rochester, 20 June, '31. 
local 3474 Melanonuna aiiricinctaria Grt. Rochester, 9 & 12 

local 3472 Spargaloma sexpunctata Grt. Rochester, 4 & 28 July, 
local 3473 S pargaloma perditalis Wlk. Rochester, 7 July-7 Aug. 
state 3469 Oxycilla panatclla Sm.. Rochester, 6 July (det. F. H. 

local 3532 Reiiia sobrialis Wlk. Rochester, 9 July, 
local 3513 Honnisa litophora Grt. Rochester, 18 Aug. 
local 3515 Honnisa orciferalis Wlk. Resort, 23 July, '31. Coll. 

by J. D. Hood. First definite record for the State. 

local Epiccuxis diminuendis B. & McD. Rochester, 7 Aug. 

local 3359 Anticarsia geinmatilis Hbn. Rochester, 28 Sept. 

local 3285 Ahrostola formosa Grt. Rochester, 20 June. 

local 3284 Paleoplusia venusta Wlk. Rochester, 29 Aug.-27 

Sept. ; Sodus Point, 31 July & 5 Aug. 
local 3281 Pscitdcva purpurigcra Wlk. Rochester, 15 July; 

Sodus Point, 25 July, 
local 2791 ArcJianara ohlonga Grt. Sodus Point, 12 Sept. 
state 2693 Papaipcma nelita Strkr. Rochester, 15 Aug., '31 (det. 

Henry Bird), 
local 2662 Papaipema speciosissima G. & R. Rochester, 8 & 14 

Sept. (det. Henry Bird), 
local 2654 Khodoccia aurantiago illiterata Grt. Rochester, 7 & 

12 Aug. 

210 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- X^Vlli 

local 2643 Xanthoecia buffaloensis Grt. Rochester, 5 Sept. 
local 2649 Gortyna immanis Gn. Rochester, late Aug.-Sept. 
local 2483 Acronycta (Apatela) populi Rly. Lakeyille, Living- 
ston Co., 30 July, 
local 2433 Acronycta (Apatela) connecta Grt. Rochester, 7 Aug. 
local 2454 Acronycta {Apatela) cacsarca Sm. Ithaca, 9 June; 

Rochester, 12 July, 
local 2359 Ercniobia claudens Wlk. Sodus Point, 30 Aug. & i 

local 2356 Agropcrina liitosa Andr. Rochester, 3 July, 
local 2341 Oligia exhausta Sm. Lakeville, 17 July, '27. 
local 2343 Oligia includens Wlk. Rochester, 9 July, 
local 2339 Oligia diversicolor Morr. Rochester, 16 July & 12 

local 2312 Trachea enigra Sm. Ithaca, 7 June, '30. 
state 2264 Septis plutonia Grt. Ithaca, 12 July, '30 (coll. A. E. 

B rower) . 
local 2241 Pyrophila glabella Morr. Rochester, 7 Aug. 
local 2034 Oncocnemis sanndcrsiana Grt. Lake Otsego (Charles 

local 1734 Polia vicina Grt. Rochester, 29 July. 
local 1596 Cryptocala gilvipennis Grt. Rochester, 17 & 26 July, 
local 1504 Adita chionanthi S. & A. Rochester, 21 Sept. 
local 1438 Noctua rubifera Grt. Rochester, 21 July, 
local 1379 Choricagrotis thanatologia Dyar. Morton, 18 July, 
local 1 1 52 ScJiinia trifascia Hbn. Rochester, 4 Aug.; Sodus 

Point, 7 Aug. 
local 1 1 80 ScJiinia lynx Gn. Rochester, 5 Aug. 

Family Nolidae. 
local 842 Celania cilicoidcs Gvt. Lake Otsego (Charles Stearns). 

Short notes wanted. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 211 


By J. C. Gaines, 
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, Texas. 

The following is a list of Coccinellids collected principally by 
the writer in the vicinity of College Station and in Hidalgo county, 
Texas, during 1930, 193 1, and 1932. Notes, as far as possible, are 
given on the habitat, host, and the date that each species was col- 
lected. Of the 64 species and varieties listed herein, 19 have not 
been heretofore reported from this state. The writer is indebted 
to Dr. E. A. Chapin for determining some of the species of Hy- 
peraspis and Scymmts. 

^Hypcraspis octonofata Casey, Sonora, April 18, 1932 (Jones). 
Hyperaspis lateralis Muls., College Station, May 2, 1932. 
Hyperaspis bigeminata (Rand.), College Station, April 9, May 2, 
1931, May I, 1932, collected on arborvitae plants that were 
infested with Dilachnus sp. Dallas, May 23, 1932, feeding on 
cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria vitis (Linn.). 

"^Hyperaspis signata (Oliv.), College Station, March to June, 
193 1. Austin, May 31, 1931, feeding on cottony maple scale, 
Pulvinaria vitis ( Linn. ) . 

^Hyperaspis binotata (Say), College Station, March to June, 
1931, feeding on aphids. Austin, May 31, 1931, feeding on 
cottony maple scale, Pulvinaria vitis (Linn.). 
Hyperaspis globula Casey, Hidalgo county, January 23, 1933, 

feeding on scale, Inglisia malvacearuni Ckll. (Clark). 
Hyperaspis lengi Schfr., Hidalgo county, June 12, 1930, April 
24, 1931, July 17, 1932, from week sweepings (Clark), Janu- 
ary 25, 1933 (Monk). 

^Hyperaspis nevadica Casey, Elsa, July 17, 1932. The specimen 
from Texas differs from several specimens from Yakima, 
Washington, in having broader, reddish marginal vittae be- 
ginning very near the basal margin that are more dilated in- 

*Hyperaspis dissoluta Cr., Taylor, April 4, 1929. 
Hyperaspis trifurcata Schfr., College Station, January 28, 1918 

* Species preceded by an asterisk have not been heretofore re- 
ported from Texas. 

212 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^(^^- ^^Vlll 

Hyperaspis fimbriolafa Melsh., Taylor, June i, 1929. College 

Station, June to August, 1931, July 7, collected' on ragweed, 

Ambrosia sp., July 9, collected on cotton. 
Hyperaspis fimbriolata marginatus Ga., College Station, May, 

1932, from weed sweepings. 
^Hyperaspis bensonica Casey, College Station, July 9, 193 1, April 

19, 1932, collected on cotton (Reinhard). 
Hyperaspis undulata (Say), Hidalgo county, June 2, 1930. Elsa, 

July 17, 1932. (Specimens from Texas differ from specimens 

from Minnesota and Iowa in that they are more broadly oval, 

the pale mlarginal vittae are narrower, and the pronotum is 

more lustrous and densely punctate.) 
Hypcraspidius viitigera Lee, College Station, July 31, October 

2, 193 1, May 9, 1932. 
*Hyperaspidiits pallidus Casey, College Station, July 15, 1932. 
Brachyacantha bistripustidata (Fab.), Hidalgo county, April 15, 

1931 (Monk). 
Brachyacantha bistripustidata decora Casey, Mission, May 11, 

1929 (Bibby). College Station, May 4, 1931, collected on 

mesquite, Prosopis sp., October 28, 1932, collected on cotton. 

Hidalgo county. May to July, 1930, December, 1930, collected 

on cacti that were infested with mealy bugs (Clark), June i, 

1931 (Monk). 
.Brachyacantha bistripustulata minor Leng, Hidalgo county, June 

24, 1930, April 15, 1931 (Monk). College Station, Septem- 
ber 29, 1932. 
Brachyacantha dentipes (Fab.), College Station, June 12, 1930. 
"^Brachyacantha dentipes separata Leng, Hidalgo county. May 27, 

June 6, 1930. 
Brachyacantha subfasciata Muls., Sonora, April 14, 1932 

Brachyacantha quadrillum Lee, Hidalgo county. May 27, 1930. 

College Station, June 15-18, July 31, 193 1. 
Brachyacantha blaisdelli Nun., Hidalgo county, June 6, 1930. 

College Station, June 28, 1932. 
Brachyacantha testudo Casey, Hidalgo county, May 27, 1930, 

June I, 193 1 (Monk). 
Brachyacantha bolH Cr., .March 14-18, 1931, collected on black 

haw, Viburnum sp., infested with aphids, July 15, 1932, from 

oak, Quercus virginiana Miller, November 11, 1932, from 

cotton sweepings. 
Microweisea miniita (Casey), College Station, April 18, 1930 


Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 213 

Scymnus creperiis Muls., College Station, common from April to 

November, 193 1, 1932, on plants that were infested with 

aphids, was observed hibernating in moss, Tillandsia usne- 

oides L., Taylor, June i, 1927. Hidalgo county, June i, 193 1. 

Scymnus texanus Casey, College Station, May 4, 1931, June 6, 

^Scymnus haemorrhous Lee, College Station, March 14, 1931, 

feeding on aphids. 

*Scymniis cervicalis Muls., College Station, April 19, 1930, feed- 
ing on aphids, March 14, 1931. 

*Scymnus tenebrosiis Muls., College Station, April 12 and 15, 


Scymnus cinctus Lee, College Station, March 20, 1930, collected 
on cotton. May 2, 1930, June and July, 193 1, February 11, 
1933, hibernating in grass. Taylor, June 20, 1929. Dickin- 
son, September 7, 1931 (Roney). Plainview, October 14, 
1931 (Jones). 

Scymnus americanus Muls., College Station, May 23, June 9, 
and July 9, 193 1. 

Scymnus intrusus Horn, College Station, June, 1932, Septenlber 
10, 1932 (Reinhard). 

Scymnus terminatus Say, College Station, April, May, and June, 
1931, Dickinson, September 10, 1931 (Roney). 

Scymnus brunnescens Casey, College Station, June 14, 1932, col- 
lected on cotton. 
*Cryptolaemus montroiizieri Muls., Beaumont, August 12 
(Combs), introduced to control mealy bugs on figs. 

Rodolia cardinalis (Muls.), Hidalgo county, May 20, 1930, De- 
cember, 1930 (Clark). Beeville, August 11, 193 1. Intro- 
duced to control cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi 
"^Psyllohora viginiti-maculata (Say), College Station, January 15, 
193 1, hibernating in moss, Tillandsia usneoidcs L., March to 
April, 1 93 1. 

PsyUohora viginiti-maculata rcnifer Casey, College Station, 
March to August, 1931. Spur, September 12, 1932 (Brom- 

Naemia seriata (Melsh.), Galveston county, 1929 (Hull). Fort 
Bend county. May 29, 1932, collected on corn (Fletcher). 

Ceratomegilla fuscilabris (Muls.), Taylor, June 20, 1929. Col- 
lege Station, 193 1, 1932, common from April to November on 
plants that were infested with aphids. Hidalgo county. May 

214 Bullet 171 of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^^- ^^yni 

2, June 12, 1930. Dickinson, March 6, 1931 (Roney). Win- 
terhaven, September 7, 1932 (Mortensen). 
Hippodamia convergens Guer., Taylor, May 25, June 20, 1929. 
Gilmer, December 27, 1930. College Station, 193 1, 1932, 
common from April to November on plants that were in- 
fested with aphids. Hidalgo county. May 21, June 12, 1930. 
Dickinson, March, 1931 (Roney). Winterhaven, September 
7, 1932 (Mortensen). 

"^Hippodamia convergens ambigiia Lee, College Station, May to 
October, 1931. Hidalgo county, June i, 1931. San Angelo, 
May 15, 1931 (Jones). Lamesa, May 15, 1931 (Jones). 

^Neohar mania venusta (Melsh.), Simonton, June 9, 1928. Mad- 
ison county, September 8, 1930 (Bibby). College Station, 
January 14, 1931, hibernating in moss, Tillandsia usne aides 
L., April to September, 193 1, collected on willow, Salix sp., 
and prickly ash, Xanthaxyhim clava-herculis Linn., that were 
infested with aphids. 
Caccinella novemnotata Hbst., Amarillo, September 28, 1930 
(Jones), May 10, 1931 (Jones). Hereford, May 12, 1931 
(Jones). Gilmer, December 27, 1930. 
Cyclaneda sangiiinea (Linn.), College Station, 1931, 1932, com- 
mon from April to November on plants that were infested 
with aphids, was observed hibernating in moss, Tillandsia 
• usneaides L., Hidalgo county. May 21, 1930. Winterhaven, 
September 7, 1932 (Mortensen). 

"^Cyclaneda sangiiinea immaculata (Fab.), College Station, 1931, 
1932, common from April to November on plants that were 
infested with aphids. Hidalgo county, June 20, 1930. 

^'Cyclaneda miinda (Say), College Station, 1931, 1932, common 
from April to November on plants that were infested with 
Olla abdominalis (Say), College Station, 1931, 1932, comanon 
from April to November on plants that were infested with 
aphids, was observed hibernating in moss, Tillandsia usne- 
aides L., Winterhaven, September 7, 1932 (Mortensen). 
Olla abdominalis plagiata Casey, College Station, 1931, 1932, 
common from April to November on plants that were in- 
fested with aphids, was observed hibernating in moss, Til- 
landsia usneaides L. 

*Olla abdominalis arisonae Casey, Castolon, June i, 1928 (Bibby). 
Hidalgo county, May 21, 1930. College Station, March 23, 
April 7, 1931. Spur, September 11, 1932 (Bromley). 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 215 

Cleis concolor Cr., College Station, March 19 to April 27, 1931, 
collected on arborvitae plants that were infested with Di- 
lachmis sp. 

Neomysia pullata (Say), College Station, March to April, 1931, 
collected on arborvitae plants that were infested with Di- 
lachnus sp. 

Axion pilatei Muls., Taylor, May 10, 1929. Spur, March 11, 
193 1. College Station, May 26, 193 1, collected on oak, Quer- 
ciis stellata Wangenheim, that was infested with scale. Dal- 
las, June 2, 1932, feeding on cottony maple scale, Pulinnaria 
vitis (Linn.). 

Axion tripustulatum (DeG.), College Station, April 15, May 26, 
June I, 1931, collected on oak, Qiicrcus stellata Wangenheim, 
that was infested with scale. October 7, 1932, collected from 
moss, Tillandsia nsneoides L. 

Chilocorus cacti Linn., Hidalgo county, April 15 to June 15, 

1930, feeding on scale on citrus trees. Kenedy, June 30, 

1931, feeding on scale on chinaberry. Dickinson, September 
7, 1931 (Roney). 

Chilocorus biviilnerus Muls., Hidalgo county, June, 1930, feed- 
ing on scale on citrus trees. College Station, May, 193 1, col- 
lected on oak, Qiiercus stellata Wangenheim, that was in- 
fested with scale. 

Exochomus margimpennis childrcni Muls., Taylor, June 20, 
1929. College Station, April 4, 1930. January 15, 1931, hi- 
bernating in moss, Tillandsia usneoides L., April 20, 193 1, 
May 18, 1931, collected on oak, Querciis stellata Wangen- 
heim, that was infested with aphids. May 9, 193 1, collected 
on mesquite, Prosopis sp., November 11, 1932, collected on 
cotton, observed in large numbers on ragweed. Ambrosia sp., 
probably feeding on pollen. 

Exochomus marginipenms latiiiscttlus Casey, College Station, 
April I. 191 7 (Reinhard). Hidalgo county, December, 1930, 
feeding on mealy bugs on cactus (Clark). 
*Epilachna horealis (Fab.), College Station, April 17, 1932 (Rein- 

Epilachna corrupta Muls., Observed near El Paso in 1931, no 
specimens taken (Thomas). 

Epilachna tozveri Joh., Presidio, August 17, 1931 (Thomas). 

216 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^l. XXVIII 


By Kenneth W. Cooper, Flushing, L. I. 

Dorii aciileatiim (Scudder) is found rather commonly under 
cover on the wooded slopes adjoining the Bayside, L. I., salt 
marsh. To my knowledge this insect has never been captured 
within the swamp limits, and it seems that its particular habitat is 
moist, wooded regions. During the summer months Doru is 
rather difficult to find in numbers, but in the late fall it is very 
abundant under cover. It burrows in the soft debris beneath 
stones and logs at the approach of the hibernation period. Often 
one may take as many as fourteen or fifteen specimens from under 
a single log, where they are found clustered together. One after- 
noon during the past November, Mr. George Lipsey and the 
author were fortunate enough to capture sixty-three specimens 
within as many minutes. Of these, thirty-two specimens were 
females. It appears, then, that the sexes are represented by very 
nearly equal numbers. 

Of the thirty-two females, three showed malformations of the 
anal forceps. Among the male specimens there was but a single 
member not having typical forceps. Whether or not these aber- 
rant members are the result of disturbances which affected the 
development in the embryonic stage, I cannot say. As the last ab- 
dominal segments of these specimens show little evidence of mu- 
tilation, I would hesitate before suggesting that these deformed 
forceps are the result of regeneration of parts destroyed by com- 
bat or other means of violence, although the Nakaharas (Bull. 
B'klyn Ent. Soc, Vol. xxiv, p. i6i, 1929) show that such regen- 
eration may occur. The accompanying plate figures the extent 
and character of these malformations. 

Explanation of Plate XVI. 

Figures i, 2, & 3. Deformed forceps of female specimens. 

Figure 4. Normal female forceps. 

Figure 5. Deformed male forceps. 

Figure 6. Normal male forceps. 

All figures to the same scale (lox), and of dorsal aspect. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXVIII, No. 5 

Plate XVI 


218 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. xxvili 


By Richard Dow, Cambridge, Mass. 

Gorytes similicolor, n. sp. 

Female. Black, locally tinged with fuscous. Two obscure 
spots on the clypeus below the insertions of the antennae, a 
narrow continuous fascia on the pronotum, a short obscure 
fascia on the anterior half of the metanotum, the posterior 
margin of the first tergite, marginal fasciae on tergites 2-5, 
the one on tergite 4 slightly bi-emarginate anteriorly, the 
fascia on tergite 5 more clearly so, narrow marginal fasciae 
on sternites 2-5, sixth sternite: yellow. Wings yellowish, 
somewhat iridescent ; the nervures yellowish-brown. Hair 
silvery, more or less tinged with yellow. 

Head closely punctate and hairy, with short hair on the 
vertex. Clypeus medially truncate, with a few larger punc- 
tures near the relatively glabrous anterior border. Margin 
of the labrum with coarse, bronzy hair. Inner margins of 
the eyes sinuate, roughly parallel. Distance between the 
posterior ocelli more than twice the distance from one of 
them to the anterior ocellus, and about two-thirds the distance 
to the eye. 

Thorax closely punctate and hairy, with shorter hair on 
the dorsum. Pronotum with a series of short longitudinal 
ridges on each side of the collar. Mesonotum with a stubble 
of yellowish hair. Scutellum slightly impressed posteriorly, 
with a small elliptical depression filled with a tuft of hair; 
the anterior suture finely foveolate. Metanotum convex, 
with a plane anterior face. Propodeal enclosure medially 
impunctate, with a longitudinal linear furrow which is wider 
at the base ; the enclosure separated from the remainder of 
the propodeum by a coarsely foveolate suture which is much 
broader at the sides. Posterior face of the propodeum 
roughly sculptured, elsewhere simply punctate. Lateral 
sutures of the thorax as in Gorytes mystaceus, but less con- 
spicuously foveolate. Mesosternum with a fine median 
carina. Wings, excepting the coloration, as in mystaceus. 
Legs densely and finely punctate, with silvery pubescence ; 
otherwise without distinctive characters. 

Abdomen densely and finely punctate, pubescent. Anterior 
slope of the first tergite with a longitudinal, tongue-shaped 
depression ; the basal portion with scattered punctures, and 
two lateral carinae slightly converging behind ; the posterior 
part more shallow, sloping gradually into the remainder of 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 219 

the tergite. Pygidial area with straight converging lateral 
margins, rounded at the apex, and covered with coarse, 
bronzy hair. Fourth and fifth sternites each with two oval 
iridescent areas of extremely fine longitudinal striations ; the 
posterior part of these sternites with large scattered punc- 
tures. Sixth sternite with large punctures and a median im- 
punctate stripe. 

Length: about 12 mm. 

Holotype : a female collected at Villarrica, Paraguay, in 
February, 1923, now in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 
Cambridge, type no. 17051. 

In Handlirsch's key to the American species of Gorytes, this 
specimen' runs to areatiis Taschenberg, to which it is closely re- 
lated. No specimens of areatiis are available for comparison, 
but according to the descriptions, similicolor may be easily dis- 
tinguished by its larger size, the color of the wings, and the 
distribution of the maculations. Although Taschenberg states 
that arcatus has abdominal fasciae on tergites 1-3, Handlirsch 
says that there are four interrupted fasciae without mentioning 
on which tergites they occur. According to Handlirsch, the 
carinae which limit the depressed area of the first tergite are 
parallel, instead of convergent posteriorly. 

The author is indebted to Dr. Joseph Bequaert for the privilege 
of describing this specimen. The name similicolor was selected 
on account of the striking resemblance of this species to certain 
vespid wasps, such as Pachodynerus nasidens (Latreille) and 
Nectarina lecheguana (Latreille). 

A Thought on Mounting. — When examining collections, one 
is frequently struck by the facts that some entomologists seem not 
yet weaned from the primitive idea of mounting insects suitably 
for arrangement in artistic geometric designs under glass in a gilt 
frame for hanging on the wall. For scientific purposes, the art 
idea should go by the board. Insects should be mounted in such a 
manner as to exhibit clearly for study all the external, critical char- 
acters of the species or genus. — J. R. T.-B. 

220 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^"L XXVIII 


John N. Belkin, Harvard University. 

This list is the result of a fev^ v^eeks' collecting at Roslyn, Long 
Island, during the summer of 1930. In looking over Mr. Kenneth 
W. Cooper's recent list of additions to the coleopterological fauna 
of Long Island (Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXVII, pp. 189-195), I 
find that many of my captures confirm Mr. Cooper's records, 
especially in the smaller families, as in Mordellidae (Tomaxia 
liiiecia Lee, MordelUstena nigricans Melsh., M. pustiilata Melsh., 
M. convicta Lee, M. morula Lee). But there still remain a few 
species that have not previously been recorded from Long Island 
in the New York State List of Insects or in Mr. Cooper's Addi- 
tions. Some of these are quite common throughout the state and 
it is strange that they have not been found on the island before ; 
while others are quite rare in the state ; and a very small number 
— five — were not previously taken in New York. 

All the species in this list were determined by myself. A num- 
ber were verified by Mr. Andrew J. Mutchler of the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

In writing up the list, the general plan of Mr. Cooper's list 
was followed. The numbers preceding the generic name are 
those of the Leng Catalogue. An asterisk (*) indicates that the 
species was not recorded from New York State in the New York 
State List of Insects. 


6528 — Toxidiuui grammaroides, Lee. 


6571 — Hister interruptus, ^6664 — Phelister sayi, Carn. 

Beauv. 6724 — Isolomalus bistriatus, 

6627 — H. americanus, Payk. Er. 

6943 — Eros crenatus, Germ. 

6979 — Liicidota nigricans, Say . 

7161 — Silis bidentatus, Say 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 221 

^7296 — Attains varians, Horn 


7857 — Mordcllistcna niili- 7943 — Anaspis rufa, Say 

taris, Lee. 

7970 — RliipipJionis stylopidcs, Newn. 


9408 — CJirysohothris lecontei, Lg. 


* 10099 — St did Ota octoinaculata, Say 


10242 — Lacnwphlaeus uwdcstus, Say 

10292 — Acropteroxys graeilis, 10334 — Triplax thoraciea, 
Newn. Say 

10493 — MycetopJiagns pictiis, Csy. 

ii202a.-Aii{itis quiiideciiupitiictata inali, Say 

12308 — Hoplocephala viridi- 12323 — Platydema ameri- 

pennis, Fab. eaniim, Cast. & Brll. 

12521 — Abstrulia tessalata, 12534 — Eustrophiniis eonfinis, 

Melsh. Lee. 


12997 — Xestoeis Icvetti, Csy. 13037 — Octotemnns laevis, 

131 59 — Aphodius rubeohis, 13506 — PJiyllopliaga iiiversa, 

Beauv. Horn 

13162 — A. stereorosus, Melsh. 13519 — P- tarda, Horn 
13 198 — A. rubripennis, Horn 14010 — Osmoderma seabra, 

* 1 3263 — Ochodaeus museiiliis, Beauv. 


222 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^l. XXVIII 

1 42 1 4 — Hypermalns medialis, 146'/^ — Xylotrechus colonus, 

Csy. Fab. 

14673 — Glycohius speciosiis, 14912 — Cacoplia piillata, Hald. 

Say 15026 — Acanthocinus pusilhis, 



15240 — Lema pahistris, *^5^79 — Oedionychis idkei, 

Blatch. Horn 

13506 — Phyllophaga iiwcrsa, 16016 — Chaetocnema confinis, 

Mann. Cr. 

*I5539 — Triachus vacuus, Lee. 16047 — Longitarsiis testaceus, 

15545 — Nodonota tristis, Oliv. Melsh. 

15636 — Prasoairis vittata, 16126 — Uroplata porcata, 

Oliv. Melsh. 

16275 — Eusphynis ivalshii, Lee. 


16369 — Attclabus rlwis, Boh. 17719 — C. quercus, Say 

1 741 5 — Lixiis nmscidiis, Say 17721 — C. longidus, Lee. 

17712 — Cylindrocoptus binota- 17928 — Tyloderma aerea, Say 

tits, Lee. 17929 — T. punctata, Csy. 


1 85 1 2 — Xyleborus eels us, Eieh. 

Notice to Subscribers. — Please use promptly the enclosed 
subscription blank. This will save our Treasurer labor and ex- 
pense of postage in sending out bills. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 223 


By E. D. Ball, University of Arizona, Tucson. 

Parabolocratus atascaderus Ball n. sp. 

Resembling viridis but slightly larger with a longer vertex 
in both sexes. Green with the male elytra tipped with smoky 
and the legs and a wedge on venter black. Length 5 8 mni- ) 
J* 6 mm. 

Vertex, slightly longer than in viridis in the female, 
definitely longer with the margins almost straight for some 
distance from the eye in the male, disc flat or concave, the 
apex slightly elevated, face but little inflated in the female 
with a much broader foliaceous margin anteriorly, than in 
viridis. Male face not inflated, profile straight. Elytra 
reaching the middle of last abdominal segment in the female 
with the apical cells very long. Male pygofers much longer 
than the triangular plates. In drying the plates are usually 
elevated so as to expose heavier and more strongly curved 
styles than those found in viridis. 

Color. Female green the tip of the ovipositor scarlet, male 
green, a faint black line under the vertex margin and usually 
a still fainter one above, the apical cells smoky the legs and 
a wedge on venter black. 

Holotype $ allotype ($ and 14 paratypes taken by the writer 
north of Santa Margarita, California, June 23, 193 1. The 
elongated foliaceous head in the male will at once distinguish this 
species from viridis. The narrower vertex, black legs and venter 
will separate it from planus. 

Parabolocratus attenuatus var. purpureas Ball, n. var. 

Similar in form and structure to the species, slightly nar- 
rower with a longer ovipositor in the female. Color a rich 
but slightly pale purple with a smoky cast in the males, the 
vertex paler, a white line on either side from the apex of 
vertex to the middle of costa omitting the eyes; below with 
a scarlet tinge in the females, smoky in the males. 

Holotype J' March 22, 1931, allotype ? April 25, 1931, and 
12 paratypes taken in March and April, 1931 and 1932, all taken 
in Sabino Canyon, Tucson, Arizona, by the author. This is a 
striking form in this group and is much more abundant than the 
broader green form described as attenuatus. 

224 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^ol. XXVIII 

Kinonia Ball, n. gen. 

Superficially resembling a small and extremely elongate 
Athysanella, but with the head produced into an extremely 
long almost Cephalelus-l'ike cone and the elytra covering all 
but the last two segments of the abdomen. Pale straw color 
without pattern, the eyes dark. 

Vertex nearly flat posteriorly where it has a median groove, 
joining the front before the eyes in forming a slightly flat- 
tened cone, without margins or groove. Eyes extremely 
large and long bordering more than half the pronotum and 
forming one-half the length of the cone-like head, which is 
from two to three times as long as wide. Ocelli extremely 
small, close to and in front of the eyes, connected to the 
antennal pits by a suture. Clypeus long, large, together with 
front forming a long wedge. Antennae long with little indi- 
cations of a pit. Pronotum short, mostly enclosed by the 
eyes slightly emarginate in the middle posteriorly, running 
around beneath the body laterally as in Neocoelidia but lack- 
ing the lateral carinae behind the eyes. Elytra long and 
very narrow inclined to separate posteriorly exposing one or 
two segments of the long abdomen. Venation obscure, 
simple, resembling Euscelis. Abdomen elongate with extreme 
elongation of the pygofers and ovipositor as in some species 
of Athysanella. 

Type of the genus Kinonia elongata n. sp. This appears to be 
an Acucephaline genus with no close affinities in our fauna. The 
nymphs have even longer heads than the adults. 

Kinonia elongata Ball, n. sp. 

Somewhat resembling Athysanella acuticauda but much 
smaller and slenderer, as pale and inconspicuous as a 
Lonatura, small, elongate, straw-colored with extremely long 
head and ovipositor. Length 5 4 nim., (^ 2.8 mm., width .8 
mm. Structure of the genus ; the vertex 2^^ times longer 
than width between the eyes, more than twice the length of 
pronotum, apex of head an elongated cone slightly flattened 
on top, face strongly transversely arched without lateral 
rugae or markings, clypeus slightly exceeding genae. Elytra 
shorter than abdomen, roundingly narrowing to the divergent 
apices, subhyaline with venation obscure, simple, resembling 
Euscelis with the outer anteapical irregular or wanting the 
apical cells short. Female segment broad, slightly shorter 
than preceding the posterior margin slightly emarginate, 
pygofers extremely elongate four or five times the length of 
the segment and exceeded by one-third the length of the 
ovipositor. Male genitalia resembling that found in 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 225 

Athysanella, the pygofers laterally compressed and curving 
downwards at apex thus depressing the blunt spoon-shaped 
plates, valve obtusely rounding one-half the length of the 

Holotype $ and allotype ^ taken August lO, together with 
eight paratypes taken July 14 and August 10, in the author's col- 
lection. Eight paratypes in the collection of the Kansas Univer- 
sity, taken July 14, all taken in Sabino Canyon of the Santa 
Catalina Mountains, Tucson, in 1932, by R. H. Beamer and the 
author. This striking species was found exclusively on the 
"pagoda" grass Miihlenhergia diimosa growing on the steep walls 
of the canyon. On July 14 nymphs were in abundance with a 
few fresh adults, by August 10 they were mostly adult. 

Ionia Ball, n. gen. 

Allied to Nionia and Xestocephalns in the conical head 
with the ocelli far from the eyes and the strong deltocephaloid 
venation. Short stout, superficially resembling a minute 
long-winged testaceous Driotura but structurally quite dis- 

Head short obtusely conical about half the length of the 
pronotum the vertex and face rounding over in a uniform 
curve. As seen from above but little longer in the middle 
than against the eyes with the large ocelli on the (obsolete) 
margin nearly two-thirds of the distance from the eye to the 
apex. Front longer than wide, slightly constricted between 
the antennae, broadly roundingly narrowing to the long 
almost parallel margined clypeus, the parabolic apex of which 
much exceeds the genae. Genae very narrow almost straight 
from the middle of the eye to the clypeus. Lorae extremely 
long and narrow. Pronotum about twice wider than long the 
lateral margin eliminated the oblique margins joining the 
angle of the eye. Scutellum unique in possessing a broad, 
obtusely rounding plate-like structure that projects from 
under the pronotum, and laterally exposes the normal margin 
which terminates on each side in a slight white tipped tooth 
suggestive of the structure found in the Centrotinae. Elytra 
very broad and short, globose, enclosing the abdomen, 
coriaceous with the venation obscure. The costal margin 
sharply deflexed with a carinae at the angle on the basal half. 

Type of the genus Ionia triunata n. sp. 

In Nionia the head is scarcely more than a narrow band around 
an exceedingly large pronotum, the ocelli are nearer the eye than 
the apex and there are rows of setigerous punctures paralleling 

226 Bulletin of the Brookhjn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

the nervures. In Xestocephalus the front is exceedingly broad the 
lorae semicircular, the genae broad and angled and the elytra are 
long, subhyaline without a deflexed costal portion. 

Ionia triunata Ball, n. sp. 

Structure of the genus. Short stout cinnamon brown, 
with a smoky apical margin to the elytra. Length $ 2.4 mm., 
(^ 2 mm., width 1.2 mm. 

Slightly resembling Xestocephalus brunneiis but smaller 
and stouter with short coriaceous, gibbous elytra and shorter 
head and a narrow face. Vertex one-third as long as its 
basal width, face slightly and regularly convex in profile, 
front slightly transversely convex, width across antennae less 
than its length instead of the reverse as in Xestocephalus. 
Genae twice longer than wide instead of nearly semicircular, 
clypeus narrowing towards apex instead of constricted near 
base. Pronotum deeply rugulose; one-half its length in- 
cluded in the curve of the vertex. Eyes relatively small but 
exceeding the pronotum in width instead of very small and 
narrower than the pronotum as in Xestocephalus. Elytra 
very broad and short the costal margin strongly curved as 
in Clastoptera. Venation simple regular, one cross-nervure, 
the anteapical cells long, quadrangular, the apical cells almost 
square. Female segment broad and short usually arched so 
as to appear emarginate and slightly notched, pygofers stout. 
Male plates broad almost quadrangular, not quite equaling 
the pygofers. Valve very short and broad. 

Holotype $ August 10, allotype J* July 14, 6 paratypes of the 
same dates in the author's collection and 8 paratypes in the Snow 
collection, Kansas University, all taken in Sabino Canyon, Tucson, 
Arizona in 1932 by Dr. R. H. Beamer and the writer, from a 
small red mat Euphorbia. Two females from the Baboquivari 
Mountains, Sept. 29, 1931 (Ball) are probably this species but 
have the head dark brown to black. 

Stirellus beameri Ball n. sp. 

Form and structure of obtutus nearly, larger creamy with 
5 brown bands on vertex and pronotum and 5 brown stripes 
on each elytron. Length $ 3.7 mm., J* 3.2 mm. 

Vertex similar to obtutus slightly acutely conically pointed 
slightly longer than its basal width, eyes extremely long en- 
closing more than half the pronotum. Elytra as in bicolor 
just covering abdomen, but not the ovipositor, female segment 
short transverse almost parallel margined as in obtutus the 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 227 

ovipositor exserted one-fourth its length the tip red. Male 
plates together bluntly spoon-shaped over the compressed 
pygofers one-third longer than the valve with a submarginal 
row of stiff spines. 

Color. Vertex white a black spot at apex, a band in front 
of eyes and a broader one before the base. Pronotum 
creamy an anterior and a posterior brown band the former 
with a narrower black one superimposed. Elytra brown with 
a broad stripe inside the costa, a broader one inside the claval 
suture and the nervures white. The apical region cinnamon 
bounded by two narrow black lines. Face pale washed with 
tawny, about 6 brown arcs on each side the front, two of 
them united and emphasized below the apical spot. A pair 
of large black spots behind the antennae. Four black spots 
on the apical tergum hidden by the elytra. 

Holotype J* and 8 paratypes in the collection of the author. Al- 
lotype 5 and 8 paratypes in the Snow Entomological Collection, 
Kansas University, all taken by R. H. Beamer and the writer on 
the east slopes of the Santa Rita Mountains, July ii and I2, 1932. 
This striking species superficially resembles Commellus comma in 
color and pattern. Named in honor of Dr. R. H. Beamer whose 
abilities as a collector are only exceeded by the excellence of his 
interpretation of the genus Erythroneura. 

Exitianus armus Ball n. sp. 

Resembling ohsciirincrvis but shorter and broader with a 
broad uniformly rounding vertex and a pair of large round 
black spots on the margins of the pronotum. Length $ 4.5 
mm., J* 3.7 mm. 

Vertex uniformly rounding the anterior and posterior mar- 
gins parallel instead of it being obtusely conically pointed as 
in obscurinervis, broadly rounding to front which is definitely 
narrower than in obscurinervis. Clypeus expanding towards 
apex rather than narrowing as in that species. Pronotum 
broader and shorter with the posterior margin concavely ex- 
cavated. Elytra slightly shorter with the venation similar. 
Female segment similar, the ovipositor but slightly longer 
than the pygofers. Male plates much broader at base, to- 
gether triangularly narrowing almost to a point and then ex- 
tended as long almost thread-like upturned apices instead of 
narrow at the base and uniformly sloping to the apex. 

Color. Vertex creamy a pair of large round black spots 
against the ocelli and a minute pair within and behind them. 
Pronotum milky with four brown stripes on the disc and a 
pair of black spots on the lateral margins. Scutellum creamy 
with three pale brown stripes. Elytra milky subhyaline, the 

228 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL xxrill 

nervures narrowly black. Face and below pale a pair of 
spots or crescents on upper part of front, a dot above and one 
below antenna brown. Dark examples may have a pair of 
spots in each basal angle of vertex and brown arcs on front. 

Holotype 5 and allotype J* Tucson, Arizona, April 20, 1930, ten 
paratypes, Superior, July 31, 1930, and Tucson from April 12 to 
September 22, 1936, all collected by the writer. A distinct little 
species limited to a single food plant, the Desert Hackberry. 


By J. R. DE LA ToRRE-BuENO, White Plains, N. Y. 

Recently I received from Miss Louise Knobel, of Hope, Ark., 
the following species taken there by her on the dates and under 
the conditions mentioned. It should be noted that none of the spe- 
cies appears to have been taken in the State; at least, neither 
Blatchley in his Heteroptera of the Eastern United States, nor 
Van Duzee in his Catalogue lists them from Arkansas. The spe- 
cies are arranged in the order of Hemiptera of Connecticut. 
Cory time ha cydoniae Fitch. — September 22, 1931 ; 7 specimens 
beaten from oak (Qiiercus sp.). This is an inhabitant of 
Crataegus, so far as heretofore known. Blatchley states it is 
not recorded south of Maryland ; and VanDuzee gives it only 
from New York. 
Cnemodus mavortius Say.- — Taken at light, September 9, 1931 ; 
seems a wide-spread species, but no specific Arkansas records. 
Corizus hyaliniis Fabr. — From Aster, October 10, 193 1 ; a cosmo- 
politan species, with no Arkansas records found. 
Broehymena quadripustulata Fabr. — September 10 and 19, 1931 ; 
June I, 1932, a number at light; December i, 1931, a couple 
on a wall. This species is ordinarily found on bark. There 
are no specific Arkansas records, although it is common and 
Banasa dimidiata Say. — At light on June 20 and 26, 1932. It does 

not seem to be known from the State. 
Homoemus parvidus Germar. — Taken by sweeping flowers, May 
5, 1932. This seems to be the first record from the State. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 229 


On Some Polycestini (Coleoptera-Buprestidae), with 
Description of a n. sp. of Acmaeodera. 

By. D. K. Duncan, Globe, Arizona. . 

Clirysophana placida Lee. 

It is interesting to note that the coloration of this more or less 
common western borer varies greatly with locality. This insect 
can be taken in large numbers in the heavily forested areas of Ari- 
zona, especially around the lumber camps as at McNary, in the 
White Mt. district, on freshly-cut logs of Pinus ponderosa (west- 
ern yellow pine), but is invariably a solid bright green color. I 
have never taken specimens in Arizona that show the various 
shades of rainbow tints of those from the Pacific Northwest dis- 

I have also taken this insect in the Sierra Ancha Mts. of Cen- 
tral Arizona where it was bred from peeled logs of Pinus pon- 
derosa, used in a log cabin, evidently peeling the logs is no assur- 
ance to keeping the boring pests out? 

Polycesta arisonica Schfifr. 

A few of these insects were bred from large (Qiiercus sp?), 
white oak trees in the Chiricahua Mts. of Southeastern Arizona. 
Many larvae were noted, dead insects which had apparently hiber- 
nated, and altogether much damage done to the larger oak trees 
in this area during the spring of 1932. Mature specimens of this 
insect were also taken on Prose pis velutiniis (mesquite), in the 
Baboquivari Mts., Pima County, Arizona, in August, 1932. 

Acmaeodera cuprina Spin. 

Dr. Horn in his " Revision of the -Species of the Acmaeodera 
of the U. S." in Trans. Amer. Soc, VII, Jan., 1878, expressed 
doubt as to the validity of locaHty of this insect, and H. C. Fall in 
" On American Species of Acmaeodera " in Journal of the N. Y. 
Ento. Soc. (Vol. VII, March, 1899), calls attention to the fact 
that no examples of this insect were reported from North Amer- 
ica, north of Mexico, and stated that it was doubtful if this in- 
sect should be retained in a list of our fauna. I wish to state that 
cuprina is found well within the borders of Arizona. I have in 
my cases a series of four labelled "Santa Catalina Mts., Pima 

230 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^<'^- JXFJ77 

County, Arizona, Aug., 1930 " and collected by students of the 
University of Arizona at Tucson. Also I personally collected 
some dozen specimens on August 14th, 1932, in the Santa Rita 
Mts., Pima County, Arizona, they were not common, but single 
specimens were taken here and there between Madero or White 
House Canyon and the summit, over a wide range of country. All 
were feeding on a small flower belonging to the daisy group and 
were all taken over the 5000 feet elevation mark. The Santa Rita 
Mts. are about forty miles north of the Mexican border. 

A'cmaeodera flavomarginafa Gray. 

Southern Arizona should be added to list of localities on this 
insect, several being taken by myself on Aug. i8th, 1932, on west 
side of the Baboquivari Mts., Pima County, Arizona, at an eleva- 
tion of between 3500 and 4000 feet. 

Acmaeodera deliimbis Horn. 

This insect was placed as a synonym of Acmaeodera gibbiila by 
H. C. Fall in his "On American Species of Acmaeodera " in Jour- 
nal of N. Y. Ent. Soc. (Vol. VH, March, 1899.) 

After a careful study of many specimens of both gibbiila and 
delumbis I must reach the conclusion that delmnbis is at least a 
valid variety if not a good species. Delumbis occurs in the early 
part of June and gibbiila does not appear before middle July and 
is not at the peak of emergence until around the first of Septem- 
ber, by the time gibbiila appears the type delumbis is practically 
gone. My examination of thousands of specimens of gibbiila 
show no connecting links in the matter of markings, always hav- 
ing the series of three red spots down the sides of each elytron, 
while dehtmbis is always devoid of any such spots, no gibbxdas 
have been noted with less than the three red spots which should 
be the case if the two were variants of each other. Delumbis is 
not nearly as common as gibbnla and does not necessarily appear 
in the same place where gibbnla later appears nor do delumbis ap- 
parently ever associate with the gibbnla types in the few places 
where both types have been observed at the same time. It is my 
personal opinion that delumbis is a valid species although so close 
structurally that it would be practically impossible to separate 
from gibbnla on any character except the absence of the red spots 
on the elytra. Only tests of breeding will prove this point. In 
the meantime I would suggest that delumbis be restored as a vari- 
etal form of gibbnla and given the Leng's Catalog number of 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 231 

Acmaeodcra angelica Fall. 

Central Arizona should be added to localities on this insect, 
many specimens being taken by myself over a period of years in 
the foothills of the Pinal Mts., Gila County, Arizona. 

Acmaeodcra lincipicta Fall. 

Since j\Ir. Fall described this new species from two examples, 
twenty-nine more specimens have been taken by me, twenty-six 
of them in the hills above San Carlos Lake, Gila Co., Arizona, 
which was the type locality, one some twelve miles northeast of 
Globe, and two at Oracle, Arizona, which is on the northern slope 
of ]\It. Lemon, in the Santa Catalina Mts. All of these specimens 
run absolutely true to type with no variations except size. This 
would tend to dispel any doubt that this is not a valid species, also 
that it is distributed through Central Arizona being however more, 
or less rare, taken around 4500 feet elevations and very early in 
the spring, April and May. 

Acmaeodcra papagonis n. sp. 

Closely related to the pulchella-lucia-ohtusa group, nearer 
to lucia, which species it should follow in the list and from 
which it is difficult to separate structurally. Lateral thoracic 
spot has been present in examples examined. It can be sepa- 
rated from lucia at once by the elytral markings which are 
very distinct. The ground color is bluish black and very 
heavy, while the light markings are much more delicately 
drawn than in lucia and consist of four bands across the 
elytra and placed as follows: top pair starting at scutellum 
and running thence to sides of elytra at an approximate 30 
degree angle, a pair of medial bands running across elytra 
almost horizontally and two more pairs of bands spaced each 
about one-third way between medial bands and apex of 
elytra, these two pairs of bands running about the same angle 
as the top bands, tip of elytra with two tiny spots and several 
other indistinct spots scattered about near tips of elytra, these 
markings are more smooth and uniform in appearance from 
lucia and the bluish black ground color is quite different. 

Type: Length 10.3 man., width 3.7 mm., in my collection. 
Paratype : Length 7.2 mm., width 2.6 mm., in my collection 
Paratype : Length 9.1 mm., width 3.2 mm., in collection of Mr. 
H. C. Fall, who has kindly examined the specimens. 

232 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^ol. xxvili 

Paratyndaris olneyae Skinner. 

This species observed emerging from Prosopis velutinns (mes- 
quite) at San Carlos Lake, Gila Co., Arizona, and also at Santa 
Rita Mts., Pima Co., Arizona. 

Paratyndaris harheri Skinner. 

Reported as hatched from a species of wood known as " iron- 
wood " by students of the University of Arizona at Tucson, Ariz. 


By Charles Rummel, Newark, N. J. 

. For several years an attempt was made to raise another brood of 
lunas from the Summer brood, which in reality is only a partial 
second brood. Out of the cocoons obtained from the adults hatched 
in June none would hatch in some years and varying amounts 
from one to fifty per cent would hatch in other years. It was ob- 
served that the larvae obtained from this summer form were dif- 
ferent and much handsomer than the earlier ones, the larvae of the 
early summer brood being a uniform green, while the late Summer 
or second brood of larvae would be ornamented with crimson red 
tubercles all over. Those larvae were fed up to the last stage for 
several years but no cocoons were obtained. As the weather be- 
came cool at the beginning of October, the larvae usually died 
without spinning their cocoons. In 193 1 a female with the pink 
edge on the outer margin hatched. This was tied out and it became 
mated with a green form. Those larvae were reared, all of which 
were adorned with those red tubercles. A few of the cocoons 
were kept for observation and breeding. In 1932 another female 
with the pink edge was tied out. In this case a male that also had 
the pink edge became mated with it. All the larvae from these par- 
ents had those crimson red tubercles. About 150 cocoons were 
obtained from this brood of larvae. The final aim of this experi- 
ment is to completely isolate this pink edge variety which Mr. 
Davis called riihromarginata, so it can be bred independent of its 
typical form luna. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 233 


By C. a. Frost, Framingham, Mass. 

One of the most prolific methods of collecting Coleoptera may 
be called "Bog Trotting," and I have practiced it for many years 
with so much success that I would like to recommend it to all 
beetle collectors who are not fanatically dry or constitutionally 
averse to intimate association with soft clinging mud and turbid 
swamp water. 

The method is merely treading about in the mud and water of 
cat-tail swamps, along the edges of stagnant pools, ponds, meadow 
streams and rivers. Of course one must carefully watch his step 
in exploring a quaking-bog or he will find himself, as I once did, 
waist deep in odorous, bubbly ooze ; it would be a good idea to 
wear "bog-shoes" in these super-sensitive areas. They used to put 
these large wooden shoes on the old horse when hauling out the 
"medder" hay from the softer ground. 

Mr. R. J. Darlington has elaborated on my method and we have 
had remarkable success even in water from six to twelve inches 
deep, provided there is grass and aquatic vegetation present. It 
is better to do the treading facing the sun and working backward 
since many of the large Carabidae are very quick at disappearing 
after they are disturbed. This crawfish locomotion may put the 
collector into absurd positions especially when his heels hit a 
tussock or hidden root ; since it is generally necessary to sit down 
in an emergency like this, once must not mind six inches of muddy 
water and be thankful that he is not exploring a bog flooded by 
cold springs. It is not quite so comfortable to miss abutting on 
the tussock in April though it is much more exhilarating — from 
the waist down. 

By this method of collecting one routs out many species that 
are rarely taken by the more formal modes; in favorable places 
Blethisa qnadricoUis, mtdtipunctata and jitli: Elaphrus cicatri- 
cosus, clairvillei and olivacens; the Benibidiini, Platynini, Ptero- 
stichini, Chlaenini, Licini, Stenini and other Staphylinidae, and 
also the Hydrophylidae may be taken in numbers. Specimens 
appear to view climbing up the grass stems, swimming on the 
water, crawling over the trampled vegetation and even seeking 
refuge on one's person. This is the only successful way to collect 
many of the Carabidae and other swamp-loving species. Some- 

234 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Societij ^ol. XXVIII 

times one finds interesting Chrysomelidae and Coccinellidae ; I 
have taken more specimens of the rather rare Coccidula lepida by 
this method than by any other. 

The coleopterous population of partly dried out swamp in 
September is surprising, even if the swamp is densely wooded. 
June seems to be the best time for numbers of individuals and 
species but something can generally be found from early April 
to late October, and one is always sure of wet feet. There are 
two conventional styles of footwear in use at present: Mr. Dar- 
lington prefers sneakers while I am inclined to the opinion that 
heavy shoes are more dressy and also protect the ankles from 
stubs and saw grass. It may be slightly more comfortable to have 
a hole in the toe of each shoe — it is not necessary to empty the 
mud and water out of them so often. 

I hope this article will develop an expert operator of bog-shoes 
or a collector with feet tough enough to ignore shoes. 

This method is not yet patented and all enthusiasts are cordially 
invited to try their luck. 


By Charles Rummel, Newark, N. J. 

There has been much speculation amongst well informed and 
active entomologists as to whether certain species of Lepidoptera 
are single, double or even treble brooded. Up to date nothing has 
been written on the subject of whether a single and double brooded 
race of the same species could exist in the same locality, which in a 
lengthy experiment extending over a period of six years has proved 
to be the case. Sinerinthus gerninatus Say is the species in ques- 
tion. 5. geminatiis can be taken on the wing by the end of May 
and its larvae can be collected during June and again during Au- 
gust, which no doubt would indicate that this species is double 
brooded. In the year 1927 some larvae of this species were col- 
lected in Green Village, N. J., feeding on aspen and fed up to 
pupation. The pupae were kept for observation and breeding. 
The adults emerged in July, 1928. The same stock has been bred 
every year since as a single brooded race. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 235 


A Statement of Policy. 

" The time has come, the walrus said, to talk of many things — 
Of ships, of sealing wax, of cabbages and kings." — Carrol. 

Our contributors have doubtless noticed that not only is our 
Bulletin smaller, but also that their papers have been delayed in 
appearance. This is due to the universal cause, which compels us 
to be careful. We have MSS. on hand at present for at least two 
more numbers after this one ; and articles hereafter received may 
not appear until our number for June, 1934! 

This condition obliges us to enforce certain principles on which 
our publication always has been based. Our own members and our 
subscribers will be given preference in publication in that order. 
From these, articles will be accepted preferentially and published 
on the following bases : First, articles on Long Island insects ; fol- 
lowed in order by those on New York State insects, then on the 
United States Fauna, then on the Americas in general. Articles 
on other faunas or on other groups than insects proper will be ac- 
cepted only if we have room; and always subject to delay. 

All other things being equal, short papers, particularly in semi- 
popular style or on insect biology will be published as promptly as 
possible; others must wait, if necessary. Two types of articles will 
NOT be accepted during 1934, or beyond, if present conditions do 
not improve. These articles are : bare f aunal lists ; and, especially, 
inadequate taxonomic papers, including those descriptions of minor 
categories, such as subspecies, varieties, aberrations, and all such 
other refinements of classification. Nor will we accept isolated 
descriptions of new forms nor those papers in which new species 
are not adequately differentiated from their congeners. 

In the matter of plates and figures we will adhere to our already 
announced policy (see Bulletin, vol. XXVIII, no. 2, p. 80, On 

The matter of reprints is now under advisement, but such papers 
as have already been submitted before we make public announce- 
ment of our decision will receive (on request ONLY), the usual 
25 free reprints and any further number at the current rates. 

What precedes is the formal decision of our Publication Com- 
mittee, arrived at with the greatest reluctance, but needs must when 
the devil drives. 

J. R. DE LA Torre-Bueno, Editor, 
For tlic Publication Coniniittce, B. E. S. 

236 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^XVIII 


Meeting of February i6, 1933. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, February 16, 1933, at 
8.20 p. m. 

President Davis in the chair and ten other members present, vie, 
Messrs. Cleff, Engelhardt, Lemmer, Moennich, Nadeau, Nicolay, 
Schaeffer, Siepmann, Torre-Bueno, and Wurster, and Mr. Stecher, 
Mrs. Moennich and Mrs. Nadeau. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved, 
and a monthly report was presented by the treasurer. 

Mr. Engelhardt proposed for membership Mr. J. H. Clemer, 
Harrisonburg, Va. It was regularly moved and seconded that the 
By-laws be suspended, and the secretary was directed to cast one 
ballot for the election of Mr. Clemer, which was accordingly done, 
and the candidate was declared elected. 

Mr. Davis exhibited specimens of Tenodcra angustipennis, an 
introduced Asiatic mantis recently recorded from near Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. It somewhat resembles our now familiar sinensis, 
but has narrower fore wings. The differences between the egg 
masses of the two species is more striking than that between the in- 
sects themselves. 

Specimens of Lycophotia saucia Hbn. and form fnscohrunnca 
Sfrd. from Lakehurst, N. J., were exhibited by Mr. Lemmer. 

Mr. Nicolay spoke of his collecting trip to the Great Smoky 
Mountain region along the North Carolina-Tennessee line, where 
he paid particular attention to the Carabidae. The beetles of this 
family occur continuously from May until frost in this mountain- 
ous region, without any pronounced "off season" as is observed 
when collecting at lower altitudes. 

On Mt. Leconte a pair of Nebria appalachia Dark, the smallest 
Nehria in the United States, were taken, as well as Scaphinotus 
andrewsi Harr. variety tricarinatus Casey and Maronctus liiibbardi 
Schwarz. Typical andrewsi, which is found at lower elevations up 
to around 3,000 feet is purplish in color. Tricarinatus has a more 
cordate thorax, the elytral intervals are elevated basally, and is usu- 
ally greenish in color, though occasional purplish specimens are 
found. It occurs higher up in the Great Smoky Mountains, and 
Mr. Nicolay believes that it well deserves the varietal name. The 
Maronetus Jiubbardi was taken by sifting, from 3,500 feet to the 
summit, but was not common. 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 237 

On Clingman's Dome, Scaphinotus viduiis Dej. variety irregu- 
laris Beut., Trechus schzvarzi Jeann. and Microtrcchus harbcri 
Jeann. were taken. 

The Nebria and the two Trechi have been described within the 
last two years. 

The meeting adjourned at p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, Secretary. 

Meeting of March i6, 1933. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, March 16, 1933, at 
8.20 p. m. 

President Davis in the chair and ten other members present, vie, 
Messrs. Anderson, Ballou, Engelhardt, Lemmer, Ragot, Schaefifer, 
Sheridan, Siepmann, Wilford and Wurster, and Dr. Funderson, of 
the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Messrs Pollard and Steelier. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved, 
and the treasurer presented a brief report. 

Mr. Davis spoke of the work of some species of American ter- 
mites, exhibiting examples. Among these was a good sized portion 
taken from an old oak stump on Staten Island, New York, which 
had been built up from the chewed up wood of the stump. In the 
vicinity of San Antonio, Texas, the termites feed upon vegetation 
that grows above the ground, and because they shun the light, they 
cover up the stems of the plants which they are eating. After the 
stems have been eaten, only the hollow outside covering made by 
the termites remains. Mr. Davis also spoke on an interesting con- 
gregation of springtails observed by Dr. Frank Overton two miles 
north of Patchogue, Long Island, on January 24, 1933, exhibiting 
a photograph of two small patches of these insects upon the 
ground. While the patches were not of large size, the springtails 
were closely congregated, and must have consisted of many thou- 
sands of individuals. 

Mr. Pollard exhibited a photograph taken at an entomological 
gathering 23 years ago, remarking that three of the men in the pic- 
ture were now present. 

Mr. Engelhardt spoke of his trip through the Scandinavian 
countries to the North Cape, illustrating his talk with photographs 
and specimens collected during the trip. A brief general discus- 
sion of the Scandinavian countries and Greenland and the charac- 
teristics of their people followed. Mr. Engelhardt's paper will be 
published separately in the Bulletin. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.10 p. m. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, Secretary. 

238 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^L XXVIII 

Meeting of April 13, 1933. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on Thursday, April 13, 1933, at 8.20 
p. m. 

President Davis in the chair and 14 other members present, vis., 
Messrs. Anderson, Bell, Cleff, Engelhardt, Glanz, Lemmer, Moen- 
nicli, Ragot, Schaeffer, Shoemaker, Siepmann, Torre-Bueno, Wil- 
ford, Wurster and Messrs. Pollard, Rummel and Stecher. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved. 
The treasurer presented an informal report, and Mr. Torre-Bueno 
spoke briefly for the publication committee. 

Mr. Moennich, speaking for the outing committee, stated that he 
had planned a few collecting trips for the coming season, and asked 
whether any members cared to act as leaders for any additional 

Mr. Engelhardt exhibited some specimens of the alpine flora he 
had collected on his trip to the Scandinavian countries last summer, 
remarking that the alpine floras of both hemispheres were some- 
what similar. He said that it was not difficult to name arctic plants 
when visiting these regions in Europe, since most of the hotels had 
named specimens planted on their grounds. 

Mr. Siepmann exhibited a specimen of Miscodera arctica (Cara- 
bidae) collected by Mr. Engelhardt at Hammerfest, Norway, and 
another specimen of the same species nearly exactly similar in ap- 
pearance, from Selkirk, Yukon Territory, Canada. He also ex- 
hibited specimens of Bemhidion nsfulatnin collected by Mr. Engel- 
hardt at Norvik, Norway, and local specimens of Bemhidion tetra- 
colum, the two species being formerly considered identical. 

Under the title "Notes on Some Poisonous Caterpillars," Mr. 
Charles L. Pollard described his experience in Brazil with the larva 
of Dirphia tarquinius, a Saturnid moth, as well as with species of 
the Lasiocampid genus Megalopyge. He then told of a severe at- 
tack of poisoning in Maine last summer, the result of contact with 
a Noctuid caterpillar of the genus Apatcla. Urticating larvae are 
few in this family, but are numerous among the Megalopygidae, 
Eucleidae, Lymantriidae and Lasiocampidae. 

Poisonous hairs, Mr. Pollard explained, are of two kinds : the 
primitive type, or seta, which retains its properties even after being 
shed; and a modified type in which several short spicular hairs 
form telescoped units, each inserted in a cuplike structure on the 
integument. This form of hair is well illustrated in the larva of 
the brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea. Another group of 
poisonous larvae includes those bearing permanent branched spines, 
as in the Saturnid genus Automeris and its allies. 

Bee, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 239 

The nature of the poison in urticating hairs and spines has not 
been determined, according to Matheson in "Medical Entomol- 
ogy." The suggestion is made that it has an acid reaction, owing 
to the fact that alkaline applications help to sooth the irritation. 

Mr. Rummel, of the Newark Entomological Society, reported 
his observations on Magicidada septendecim and cassinii, made at 
Green Village and New Vernon, N. J., between the dates of May 
20 and July 3, 1928. No larvae or adults were found on May 20, 
but on May 30 at New Vernon the larvae were plentiful under 
stones and logs and on June 7th the adults appeared in fair num- 
bers, becoming very abundant from then on. Mr. Rummel em- 
phasized the distinctive song, habits and mating of the form cas- 
sinii and, based on his observations, he believes it is entitled to spe- 
cific rank. 

Mr. Rummel also spoke on the possibility of obtaining single 
brooded races of lepidoptera normally double brooded, and on the 
red margined variety, ruhromarginata, of Actias luna, which he 
had bred independent of the typical specimens, the larva of this 
variety being differently marked, as well as the adult. 

In connection with this subject, Mr. Davis read his notes on the 
Red-margined Luna, published in Psyche, vol. XIX (1912). He 
said that his experience seemed to indicate that ruhromarginata 
was a seasonal form, since he had examined many specimens in his 
own and other collections, collected out-of-doors, and they had 
been invariably collected on early dates. Specimens of Actias luna 
and its variety were exhibited by both Messrs. Davis and Rummel, 
the former showing a long series arranged according to their date 
of capture. 

Mr. Rummel also exhibited a small branch collected high on a 
tree, out-of-doors, at Newark, N. J., on which there was an aggre- 
gation of fifty-seven Cynthia cocoons. He said that it was evident 
that all the caterpillars that had spun their cocoons on this branch 
had not been feeding there, and raised the problem of how the 
larvae came to congregate there. He pointed out, even if the larvae 
feeding on adjacent branches had known of the presence of other 
larvae spinning cocoons there, he did not see how they could have 
been intelligent enough to follow the branch down to where the 
limb joined the trunk of the tree, then follow the trunk to where 
the other limb joined it, and then crawl out on the limb on which 
the cocoons were being spun. 

The meeting adjourned at 10.15 P- ""i- 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, 


240 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oZ. xxvili 

Meeting of May ii, 1933. 

A meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was held 
Thursday evening, May nth, 1933. 

President Wm. T. Davis in the chair. Other members attending 
were Messrs. Engelhardt, Ballon, Wurster, Moennich, Shoemaker, 
Cleff, Stecher, Naumann, Nicolay and Sheridan. Five visitors 
were present. 

In the absence of the secretary, Mr. Siepmann, the chairman 
asked Mr. Wurster to act as secretary for the meeting. The min- 
utes of last month's meeting were read and approved. 

Treasurer Engelhardt submitted his financial report for the 
month of April, showing a total cash balance of $1080.02 in the 
two banks. 

Chairman Wm. T. Davis read extracts from his paper, "Dragon- 
flies of the Genus Tetragoneuria," which will shortly appear in full 
in the Society's Bulletin. His talk was accompanied by illustra- 
tions and mounted specimens of the various species and forms cov- 

Mr. Herman Moennich delivered a most interesting extempora- 
neous talk on "An Entomological Hike over the Long Trail," 
which he negotiated alone last June 4th to i8th, covering the Green 
Mountain district and the Presidential Range. 

The meeting adjourned at 9."^ S- ^ -mr -mr 

^ ■* -^ --^^ C. Wm. Wurster. 

Secretary pro tern. 

Re-discovery of a Lost Species. 

On June first, I ran into a small colony of Oeiieis species, (Rho- 
palocera), in the White Mountains of Arizona, which being sent to 
F. H. Benjamin, of the U. S. National Museum, proved to be the 
long lost daura Strecker, only the female type of which had here- 
tofore been known, now in the Field Museum of Chicago. These 
butterflies were taken on open grass meadows about 10,000 feet 
elevation. It is interesting to note that the type locality of 
Strecker's type was Mt. Graham in the Graham Mts., which local- 
ity is just forty miles southerly by air line from where I rediscov- 
ered them and is the first locality southerly of the same elevation. 
Undoubtedly Strecker's specimen was blown south by prevailing 
high winds at that time of year which would account for the spe- 
cies not having been found on Mt. Graham since. — Douglas K. 
Duncan, Globe, Arizona. 


This one page is intended only for wants and exchanges, not 
for advertisements of articles for sale. Notices not exceeding 
THREE lines free to subscribers. Over lines charged for at 
15 cents per line per insertion. 

Old notices will be discontinued as space for new ones is 

COLEOPTERA. — Am interested in exchanging Coleoptera. 
Carl G. Siepmann, R. F. D. No. i, Box 92, Rahway, N. J. 

DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA.— Have many desirable west- 
ern species to exchange, including Argynnis atossa, luacaria, vior- 
motiia, malcolini, nokoinis; Melitaca nciinioegcni ; Lycaena speci- 
osa; etc. Send lists. Dr. John A. Comstock, Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CATOPINI: Catops (Choleva), Prionochaeta, Ptomaphagus. 
— Wanted to borrow all possible specimens of these genera from 
North America for a revisional study. Correspondence solicited. 
— Melville H. Hatch, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 

HISTERIDAE — Desire to obtain material, all localities, for 
identification, by purchase or exchange of other families. Chas. 
A. Ballou, Jr., yy Beekman St., New York, N. Y. 

LOCALITY LABELS. — 60c per 1000, 5 in strip, i to 3 lines. 
5 sizes type, y/2 point, 75c per 1000. Good heavy paper. Prompt 
service. A. L. Stevens, 691 Culver Rd., Rochester, N. Y. 

I WILL COLLECT all orders of insects and allied groups for 
those interested. Louise Knobel, Hope, Ark. 

CENTRAL AMERICAN INSECTS in all Orders collected on 
order. Write to J. J. White, Punta Gorda, British Honduras, 
C. A. 

BUY OR EXCHANGE : Pinned Microlepidoptera and papered 
Pieridae of North America. Full data with all specimens. Named 
material of all groups offered. Alexander B. Klots, University 
of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 

BUTTERFLY when you sell your col- 


TRANSITIONS of specimens separately. 

FORMS they bring more. 

D "FREAKS" J- ^' gunder, 

TA7ATVTT^T?Tk ^49 Linda Vista A^ 

WANTED Pasadena, Calif. 

Arachnida, Myriopoda 
and all orders of Insects 

Bought, Sold and Exchanged 

Owen Bryant and Frank H. Parker have opened a 
business for the purchase, sale and exchange of 


also Arachnida, Myriopoda and 
Entomological Literature. 

Insects exchanged for literature or other insects. 
Literature exchanged for insects or other literature. 

We have on hand at least 150,000 mounted insects and 
1,000,000 preserved dry or in alcohol, including types, paratypes, 
topotypes, and specimens named by noted specialists, some of 
whom are now dead. They include about: 

1,000 species from North of the Arctic Circle 
3,000 " " Alberta, Canada 

6,000 " " Arizona 

about 1/3 of the above are Coleoptera. 

Our equipment includes two tons of literature and about 
7,000 species of American coleoptera and the same number of 
Paleartic coleoptera for comparison. 

Any one desiring material from Arizona or the Arctic will 
surely have something to exchange with us for it. Every worker 
has duplicates or literature he is not using. 

We especially desire author's separates and additions to our 

Those interested will please write to 


Globe, Arizona 


(Arranged alphabetically throughout.) 

Book Notes. 

Fighting the Insects — The Story Jungle Wasps of Barro Colo- 

of an Entomologist, J. R. rado Island, J. R. T.-B., 174 

T.-B., 174 Medical Entomology, J. R. 

In Days Agone, J. R. T.-B., 136 T.-B., 40 

Insects, Man's Chief Competi- 
tors, J. R. T.-B., 176 


Additions to the New York 
State List of Insects, John 
N. Belkin, 220 

Alabama Coleoptera not Gener- 
ally Listed from the Gulf 
Coast States East of the Mis- 
sissippi River, Fla., Ga., Ala., 
and Miss., H. P. Loding, 139 

Calosouia Escaping by Diving, 
Sherman Moore, 36 

Hister scmiscnlptus LeConte, C. 
A. Frost, 159 

New Longicorn Beetles of the 
Subfamily Lamiinae, E. Gor- 
ton Linsley, 183 

Notes on Texas Coccinellidae, 
J. C. Gaines, 211 

On the American Species of 
Alobatcs Mots., Kenneth W. 
Cooper, 105 

On Two New Species of Lu- 
dius, H. C. Fall, 188 

Ptinus tcctus Boieldieu in Amer- 
ica, Melville H. Hatch, 200 

Random Notes of an Arizona 
Field Collector, Douglas K. 
Duncan, 229 

Some Mordellidae of the Iowa 
Prairies, George O. Hen- 
drickson, 193 

Studies on Hydroporus, Mel- 
ville H. Hatch, 21 

Trotting the Bogs with the 
Wise Bullfrogs, C. A. Frost, 


Xcnorhipis brendcli Lee. from 
Long Island, Kenneth W. 
Cooper, 115 

Xylorycetes satynis, Roy 
Latham, 202 


Notes on West Indian Trypeti- 
dae, Marston Bates, 160 

General Subject. 

A Thought on Mounting, J. R. 

T.-B., 219 
Dr. W. J. Holland, G. P. Engel- 

hardt, 79 
Editorial : On Wisdom, J. R. 

T.-B., 80 
Mimicry Business or Monkey 

Business, J. D. Gunder, 39 

Proceedings of the Society, C. 

G. Siepmann, 41, 81, 236 
The Cleaning of Greasy Insects, 

G. P. Engelhardt, 108 
To Authors: A Statement of 

Policy, J. R. de la Torre- 

Bueno, 235 


242 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- XXVIII 

Trap Collections of Insects in Travels in Scandinavian Coun- 
Cotton in 1932, J. C. Gaines, tries, Geo. P. Engelhardt, 219 



Floridian Heteroptera with Jalysus spinosus, Cyril E. Ab- 

New State Records from the bott, 43 

Keys, J. R. de la Torre- Records of Connecticut Heter- 
Bueno, 28 optera, J. R. de la Torre- 
New Records of Heteroptera Bueno, 36 

from Arkansas, J. R. de la The Male of Notonecta com- 

Torre-Bueno, 228 pacta Hungerford, H. B. 

Notes on the Life History of Hungerford, 135 


A List of Homoptera from On- of Western Leafhoppers, E. 

tario, Everett C. Lerch, 76 D. Ball, 223 

Some New Genera and Species The Genus Fiichiclla, Paul B. 

Lawson, 194, 

A New Gorytes from Paraguay, Notes on the Biology of Mete- 
Richard Dow, 218 orns hypophloei Cushm., Don- 

A New Sawfly from the Mio- aid de Leon, 32 

cene Shales near Creede, The Sting of the Tarantula 
Colo., T. D. A. Cockerell, 186 Wasp, Stanley W. Bromley, 



Euerythra phasma in Missouri, Rediscovery of a Lost Species, 

Edwin P. Meiners, 187 Douglas K. Duncan, 240 

Lepidoptera Records from Ori- The Fall Canker Worm in 

ent, L. L, Roy Latham, 198 Westchester County, G. P. 

New Records of Lepidoptera Engelhardt, 172 

from New York, Alexander The Recent North-Eastward 

B. Klots, 203 Spread of the Orange Sul- 

Notes on Actias liina and Its phur Butterfly, Colias eu- 

Variations, Charles Rummel, rytheme Boisd., W. E. Brit- 

232 ton and Charles Rufus Harte, 

Notes on the Isolation of Forms 109 

or Races of Lepidoptera, 

Charles Rummel, 234 

Minor Orders. 

Dragonflies of the Genus Tctra- Notes on the Ephemerid Genus 

goneuria, Wm. T. Davis, 87 LeptopJilchia, Eva L. Gordon, 

New Genera and Species of 116 

Thysanoptera from South Observations on Doni aciilea- 

Africa, Jacobus C. Faure, i, turn Scudder, Kenneth W. 

55 Cooper, 216 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 243 


New forms in bold face ; valid species and genera in Roman ; 
synonyms in italics ; * indicates plants ; f Long Island records ; 
X other animals. Species named in the following are not in the 
alphabetical list following: For annotated list of Floridian Heter- 
optera, see pp. 28-21 ; extensive list of all orders collected on cot- 
ton, see pp. 47-54; for Homoptera from Ontario, see pp. 76-78; 
for Coleoptera from the Gulf Coast States, see pp. 1 39-1 51 ; for 
Iowa Mordellidae, see p. 193; for extensive list of New York State 
Lepidoptera, see pp. 203-210; for list of Texas Coleoptera, see pp. 
211-215; for list of New York Coleoptera, see pp. 220-222. 

* Acacia, 7, 16 
Acidia fallax, 162 
Acinia picciola, 166 
Aciura insecta, 163 
Acmaeodera angelica, 231 

cuprina, 229 

delumbis, 230 

flavomarginata, 229 

gibbula, 230 

lineipicta, 231 

lucia, 231 

obtusa, 231 

papagonis, 231 

pulchella, 231 
Acrotaenia latipennis, 164 

testudina, 164 
Acrotoxa, see Anastrepha 
Actias luna, 232, 239 

var. rubromarginata, 232, 

Adalia bipunctata var. quadri- 
maculata, 83 

frigida var. humeralis, 177 

frigida var. Juiuicralis, 83 
Adraneothrips, 63 
Agerothrips, 13 
Allothrips africanus, 57, 58 

caudatus, 59 

megacephalus, 59 
Alobates, 105 et seqq. 

barbata, 105, 106 

pennsylvanica, 105, 106 

subnitens, 106 

Alsophila pometaria, 173, 179 
t Amaurochrous cinctipes, 180 
Anaphe, 178 
Anaphothrips, 13 
Anastrepha acidusa, 161 

acresia, 162 

fraterculiis, 161 

ludens, 162 

serpentina, 162 

suspensa, 161 

tricincta, 161, 162 

* Andropogon scoparius, 193 

t Anisocalva duodecimmaculata, 
quatuordecimguttata, 1 79 
t Anoplium cinerascens, 41 
Apatela, 238 
t Aradus robustus, 180 
t Archips georgiana, 198 

* Asclepias, 36 

* Aster, 228 
Athysanella, 224, 225 

acuticauda, 224 
Atocus defessus, 187 
Automeris, 238 

io var. lilith, 42 

Baetis, 116 

posticatus, 125 
Bahothrips, 4 
Banasa dimidiata, 228 
Bembidion tetracolum, 238 

ustulatum, 238 

244 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxviii 

* Bidens, 164, 166 
Blepharoneura poecilosoma poe- 

cilogaster, 162 
Blethisa juli, 233 

nuiltipunctata, 233 

quadricoUis, 233 
Bolothrips, 63 

* Bouteloua curtipendula, 193 
Bregmatothrips, 4, 10, 13 
Brochymena quadripustulata, 


Calosoma calidum, 36 
Caprithrips, 12 
analis, 13 

* Carica papaya, 161 
Cecropia, 178 
Cephaleia abietis, 186 

caplani, 186 
Cephalelus, 224 
Chilothrips, 8 
Chrysophana placida, 229 
Cicindela lepida, 82 
t Cirrhololina mexicana, 198 
Clastoptera, 226 
Cnemodus mavortius, 228 
Cocci dula lepida, 234 
t Coccinella transversoguttata 

var. quinquenotata, 81 
Colias eurytheme, 109 et seqq. 

nicippe, 112 

philodice, no, 113 
Commellus comma, 227 
CorduUa basiguttata, 92 

coinplanata, 94 

semiaquea, 92, 94 
Corimelaena pulicaria, 36 
Corizus hyalinus, 228 
Corythucha cydoniae, 228 

* Crataegus, 228 

t Cryphula parallelograma, 180 
Cryptocephahis, 42 
Cynthia, 239 
Cyrtinus pygmaeus, 83 

Dacus serpentinua, 162 

* Daucus carota, 36 

Dendroctonus monticola, 32, 33 
Dentothrips, 10 

graminis, 10, 11 
Deronectes, see Hydroporus, 21 

et seqq. 
Dirphia tarquinius, 238 
Ditoma crenata, 82 
t Doru aculeatum, 216 
Driotura, 225 
Dyseuaresta mexicana, 169 

Eanus, 190 

Elaphrus cicatricosus, 233 

clairevillei, 233 

olivaceus, 233 
Elater sayi, 83 

* Elodea, 124 
Ensina chilensis, 167 

huinilis, 167 

peregrina, 167 

picciola, 166 

thomae, 167 
Epargyreus perkinsi, 42 
Ephemerella, 116 
Epipsilia heinrichi, 82 
Epophthalmia lateralis, 91 

* Erigeron ramosus, 193 

* Eriogonum compositum, 180 
Erythroneura, 227 
Euareta bella, 170 

melanogaster, 169 
mexicana, 169 
obscuriventris, 170 
plesia, 169 
Euerythra phasma, 189 

* Eupatorium coloratum, 163 

* Euphorbia, 226 
Euproctis chrysorrhoea, 238 
Enrihia fucata, 167 

:|: Eurypelma, 192 
Euscelis, 224 
Eutreta sp. m. 165 
Exitianus armus, 227 
obscurinervis, 227 
f Exochomus marginipennis 
var. latiusculus, 179 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 245 

fFagitana litera, 198 
Fitchiella albifrons, 194 

fitchi, 194 

grandis, 194, 197 

mediana, 194, 196, 197 

melichari, 194, 195, 196, 
197, 198 

minor, 194, 197 

robertsoni, 194 

rufipes, 194, 195 

* Fraxinus americana, 202 
Fulgorothrips, 62 

priesneri, 63 

* Gaura, 43, 44 
Glischrochilus, 177 
Glyschrochilus obtusus, 83 
Gorytes areatus, 219 

mystaceus, 218 
similicolor, 218, 219 

* Grewia cana, 62 
Gynopterus, 200, 201 

Heleothrips haemorrhoidalis, 2, 

sylvanus, i 

t Heraeus plebejus, 180 
Heterosternus, see Hydro- 

porus, 21 et seqq. 
Hexachaeta, 163 

dinia, 162 
Homoemus parvulus, 228 
Hoodiana, 65 

pallida, 66 
Hydroporus, 21 et seqq. 

brodei, 21 

quadrimaculatus, 21 
(Oreodytes) abbreviatus, 24 

alaskanus, 23, 25 

alpinus, 25 

angustior, 24 

bisulcatus, 23 

borealis, 24 

ab. montanus, 24 

congruus, 24 

crassulus, 24 

dauricus, 23, 25 

duodccimlineatus, 25 
halensis, 23 
hortense, 25, 27 
kincaidi, 25, 27 
laevis, 23, 25 
obesus, 24 
picturatus, 23, 24 
raineri, 25, 27 
recticoUis, 23, 25 
recticollis, 25, 27 
sanmarki, 24 

ab. alHenus, 24 
rivalis, 24 
scitulus, 23, 26 
semiclarus, 25, 27 
septentrionalis, 23, 26 

ab. devillei, 23 
snoqualmie, 25, 26 
subrotundatus, 24 
yukonensis, 25, 27 
(Potamonectes) griseostri- 
atus, 22 
mathiasi, 22 
Hypophloeus, 33 et seqq. 
parallelus, 33, 35 

Icterica christophe, 165 

fasciata, 165 

lunata, 165 

seriata, 165, 166 
Idiothrips, 59 

bellus, 59 
Ionia, 225 

triunata, 225, 226 

Jalysus spinosus, 43 et seqq. 
* Juniperus virginiana, 187 

Kinonia, 224 

elongata, 224 

Lachnosterna, 202 
Lasius claviger, 178 
t Lepipolys perscripta, 198 
Leptophlebia, 116 et seqq. 

adoptiva, 118, 119, 120, 
121, 122, 123, 124 

246 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Eritomological Society ^^l. xxviii 

assimilis, Ii8 

debilis, 117, 118, 119, 120 

121, 122, 123, 124, 125 

guttata, 118, 119, 120, 121 

122, 123, 126, 128 
johnsoni, 118, 119, 120 

i'2i, 122 
moerens, 118, 119, 120 

121, 123, 126 

mollis, 118, 119, 120, 121 

122, 123, 124, 125, 126 

Ontario, 118, 119, 120, 121 

praepedita, 118, 119, 120 

121, 122, 123, 129 
separata, 125 

volitans, 118, 119, 120, 121 
t Leptura emarginata, 177 
Lonatura, 224 

t Loxostege commixtalis, 198 
t dasconalis, 198 
t helvialis, 198 
Ludius appressus, 190, 191 
aratus, 188, 189, 190 
inetallicus, 188 
mirificus, 192 
nitidulits, 188 
nigricornis, 188, 189 

var, nit id ul us, 188 
rufopleuralis, 188, 189 
Lycophotia saucia, 236 

form fuscobrunnea, 236 

Magicicada cassinii, 239 
septendecim, 239 

* Mangifera indica, 161 
Maronetus hubbardi, 236 
Megalopyge, 238 
Melasis pectinicornis, 83 
Melipota fasciolaris, 198 

* Mesa rufescens, 3 
Meteorus humilis, 32 

hypophloei, 32 et seqq. 
(Zeniotes) nigricoliis, 32 

Microtrechus barberi, 237 
Mikimyia furcifera, 160 
Miris dolabratus, 36 
Miscodera arctica, 238 
Mormidea lugens, 36 
* Muhlenbergia dumosa, 225 
Musca fucata, 167 

Nabis subcoleoptratus, 36 

Naso, 194 

Nebria appalachia, 236 

Nectarina lecheguana, 219 

Neocoelidia, 224 

t Neoharmonia venusta, 179 

Neothrips obesus, 14 

corticis, 16 
Neottiglossa undata, 36 
Neurotoma cockerelli, 187 

fasciata, 187 
Nionia, 225 
Notonecta compacta, 135 

mexicana, 135 
Nyctohates, 105 

Oeneis daura, 240 
fOligia bridghami, 198 
Ommatothrips, 63 
Omosita discoidea, 83 
Ophthalmothrips, 63 
Orsillus scolopax, 36 

Pachodynerus nasidens, 219 
Palaeacrita vernata, 173 
Papilio alcinous, 177 
Parabolocratus atascaderus, 

attenuatus var. purpureas, 

planus, 223 

viridis, 223 
Paracanthia, 165 

cultaris, 164 
Paratyndaris barberi, 232 

olneyae, 232 
Pepsis nephele, 192 
Perissothrips, 8 

halli, 5 

parviceps, 7 

Dec, 1933 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 247 

Phillophyla, 162 
Phoxothrips, 63 
Phymata erosa, 36 
* Pinus monticola, 32 

* ponderosa, 229 

* sabiniana, 185 
Plagiotoma incompleta, 163 

ptira, 163 
Platydema elHpticum, 32 
Poethrips, 3 

furcatus, 4 
Pogonocherus, 183 

calif orniciis, 184 

coucolor, 184, 185 

vandykei, 184 
Poliaenus albidus, 184, 185 

batesi, 183 

hirsutus, 184 

negundo, 184 

obscurus, 184, 185 

schaefferi, 184, 185 

vandykei subsp. grandis, 

Polistes poeyi, 164 

Polycesta arizonica, 229 

*Polyganum paronychia, 180 

Polymorphomyia basilica, 163 

Polyphemus, 178, 180 

Potamonectes, see Hydroporus, 
pp. 22 et seqq. 

Projectothrips, 10 

*Protea sp., 72 

Pseudobruchus, 200, 201 

Pseudocryptothrips meridio- 
nalis, 57 
proximus, 55 

Ptinus (Gynopterus) fur, 201 
ocellus, 200, 201 
?pilosus, 200 
tectus, 200, 201 

* Quercus sp., 228, 229 

Rhamphothrips, 8 
Rhinothrips, 7 

rostratus, 8 
Rhizophagus, 33 
t Rhodoneura myrsusalis, 198 

* Rhynchosia sp., 62 

t Romaleum hispicorne, 41 
mancum, 41 
t rufulum, 41 

* Rubus, 36 

Scaphinotus andrewsi, 236 

var. tricarinatus, 236 
viduus var. irregularis, 237 
t Scolopostethus atlanticus, 180 
f Serica similis, 81 

* Silphium laciniatum, 193 
Sinea diadema, 36 
Smerinthus geminatus, 234 

* Spondias sp., 161 
Stephanothrips bradleyi, 75 

buffai, 74, 75 

graminis, 73 

occidentalis, 75 
Stictotarsus, see Hydroporus, 

pp. 21 et seqq. 
Stictothrips, 59 

* Stipea spartea, 193 
Stirellus beameri, 226 

bicolor, 226 
obtutus, 226 
Synanthedon fragerin, 180 
helianthi, 180 
polygoni, 180 
praetans, 180 

* Tabernaemontana, 160 
Taeniothrips, 10 
Tenodera angustipennis, 236 

sinensis, 236 
Tephritis arnicae, 168 
bruesi, 168, 169 
finalis, 168, 169 
finalis, 168 
floccosa, 168 
fucata, 167 

* Tephrosia, 10 
Tetraeuaresta obscuriventris, 

Tetragoneuria, 87 et seqq. 
?basiguffata, 91, 97 
calverti, 87, 95 

248 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o'- XXVIII 

canis, 91, loi 
coniplanata, 94, 95, loi 
costalis, 87 

Fcostalis, 90, 99, 102, 103 
cynosura, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 
93. 94, 95' 96, 97' 


subsp. simulans, 88, 
90, 93, 94, 95, lOI 
diffinis, 93, 94 
indistincta, 99, 100 
lateralis, 91, 92 

morio, 90, 99 
petechialis, 90, 97, 103 
semiaquea, 89, 91, 92, 94, 
95. loi 
subsp. calverti, 89 
spinigera, 90, 99, 100, loi, 
var. suffusa, 90, 100, 


spinosa, 91, loi, 102 
Stella, 89, 92, 96, 97 
williamsoni, 90, 92, 97, 98 

Tibicen chloromera, 82 

Tomoplagia discolor, 163 
pura, 163 

Toxotrypana curvicauda, 160 

Trechus schwarzi, 237 

Trichromothrips, 10 

Trigonogenius globulus, 201 

Trypanea abstersa, 170 
dacetoptera, 171 
daphne, 170 
mevarna, 170, 171 
polyclona, 170, 171 
Solaris, 170 

Trypeta abstersa, 170 
bella, 170 
humilis, 167 
suspensa, 161 
(Aciura) insecta, 163 

phoenicura, 164 
(Acrotaenia) latipennis, 
testudinea. 164 
(Acrotoxa) tricincta, 161 
(Blepharoneura) poecilo- 

gastra, 162 
(Carphotricha) cultaris, 

(Eucleia) dinia, 162 
(Plagiotoma) discolor, 163 

incompleta, 163 
(Tephritis) acidusa, 161 

acresia, 162 
(Urellia) polyclona, 170 
t Tylonotus bimaculatus, 41 

Urellia Solaris, 170 
Urothrips, 68 

bagnalli, 72 

minor, 69 

paradoxus, y2 

Xanthaciura insecta, 163 

phoenicura, 164 
Xenorhipis brendeli, 115 
Xestocephalus, 225, 226 

brunneus, 226 
t Xylorycetes satyrus, 202 

Zeridoneus costalis, 36 

New Species and other fornis in this Index, 38 
New Genera in this Index, 9 



Brooklyn Entomological 

Vol. XXIX 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO 


J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 





No. 1 


Brooklyn Entomological 


i;^ FEB *^ 5 19^' '^■. 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 

Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed February 17, 1934 

Entered as second'class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 

honorary President 
President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

. K. DE LA TOEEE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Eecording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 

















A NEW LINE, J. E. T.-B 42 



Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
rebruary» April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign. $2.75 in advance; single 
copies, 60 cents. Advertising rates on application. Short articles, notes and 
observations of interest to entomologists are solicited. Authors will receive 25 
reprints free if ordered in advance of publication. Address subscriptions and 
all communications to 

J. R. de la TORRE-BVENO, Editor, 

S8 De Kalb Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 



Vol. XXIX February, 1934 No. i 




By Harry H. Knight, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

For the past few years the writer has been working toward a 
monograph of the North American species of Phytocoris, probably 
the largest genus in the family Miridae. Up to the present writ- 
ing, 132 species have been described from the United States and 
Lower California. Adding twelve new ones raises the total to 144 
species. Consulting my manuscript catalogue of the Miridae for 
the world, I count 291 names in the genus that represent species in 
good standing. The present quota of twelve species raises the total 
number to 303 species for the world. Difficulties attending publi- 
cation of long papers leads me to publish on the new species as 
rapidly as I have opportunity to work them out. Sometime I ex- 
pect to publish keys to the species but this may await publication of 
a Manual treating the whole family for north of Mexico. 

Phytocoris rolfsi n. sp. 

Allied to laev'is Uhler but differs in the pale and fuscous 
brown coloration, also distinguished by the longer and more 
convex frons. 

J*. Length 9.5 mm., width 2.6 mm. Head: width 1.18 
mm., vertex .443 mm., from base of eyes to tip of frons .67 
mm. ; frons strongly produced, convexity almost conical in 
form, extending beyond and overhanging the tylus, each side 
of frons with seven or eight oblique, slender brown lines ; an- 
tero-dorsal angle of lora with tubercle projection as in lacvis. 
Rostrum, length 2.73 mm., reaching to near hind margins of 
posterior coxae, pale to brownish, apex black. Antennae : 
segment I, length 2.16 mm., thickness at base .173 mm., taper- 
ing to more slender on apical half (.13 mm.) then enlarged at 
apex, color grayish white, irregularly sprinkled with fine 


2 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o?. XXIX 

brownish dots, clothed with inconspicuous pale pubescence and 
intermixed with a few somewhat longer white hairs ; II, 4.74 
mm., slender, cylindrical, pale to dusky brown on apical half ; 
III, 2.38 mm., slender, finely pale pubescent, dusky to fuscous 
at apex; IV, broken. Pronotum: length 1.17 mm., width at 
base 1.99 mm.; mesoscutum rather broadly exposed as in 
laevis, but the scutellum not so strongly convex on apical half. 

Dorsum clothed with rather closely appressed silvery, se- 
riceous pubescence which on darker areas becomes golden yel- 
low as on inner half of clavus, interspersed on corium and 
inner half of cuneus with more erect short fuscous hairs. 
General coloration pale and shaded with fuscous and brown ; 
scutellum with black mark each side on margin before apex, 
dark specimens with geminate wedge on mesoscutum and ex- 
tending upon base of scutellum but the dark color separating 
into dots ; spot behind inner angles of calli, anterior angles of 
pronotal disk and collum just opposite, stripe each side on 
mesoscutum and a spot near inner angle of cuneus, black. 
Hemelytra with pale to white ground color, more or less dark- 
ened by fusco-brownish, the dark color breaking into reticu- 
lations, the darker areas as on middle and inner apical half of 
corium inclosing pale irrorations; inner half of clavus brown- 
ish to fuscous, but invaded at base by paler spots ; cuneus fully 
twice as long as wide at base, sprinkled with fuscous brown 
dots. Membrane and veins pale to white, bordering veins 
within cells and a curving ray each side behind areoles and at- 
taining apex of membrane, fusco-brownish, the dark color 
breaking into spots and reticulations at margins; anal vein 
fuscous, behind this the inner marginal area of membrane 
sprinkled with fuscous dots. Legs pale and marked with fus- 
cous and brown, femora reticulate with fusco-brownish, 
darker on apical half so that the pale color may show as irro- 
rations; tibiae largely pale, tips fuscous, bases marked with 
brownish, tarsi blackish. Venter shaded and marked with 
fuscous and brown, the dark color tending to emphasize a pale 
lateral line. Genital claspers exhibit a close relationship with 
laevis Uhler, but tip of right clasper provided with a longer 
and a stronger incurved claw. 

5. Length 8.7 mm., width 2.5 mm. Head: width 1.17 mm., 
vertex .52 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 2.16 mm.; II, 
4.07 mm.; Ill, 2.03 mm.; IV, .85 mm. Pronotum: length 
1. 1 7 mm., width at base 2.07 mm. Very similar to the male in 
form, pubescence and coloration. 

Holotype: ^, Sept. 23, 1931, Wiley City, Washington (A. R. 
Rolfs) ; author's collection. Allotype: $, Sept. 15, 1932, Yakima, 
Washington (A. R. Rolfs). Paratypes: ^, taken with the type on 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 3 

rabbit bush (ChrysotJiaiiimis naiiseosus Pall.). 8$, Sept. 15, 1932, 
Yakima, Washington (A. R. Rolfs), taken with the allotype on 
Chrysothamnus nauseosus Pall. ^, Aug. 15, 1931, Yakima; $, 
Sept. 3, 1932, Tampico, Washington (A. R. Rolfs). 

Mr. Rolfs writes: "When I took these Phytocoris the bushes 
were swept over once without getting anything, and then on the 
second time over I took these specimens. I do not know whether 
they were down in the bushes and I stirred them up, or if it was 
the time of day, or what. All that I have taken so far were caught 
between 4 : 30 and 6 : 00 p. m. I have swept sage brush a half day 
at a time before and since these specimens were taken without any 
luck, so perhaps I did pretty well in getting these eight or ten in an 
hour or so one afternoon." 

Phytocoris roseipennis n. sp. 

Allied to roseotinctits Kngt., but size larger; distinguished 
by three longitudinal white lines on pronotum and scutellum, 
longer head, and in structure of male genital claspers. 

J*. Length 8.36 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head: width 1.08 
mm., vertex .54 mm.; elongated, from base of eyes to tip of 
tylus .91 mm., from base of eyes to apex of frons .71 mm. ; 
frons convex apically, tylus prominent, deeply impressed at 
base ; eyes set at an oblique angle, their base distinctly re- 
moved (.12 mm.) from collar; white to yellowish, tinged with 
roseus on tylus, median line of vertex and frons white, obso- 
lete lines on frons roseate. Rostrum, length 4.24 mm., reach- 
ing upon seventh ventral segment, fuscous to blackish, basal 
segment pale and reaching beyond middle of front coxae. An- 
tennae: segment I, length 2.12 mm., nearly cylindrical (.17 
mm. thick at middle), slightly thicker near base, clothed with 
white pubescence and erect white hairs, length of hairs equal 
to or slightly exceeding thickness of segment, tinged with 
roseus and dusky; II, 3.94 mm., dusky brown, paler at base, 
clothed with short pale pubescence; III, 2.38 mm., dark brown 
to fuscous; IV, 1.3 mm., fuscous. Pronotum: length 1.47 
mm., width at base 2.08 mm. ; basal margin sinuate at middle, 
collar rather broad and flat. 

Dorsum clothed with fine silvery, sericeous pubescence and 
intermixed with more erect white hairs, the latter longer and 
more prominent on pronotum and head. General coloration 
pale, the dorsum roseus, more strongly colored on hemelytra, 
a sharply defined, median, longitudinal white line on scutel- 
lum, pronotum and extending upon head, also a somewhat 
broader white stripe each side of this median line, dividing 
each half of disk into quarters, the stripe continuing across 
mesoscutum and on lateral margins of scutellum ; this pale 

4 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o'- XXIX 

stripe may also be recognized upon head behind and in front 
of the dorsal half of eyes. Hemelytra roseus, embolium and 
edge of corium, cuneus except inner margin, claval vein and 
inner margins of clavus pale to white. Membrane dark fus- 
cous, cubitus pale, a reddish callus mark bordering cubitus 
before apex of larger areole. Legs pale to yellowish, femora 
tinged with roseus and dusky brown, irrorate with pale dots, 
set with prominent, erect white hairs ; tibiae yellowish white, 
apices fuscous, spines brownish, tarsi and claws brownish to 
black. Venter roseate, a moderately broad, longitudinal white 
line each side, dorsal edge and base of abdomen pale. Genital 
claspers distinctive, form of right clasper very similar to that 
of confluens Reut., but otherwise not related; wall of genital 
segment with a blunt tubercle at the angle above base of left 

5. Length 7.4 mm., width 2.5 mm., brachypterous. Head : 
width 1.08 mm., vertex .61 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 
2.3 mm., roseate; II, 4.07 mm., uniformly dusky brown; III, 
2.47 mm., fuscous, pale at base; IV, 1.25 mm., blackish. Pro- 
notum: length 1.12 mm., width at base 1.64 mm. Hemelytra 
brachypterous, leaving three abdominal segments exposed ; 
cuneus present but short and rounded ; membrane represented 
by a small flap. Dorsum paler than in the male, corium with 
a longitudinal fusco-brownish stripe (this stripe apparent in 
the male but largely obscured by the roseate coloration) ; scu- 
tellum with roseate stripe each side of the white median line ; 
femora and venter roseate as in the male, the tergites of the 
abdomen roseate except for white median line. 
Holotype: ^, Sept. 20, 1928, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona (A. A. 
Nichol) ; author's collection. Allotype: same data as type. Para- 
types: 3J*, 8$, taken with the types (A. A. Nichol), "on grasses." 
c^, 5> Sept. 29, 1929, Patagonia, Arizona (E. D. Ball). <^, Sept., 
1906, Nogales, Arizona (A. Koebele). $, Sept. 8, (^, Sept. 13, 3$, 
Sept. 16, 3J*, 15, Sept. 23, 1927, Texas Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., 
Cochise Co., Arizona (J. A. Kusche), collection of California 
Academy of Sciences. 

Concerning this species Mr. A. A. Nichol wrote as follows: 
"Yesterday I was out for a few minutes and took some Mirids 
which I know will prove interesting to you. Two of these were 
taken from a gramma grass, pitifully small relics of it which still 
hang on in very, very small spots and which I am afraid will soon 
disappear because of over-grazing." 

"The Phytocoris species with the short winged females were col- 
lected in those grass relics I mentioned. I took Professor McGin- 
nies, our range specialist, to examine them and he says Hilaria sp., 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 5 

Aristida spp., and a sprinkling of Velota and slender gramma 
(Bouteloua) make up the majority of the plots." 

Phytocoris fuscipennis n. sp. 

Allied to roscipcnnis but differs in the shorter first antennal 
segment which is blackish beneath ; hemelytra fuscous, costal 
margin pale ; genital segment without tubercle above base of 
left clasper. 

(^. Length 9.2 mm., width 2.5 mm. Head: width 1.12 
mm., vertex .58 mm., viewed from above the tylus projecting 
prominently beyond the frons, from base of eyes to tip of 
tylus .82 mm., from base of eyes to apex of frons .65 mm. 
Rostrum, length 4.5 mm., reaching upon sixth ventral seg- 
ment, brownish to black. Antennae: segment I, length 1.49 
mm., nearly cylindrical but thicker (1.7 mm.) near base, pale 
above, blackish beneath, clothed with pale pubescence and 
white erect hairs, the latter more abundant on inner surfaces, 
length of hairs about equal to thickness of segment ; II, 3.85 
mm., cylindrical, pale yellowish brown, a blackish spot beneath 
at base; III, 2.12 mm., brownish; IV, 1.21 mm., fuscous. 
Pronotum : length 1.34 mm., width at base 1.99 mm., very 
slightly sinuate on middle of base. Scutellum moderately and 
evenly convex, fuscous to blackish, median line and sides 

Dorsum clothed with recumbent, somewhat sericeous, pale 
pubescence, intermixed with longer and more erect white 
hairs, the latter longer and more prominent on margins of pro- 
notum and basal half of hemelytra. General coloration pale 
and darkened with fuscous; clavus and corium rather uni- 
formly darkened, outer margin of corium tinged yellowish, 
embolium and narrow outer margin of cuneus white. Ster- 
num, xyphus and gula blackish, face largely infuscated. Legs 
pale to dusky brown, coxae blackish, hairs and pubescence 
whitish, tibial spines brownish, tarsi fusco-brownish. Venter 
pale yellowish to fuscous, darker on ventral surface of genital 
segment, Genital structures distinctive, left clasper rather 
similar to roscipennis but without tubercle above base; right 
clasper more slender, ligulate and with small claw at apex. 

Holotypc: J^, September 23, 1927, Texas Canyon, alt. 5700 ft., 
Chiricahua Mts., Arizona (J. A. Kusche) ; collection of California 
Academy of Sciences. Paratypcs: 25J*, Sept. 23, \(^, Sept. 16, 
taken with the type in trap light (J. A. Kusche). J*, July, 1923, 
Douglas, Arizona (H. Letcher). No doubt the female of this spe- 
cies is brachypterous which explains why no females were taken at 
a trap light. 

6 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^^l. XXIX 

Phytocoris longirostris n. sp. 

Allied to roseipennis but differs in being rather uniformly 
pale in color, by the longer rostrum which attains base of gen- 
ital segment in the male, and by the shorter first antennal seg- 
ment ; male distinguished by lack of a tubercle above base of 
left clasper. Differs from fuscipennis by the pale coloration, 
longer rostrum and smaller size. 

icf. Length y mm., width 2 mm. Head: width 1.04 mm., 
vertex .54 mm. ; tylus and apex of f rons somewhat less promi- 
nent than in roseipennis, uniformly pale yellowish. Rostrum, 
length 4 mm., attaining base of genital segment, yellowish to 
brown, the apical segment blackish. Antennae: segment I, 
length 1.25 mm., yellowish white, pale pubescent, bearing erect 
white bristles, length of a few exceeding thickness of seg- 
ment; II, 2.94 mm., dusky yellow, pale pubescent; III, 1.82 
mm., fusco-brownish, narrowly pale at base; IV, 1.21 mm., 
fuscous. Pronotum: length 1.08 mm., width at base 1.66 
mm. ; basal margin sinuate at middle, collar rather broad and 

Dorsum clothed with recumbent, slightly sericeous, white 
pubescence and intermixed with more erect, longer white 
hairs. General coloration pale yellowish to white, an obsolete 
longitudinal white line is evident on scutellum and less dis- 
tinctly on pronotum and head. Membrane uniformly pale 
fumate, veins white, cubitus dusky except apically, an opaque 
whitish callus bordering cubitus before apex. Legs uniformly 
pale yellowish, white pubescent, tibial spines yellowish brown, 
tarsi and tips of tibiae brown to dusky brown. Genital seg- 
ment without tubercles, the claspers rather similar to fusci- 
pennis in form but right clasper more slender apically and 
with longer claw. 

5. Length 6.3 mm., width 2 mm., brachypterous. Head: 
width 1. 1 2 mm., vertex .69 mm. Rostrum, length 4.5 mm., 
reaching beyond base of ovipositor or to middle of segment 
eight. Antennae: segment I, length 1.6 mm., uniformly yel- 
lowish white; II, 3.46 mm., whitish, becoming brownish api- 
cally; III, 2.16 mm., dusky brown; IV, 1.3 mm., fuscous. 
Pronotum: length .95 mm., width at base 1.47 mm, Heme- 
lytra brachypterous, leaving three or four abdominal segments 
exposed ; cuneus evident as a rounded flap, membrane scarcely 
evident. General coloration pale yellowish to white, a brown- 
ish cloud sometimes evident on middle of corium. 

Holotype: J^, September 19, 1928, Tucson, Arizona (A. A. 
Nichol) ; author's collection. Allotype: same date as type. Para- 
types: J*, $, taken with the types by Mr. Nichol on the same grasses 
described for roseipennis. . 5, July 25, 1922, Douglas, Arizona (H. 
Letcher) . 

Feb., 1934 BuUetin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 7 

Phytocoris seminotatus n. sp. 

Allied to fuscipciuiis but head shorter and eyes vertical ; dif- 
fers in the pale color, a dusky spot only on apical area of cor- 
ium; membrane conspurcate within the areoles and two spots 
on apical half. 

^. Length 7.6 mm., width 2.4 mm. Head: width 1.12 mm., 
vertex .49 mm. ; vertical, f rons convex apically, prominent, 
tylus not visible as viewed from above, deeply impressed on 
base and separated from f rons ; antero-dorsal angle of lora 
projecting as a tuliercle; eyes large, vertical in position. Ros- 
trum, length 2./^ mm., reaching upon third ventral segment, 
pale, apex blackish. Antennae: segment I, length 1.56 mm., 
thicker (.15 mm.) near base, and tapering to more slender 
(.12 mm.) on apical half, and thicker (.13 mm.) again at 
apex, uniformly pale yellowish, white pubescent, beset with 
numerous white bristles, the length (.21 mm.) of many dis- 
tinctly greater than thickness of segment; II, 2.94 mm., cylin- 
drical, pale to brownish, white pubescent; III, 1.86 mm., yel- 
lowish ijrown ; IV, 1.12 mm., pale fuscous. Pronotum: length 
1. 1 7 mm., width at base 1.96 mm., basal margin arcuate, only 
very slightly sinuate at middle. Scutellum moderately, evenly 
convex, uniformly pale yellowish. 

Dorsum clothed with fine silvery white, sericeous, recum- 
bent pubescence and more erect simple white hairs, also inter- 
spersed with a few erect fuscous bristles, particulary on api- 
cal area of corium, disk of clavus and basal half of pronotal 
disk. General coloration pale yellowish to white, apical area 
of corium dusky, cuneus dusky to pale fuscous on apical half. 
IVIembrane and veins white, within the areoles, a submarginal 
spot behind cuneus and larger area on apex of membrane, con- 
spurcate or reticulate with fuscous. Legs pale yellowish to 
white, hind femora darkened with fuscous-brown to reddish- 
brown, thickly irrorate with small and a few large white 
spots; tibiae white, clothed with white hairs, spines brown, 
apical half of hind tibia bearing black micro-setae ; tarsi 
brownish, apical segment blackish. Ventral surface yellowish 
to white. Genital segment distinctive, a prominent blunt tu- 
bercle projecting posteriorly from the angle of segment wall 
just above base of left clasper, a smaller but distinct tubercle 
in like position above base of right clasper. Claspers rather 
similar in structure to those of longirostris but distinguished 
by the tubercles; otherwise the species differ greatly in form 
of head and length of rostrum. 

$. Length 6.8 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head : width 1.04 mm., 
vertex .52 mm. Rostrum, length 2.73 mm., reaching upon 
third or fourth ventral segment. Antennae: segment I, length 

8 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^i. XXIX 

1. 51 mm.; II, 2.81 mm.; Ill, 1.81 mm.; IV, 1.17 mm. Pro- 
notum: length 1.12 mm., width at base 1.95 mm. Very simi- 
lar to the male in form, pubescence and coloration. 

Holotype: J^, September 19, 1928, Tucson, Arizona (A. A. 
Nichol) ; author's collection. Allotype: same data as the type. Mr. 
Nichol took these specimens on grasses, evidently one of the spe- 
cies mentioned under the description of roseipennis. ^, ^, Sept. 
16, cf, 2% Sept. 23, ?, Sept. 30, ^, Oct. i, ^, 2> Oct. 14, 1927, 
Texas Canyon, Chiricahua Mts., Arizona (J. A. Kusche). 2^, 
Sept., 1906, Nogales, Arizona (A. Koebele) ; coll. Calif. Acad. 

Phytocoris difformis n. sp. 

Not closely allied to any described species ; belongs to the 
group with conspurcate membrane and bearing some decidu- 
ous, black scale-like hairs on the dorsum ; scutellum sharply 
convex behind middle, hind femora strongly tapered on apical 

J*. Length 5.5 mm., width 1.95 mm. Head: width 1.04 
mm., vertex .37 mm. ; vertical in position, tylus not visible as 
viewed from above, tylus arcuate, lora strongly exserted, eyes 
rather large ; f rons with several oblique black lines on each 
side, lower half of face white, irregular mark across middle of 
tylus, dorsal margins of lora and bucculae, reddish black. 
Rostrum, length 2.9 mm., reaching upon sixth ventral seg- 
ment, dark brownish, basal segment white. Antennae: seg- 
ment I, length 1.38 mm., slightly thicker near base, tapering 
to slightly more slender apically, black, with several more or 
less confluent white spots on dorsal aspect, black pubescent, 
provided with several bristle-like white hairs, length of these 
hairs not exceeding thickness of segment; II, 2.8 mm., black, 
with white band at base and one at slightly beyond middle ; 
III, 2.38 mm., black, narrow white band at base; IV, 1.17 
mm., brownish black. Pronotum : length .95 mm., width at 
base 1.82 mm.; disk grayish to blackish, narrow basal margin 
pale and bordered with black line of varying width ; border- 
ing calli behind, dorsal margin of propleura and a mark across 
middle of coxal cleft, black. Scutellum sharply convex at 
slightly behind middle, black, an X-like pale mark with cross- 
ing point on the center of convexity, the apex of scutellum 
sharply depressed and with oblong black mark on median line. 

Dorsum clothed with simple, short black pubescent hairs, 
intermixed with closely appressed, white sericeous pubescence, 
the whole intermixed with deciduous, black scale-like hairs ; 
the erect black hairs prominent on collar, apex of clavus, and 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 9 

two tufts on membrane margin of cuneus and paracuneus. 
Hemelytra grayish white and marked with blackish, claval 
vein, inner margin of corium, spot before middle and radial 
vein, embolium except for a few small spots, paracuneus, in- 
ner margin and apex of cuneus, black or shaded with black. 
Membrane white, thickly conspurcate and reticulate with fus- 
cous to black, two white spots on membrane margin behind 
cuneus. Sternum black, margins of epimera and the ostiolar 
peritreme white. Legs white and marked with black, front 
and middle femora with blackish reticulations due to coales- 
cing white spots; hind femora thick at middle and tapering 
sharply to slender at apex, black except base, thickly marked 
with both large and small coalescing white spots ; tibiae black, 
front pair triannulate with white, the middle pair with four 
white bands, hind tibiae largely blackish and checkered with 
white glabrous spots from which arise either white or black 
spines. Venter chiefly blackish, marked with white spots 
which laterally and beneath coalesce to give a pale ground 
color upon which remnants of blackish reticulations may be 
traced. Genital segment without tubercles, right clasper ligu- 
late, tapering apically, terminating in a short thick claw which 
fits into a groove on terminal portion of left clasper. 

$. Length 6.2 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head: width 1.12 mm., 
vertex .48 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 1.81 mm.; II, 
3.29 mm. ; III, 2.16 mm. ; IV, broken. Pronotum : length 1.04 
mm., width at base 1.97 mm. Very similar to the male in 
form, color and pubescence. 

Holotype: J^, July 19, 191 7, Texas Pass, Arizona (H. H. 
Knight) ; author's collection. Allotype: same data as the type. 
Paratypes: J, taken with the types on a tent trap light. 5- July 15, 
191 7, Bonita, Arizona (H. H. Knight), at trap light. Arizona — 
^, May 24, 5, June 7, 1924, Tucson (A. A. Nichol). J^, July 25, 
2^, July 22, ^, ?, Aug. I, 1925, Tucson (A. A. Nichol & B. B. 
Streets). $, Sept. 2, 1926, Rincon Mts. (A. A. Nichol). <^, May, 
1929, Tucson (E. D. Ball). $, Baboquivaria Mts. (F. H. Snow). 
3$, July 25, (^, July 27, 1924, Oracle (E. P. Van Duzee & J. O. 
Martin), on Acacia greggi.. ^, Aug. 11, Tucson, $, Aug. 10, 1924, 
Florida Canyon, Santa Rita Mts. (E. P. Van Duzee). <^, Oct. 17, 
Maricopa; J, Aug. 22, 1927, Chiricahua Mts. (J. A. Kusche). $, 
June 7, 1930, Congress (G. Linsley). 

Phytocoris varius n. sp. 

Related to palmeri Rent, as indicated by three types of 
pubescence and conspurcate membrane, but differs in the 

10 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^^l. XXIX 

smaller size, paler color with speckled hemelytra, and in form 
of genital structures. 

J*. Length 6.4 mm., width 2.1 mm. Head: width 1.08 
mm., vertex .41 mm. ; tylus visible from above, lora rather 
prominent ; yellowish, f rons with fine reddish marks, lower 
half of tylus, lora, upper half of juga, basal edge of bucculae, 
and two rays behind eye, blackish. Rostrum, length 2.64 mm., 
reaching upon sixth ventral segment, pale, apical half brown- 
ish to black. Antennae: segment I, length 1.17 mm., pale, fus- 
cous beneath, brownish reticulations above, clothed with 
rather long white pubescence, intermixed with several white 
bristles which in length exceed thickness of segment ; II, 2.73 
mm., uniformly pale dusky, narrowly white at base; III, 1.69 
mm., pale fuscous; IV, 1.08 mm., fuscous. Pronotum: length 
.83 mm., width at base 1.51 mm.; disk pale to dusky, lateral 
margins and a subbasal line fviscous to blackish, slender basal 
edge white, collar and calli yellowish, two spots on collar and 
inner angles of calli fuscous ; propleura blackish, lower mar- 
gin and ray across top of coxal cleft pale to yellowish. Meso- 
scutum and scutellum blackish, basal angles of scutellum and 
median line on apical half pale to white. 

Hemelytra whitish, rather uniformly speckled with fuscous 
dots, each dot formed at the base of a black hair, radial vein 
except for interruption on middle, narrow inner margin and 
apex of cuneus, blackish. Dorsum clothed with sericeous, 
white pubescence, and intermixed with more erect fuscous to 
black simple hairs, the w'hole interspersed with deciduous, 
scale-like black hairs. Membrane white, rather evenly con- 
spurcate with fuscous dots and reticulations, cubital vein 
opaque white, smaller vein fuscous. Sternum, pleura and 
venter rather uniformly blackish, ostiolar peritreme and lower 
margin of epimera white. Legs pale, base of hind and middle 
coxae with blackish spot, femora with brownish black lines 
and reticulations, dorsal aspect of hind femora black, a few 
small white spots on posterior aspect, ventral aspect pale with 
dark reticulations ; tibiae pale, with brownish dots and reticu- 
lations on basal half, pubescent hairs w4iite, spines brown. 
Genital segment distinctive, a moderate sized tubercle formed 
on wall somewhat above base of left clasper ; left clasper of 
the simple curving type, right clasper ligulate, slightly bent 
near base, apical half tapering to a brown claw on apex. 

5. Length 5.9 mm., width 1.94 mm. Head: width 1.02 
mm., vertex .476 mm. Rostrum, length 2.68 mm., reaching 
upon sixth ventral segment. Antennae: segment I, length 
1.21 mm.; II, 2.75 mm.; Ill, 1.86 mm.; IV, 1.12 mm. Pro- 
notum: length .78 mm., width at base 1.45 mm. Very similar 
to the male in form, color and pubescence. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11 

Holotype: J*, September 6. 1931, Grand Canyon (H. H. 
Knight) ; author's collection. Allotype: 5, taken with the type. 
Paratypes: ^, 35, taken with the types by beating on large cedar 
trees {Juniperus sp.) which were found growing behind the cabin 
camp located at the entrance gate of the Grand Canyon National 
Park. $, Aug. 13, 1925, Durango, Colorado (H. H. Knight). 3J*, 
June 20, 1928, alt. 6200 ft., Chiricahua Mts., Arizona (A. A. 

Phytocoris calli n. sp. 

Allied to conspurcatus Kngt., but distinguished by a me- 
dian white line on mesoscutum and scutellum, third antennal 
segment with pale annulus only at base, while the second seg- 
ment is largely pale and not sharply annulate. 

(^. Length, 6.1 mm., width 2.1 mm. Head: width, 1.03 
mm., vertex .38 mm. Rostrum, length 3.1 mm., reaching 
upon genital segment, pale, apical half brownish, apex black- 
ish. Antennae: segment I, length 1.33 mm., white, dorsal 
aspect with three blackish areas which are separated by two 
white spots or bands, spines white to brownish ; II, 2.75 mm., 
yellowish brown to fuscous, white at base, rather broadly 
paler at middle but not sharply annulate, the basal half with 
three obscure but evident paler spots; III, 1.6 mm., black, 
white only at base ; IV, i mm., black. Pronotum : length .98 
mm., width at base 1.75 mm. Mesoscutum dark with a dis- 
tinct white median line which extends upon the largely pale 
scutellum, but upon the latter the pale line is bordered by 
dark color. 

Dorsum clothed with black scale-like hairs and intermixed 
with white sericeous pubescence and simple black hairs much 
as in conspurcatus. Hemelytra conspicuously marked with 
white, corium with base, middle, and apex with prominent 
white areas, clavus whitish on inner margins, also with three 
or four white spots through the middle. Membrane much as 
in conspurcatus but paler, the cubitus white. Legs rather 
similar to conspurcatus but the hind tibiae with a broad white 
band on basal half. Genital characters indicate a close rela- 
tionship with conspurcatus but the tubercle above base of left 
clasper appears longer in that it extends beyond the basal 
angle of the clasper, the latter being shorter in structure. 

Holotype: ^, from aspen grove, Brigham Young University cam- 
pus, Timanogas, Utah (Anson Call, Jr.) ; author's collection. 

Phytocoris squamosus n. sj). 

Differs from all described species in having a brush-like 

12 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

fringe of hairs on ventral surface of first antennal segment; 
form slender, collar pale and marked with fuscous, clothed 
with appressed, silvery, scale-like pubescence and intermixed 
with simple fuscous hairs. 

J*. Length 5.2 mm., width 1.4 mm. Head: width .82 mm., 
vertex, .43 mm., length from base of eyes to tip of tylus .62 
mm., the tylus visible as viewed from above, basal half some- 
what swollen and arcuate as viewed from the side, eyes ob- 
lique in position ; f rons and vertex nearly horizontal in posi- 
tion, only slightly convex, median line pale, with curving ob- 
lique fusco-reddish lines on each side of frons. Rostrum, 
length 2.42 mm., attaining base of fourth ventral segment, yel- 
lowish, apex blackish. Antennae: segment I, length 1.4 mm., 
clothed with long sericeous white hairs, forming a brush on 
ventral surface, length of hairs equal to and some exceeding 
thickness of segment, dorsal surface provided with a few 
white bristles, their length about equal to thickness of seg- 
ment, color fuscous, with several coalescing white spots on 
dorsal aspect; II, 2.51 mm., brownish black, more blackish on 
apex, clothed with appressed, short white pubescence; III, 
1.38 mm., black, base narrowly white; IV, 1.08 mm., black. 
Pronotum: length .84 mm., width at base 1.3 mm.; yellowish, 
calli and three or four obsolete rays reddish, narrow basal 
margin thickly coated with silvery scales, disk with finer and 
more yellowish, sericeous pubescence; collar strongly flat- 
tened, stricture shallow. Mesoscutum broadly exposed, sloping 
gradually to the moderately convex scutellum, brownish black, 
basal angles and apex of scutellum, including a partial median 
line, white, thickly covered with closely appressed, white 

Hemelytra white, largely clothed with white scales, but api- 
cal half of corium except edges and discal area of clavus, 
without scales and bearing simple fuscous pubescence; tip of 
clavus, two tufts on membrane margin of cuneus and para- 
cuneus, apex of embolium and tip of cuneus bearing promi- 
nent black hairs ; base of clavus, streaks on claval vein, two or 
three small spots and apex of embolium, radial vein, inner 
margin of clavus and continuing across paracuneus, inner 
margin and apex of cuneus, and small dots on disk of cuneus, 
fuscous to blackish. Membrane opaque white, conspurcate 
and reticulate with brownish black, an arcuate white band ex- 
tending from apex of larger areole to tip of membrane, also 
two smaller white spots, one behind apex of cuneus and the 
second about half way to tip of membrane ; veins yellowish 
white, base of anal vein with reddish. Legs white and marked 
with blackish, apical half of femora streaked and spotted with 
blackish, hind femora thicker on basal half, tapering sharply 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 13 

to more slender on apical half, slightly curved, anterior aspect 
with two partially defined longitudinal blackish lines ; tibiae 
yellowish to white, spines chiefly white but a few black mixed 
in, front pair with spots and apices fuscous, hind pair with 
small dots only; tarsi black. Venter white, thickly covered 
with white scales, a sharply defined lateral line, genital seg- 
ment except bordering claspers, also more or less on basal 
part of seventh and eighth segments, black. Genital segment 
without tubercles, right clasper ligulate on basal half, apical 
half tapering to a sharp point and sloping upward ; left clasper 
of the ordinary type, thick at base then tapering sharply to 
the slender apical half which in this case is black. 

5. Length 4.9 mm., width 1.38 mm. Head: width .82 mm., 
vertex .47 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 1.81 mm., II, 
3.1 1 mm., black, with two or three white spots on basal half; 
III, 1.6 mm.; IV, broken. Pronotum: length .69 mm., width 
at base 1.04 mm. Membrane abbreviated, just atttaining apex 
of abdomen, dorsal surface of abdomen thickly covered with 
silvery scales. Color and pubescence very similar to that of 
the male. 

Holotypc: J*, July 15, 1917, Bowie, Arizona (H. H. Knight) ; 
author's collection. Allotype: $, July, 1929, Tucson, Arizona (E. 
D. Ball). Paratypcs: 4^^, taken with the type. 3 J', 1$, taken with 
the allotype. ^, June 6, 1930, Mojave, California (R. L. Usinger). 
J*, Oct. 14, 1927, Patagonia, Arizona (J. A. Kusche). 

Phytocoris nigrisignatus n. sp. 

Allied to quercicola Kngt. and relatives but distinguished 
from all known species by the short pubescence and pale color 
with distinctive black markings. 

$. Length 6.3 mm., width 2.2 mm. Head: width 1.04 mm., 
vertex .45 mm. Rostrum, length 3.1 1 mm., reaching upon 
fourth ventral segment, brownish black, first segment paler. 
Antennae: segment I, length 1.38 mm., cylindrical, slightly 
thicker near base, pale yellowish, basal construction blackish, 
ventral aspect with blackish line which becomes obsolete on 
basal half, clothed with short yellowish pubescence, also six or 
seven short yellowish spines, the longest not equal to thickness 
of segment; II, 3.0 mm., black, narrow band at base and 
rather broadly on middle, pale yellowish; III, 1.56 mm., uni- 
lormly yellowish; IV, broken. Pronotum: length 1.08 mm., 
width at base 1.73 mm. 

Dorsum clothed with appressed, short, pale yellowish, seri- 
ceous pubescence and intermixed with more erect short fus- 
cous hairs, the latter more prominent on pronotum. General 

14 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

coloration pale yellowish and marked with black; pronotum 
except basal margin, median line, inner half of calli, dorsal 
aspect of collar and lower margin of propleura, black ; broad 
stripe behind eyes, narrow stripe around antennal socket and 
extending across impressed base of tylus, mesosternum ex- 
cept median line, small mark on each lateral margin of scu- 
tellum before apex, four or five spots on embolium, inner api- 
cal angles of clavus, apex and inner margin of cuneus, black. 
Membrane white, speckled with scattering fuscous dots, within 
larger areole more thickly conspurcate, smaller areole and 
lateral vein blackish, cubitus yellowish, apex of membrane and 
small group of dots on lateral margin behind cuneus, fuscous 
dotted. Legs yellowish, femora irregularly marked with 
blackish on apical half, the hind femora more broadly black, 
irrorate with moderately large white spots ; tibiae triannulate 
with alternating bands of pale and black, with black band at 
apex, middle, and middle of basal half ; tarsi blackish, claws 
brownish. Venter uniformly yellowish, second and third seg- 
ments with lateral fuscous mark. 

Holotype: $, June 25, 1917, Victoria, Texas (H. H. Knight), 
taken on Quercus sp. ; author's collection. 

This species is so distinctive in coloration and pubescence I feel 
that it may be safely recognized from the female here described 
when next it comes to hand. 

Phytocoris albellus n. sp. 

Allied to vcntralis Van D. as indicated by the deciduous 
black and white scale-like hairs on the dorsum, but dififers in 
the more slender first antennal segment, more vertical type of 
head, and nearly white color. 

^. Length 3.9 mm., width 1.56 mm. Head: width .78 mm., 
vertex .38 mm. ; nearly vertical in position, tylus not visible 
from above, f rons and vertex evenly convex, eyes moderate in 
size, vertical in position, posterior margin nearly in contact 
with collar, lora prominent. Rostrum, length 1.8 mm., reach- 
ing upon fourth ventral segment, yellowish brown, darker at 
apex. Antennae: segment I, length .74 mm., thickness .10 
mm., cylindrical, slightly more slender on apical half, black, 
dorsal aspect with two large and three smaller white spots, 
with yellowish and black pubescence, beset with three or four 
pale bristles, length of one or two bristles exceeding diameter 
of segment; II, 1.88 mm., slender, yellowish brown, narrow 
white band at base, pale on middle and darker brown on apex ; 
III, 1.04 mm., fuscous brown, pale at base; IV, .yy mm., 
blackish. Pronotum: length .64 mm., width at base 1.25 mm. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 15 

Dorsum clothed with fine, pale yellowish pubescence and 
fuscous hairs, intermixed with both black and silvery white, 
deciduous scale-like hairs. General coloration yellowish white, 
an oblique mark across inner apical angles of corium, meso- 
scutum, collar above, basal margin of pronotal disk, dorsal 
margin of propleura, mark across middle of coxal cleft, ray 
behind dorsal one-third of eye, mark across base of juga, spot 
on each side of tylus at middle, sternum, blotch on middle of 
eighth ventral segment, small dot each side on lateral margin 
of scutellum before apex, and tip of cuneus, black. Mem- 
brane dark fuscous, closely and thickly dotted and reticulate 
with white, two somewhat larger white spots along margin 
behind cuneus, veins fuscous, cubitus about apex of larger 
areole, white. Legs white, apical half of femora sparsely 
marked with irregular black reticulations which consolidate 
to form one or two black patches just before apex; front 
tibiae triannulate with black, middle and hind tibiae with bands 
indistinct except at middle, tarsi pale, tips fuscous. 

Holotype: J, August 5, 1929, Payson, Arizona (E. D. Ball) ; 
author's collection. A pretty little white form that may be readily 
recognized by the black markings. 

Phytocoris pulchellus n. sp. 

Runs to Inteohis Kngt. in my key (Hem. Conn., 1923, p. 
644) but dififers in the fuscous pronotum and uniformly 
greenish yellow clavus and corium ; distinguished structurally 
by the shorter first antennal segment and in the male by a 
double tubercle above base of left genital clasper. 

<^. Length 4.7 mm., width 1.56 mm. Head: width .86 
mm., vertex .28 mm. ; tylus and lora less prominent than in 
luteolus. Rostrum, length 1.86 mm., reaching upon fourth or 
fifth ventral segments. Antennae: segment I, length .97 mm.. 
white, irregularly marked with orange, pale pubescent, pro- 
vided with four or five white spines; H, 2.03 mm., uniformly 
yellowish brown; HI, 1.08 mm., dusky brown; IV, broken. 
Pronotum: length .75 mm., width at base 1.38 mm. 

Dorsum clothed with simple yellowish pubescence and more 
or less intermixed with silvery sericeous pubescence. Gen- 
eral coloration yellowish to greenish yellow and marked with 
reddish; scutellum, clavus and corium uniformly greenish 
yellow, in darker specimens tinged with reddish ; pronotum 
rather uniformly infuscated, tinged with reddish, collar, 
mesoscutum, base of corium and paracuneus, reddish ; cuneus 
with yellow ground color, irregularly marked with coalescing 
red dots, the red color dominant in darkest specimens ; head 

16 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^-S'/Z 

irregularly marked with orange red, sternum, pleura, and 
venter orange to red. Membrane pale, conspurcate with nearly 
obsolete fuscous brown marks, veins fuscous to reddish, pale 
about apices of areoles. Legs pale to reddish, hind femora 
dark red except base, irrorate with small white spots and dots ; 
tibiae pale, front pair with three obsolete orange bands, hind 
pair broadly reddish on base only; tarsi pale to yellowish 
brown, claws brown. Genital segment distinctive, provided 
with a double tubercle above base of left clasper, the outer one 
larger and more prominent, right side without tubercle ; right 
clasper ligulate, narrowed toward tip, the apex terminating 
in a slightly curved claw. 

$. Length 4.7 mm., width 1.7 mm. Head: width .86 mm., 
vertex .34 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 1.12 mm.; r II, 
2.3 mm.; Ill, 1.08 mm.; IV, broken. Pronotum: length .80 
mm., width at base 1.43 mm. Form, pubescence and colora- 
tion very similar to the male except the dorsum generally 
with clearer greenish yellow. 
Holotype: ^, September 9, 1925, alt. 4500 ft., Santa Rita Mts., 
Arizona (A. A. Nichol) ; author's collection. Allotype: 5, May 17, 
1931, Santa Rita Mts. (E. D. Ball). Paratypes: $, April 19, 1924, 
Tucson, Arizona (A. A. Nichol). 3^*, 3$, taken with the allotype 
on Quercus oblongifolia by Dr. E. D. Ball. 

Tornados and Butterfly Migrations in Texas. — Following 
in the wake of tornados we learn of the migration of tropical but- 
terflies well into the interior of Texas. H. B. Parks, State Agri- 
culturist, reports the capture of 42 specimens of the genus Gonep- 
teryx at San Antonio during the last week in August and the first 
week in September, 1933. Eight of these were clorinde and the 
others about equally divided among two other species. These huge 
butterflies, he writes, were a glorious sight. They arrived in large 
numbers and stayed with us for about a week. San Antonio ap- 
peared to be the center of their flight, but two also have records 
from Kerrville and Houston and I saw them at Austin. During 
that time and since I have collected six specimens of Chiomaria 
asychis, i Callidryus philea, 2 Coloenis julia. i Heliconius chari- 
toniiis, I Athena petreus and 5 Victorina steneles. 

While all of these and other tropical butterflies are listed by Hol- 
land as ranging across the Mexican border, their appearance in 
large numbers far inland is a notable experience. We should like 
to hear more of the extent of these migrations. — Geo. P. Engel- 
HARDT, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 17 


By T. D. a. Cockerell, Boulder, Colo. 

These bees were bred by Mr. Chas. H. Hicks, and are described 
now in order that he may refer to them in connection with his bio- 
logical observations. 

Osmia caulicola sp. n. 

5. (Type). Length slightly over 6 mm., anterior wing 5 
mm. ; blue-green, the postscutellum yellowish green. The 
very broad abdomen steel blue, the margins of the tergites 
concolorous; antennae black, fourth joint very short; man- 
dibles tridentate, black; clypeus very densely, confluently, 
punctured, the lower margin gently arched, and covered with 
pale reddish hairs, but disc of clypeus with thin long black 
hair, contrasting with the white hair on sides of face; front 
and occiput with pale hair, but vertex with scanty long dark 
hair ; front densely punctured, with a median shining channel 
descending from middle ocellus; eyes pure black; mesothorax 
and scutellum closely punctured but shining, the scutellum 
with a median smooth line ; area of metathorax dull ; thorax 
above with long faintly fulvescent hair, and some black hairs 
intermixed, but so few that they can only be seen with a mi- 
croscope; tegulae green in front; wings dusky hyaline, the 
marginal cell without a dark cloud, but dusky throughout ; sec- 
ond cubital cell receiving recurrent nervures about equally far 
from base and apex; legs black, not at all metallic, the last 
tarsal joint rufous; hair on inner side of tarsi pale reddish; 
abdomen rough but somewhat shining, without evident bands ; 
in lateral view some light hair can be seen on margins of ter- 
gites ; ventral scopa black. 

(^. Head, thorax and abdomen yellowish green, hair of 
head and thorax above distinctly fulvescent, with no admix- 
ture of black on head or thorax; flagellum long and slender, 
not moniliform, obscurely brownish beneath ; hair of face pale 
fulvescent ; hind tibiae slightly greenish ; tarsi ordinary, the 
last joint red; hind basitarsi not dentate; abdomen with no 
ventral tubercle ; sixth tergite with a small but distinct notch ; 
seventh strongly bidentate. 

Gregory Canyon, Boulder, Colorado, both sexes bred by Mr. 
Chas. Hicks, who will publish an account of his observations. The 
female runs nearest to O. inelanstricha Lovell & Ckll., but is much 
smaller, and easily distinguished by the smooth channel down the 

18 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^<'^- ^^^-3: 

middle of the front. The male runs close to O. pulsatillae Ckll., 
but lacks the black hairs of that species. 

Alcidamea mucronata n. sp. 

Male. Length about 8 mm. (abdomen curved downward at 
end), anterior wing nearly 6 mm.; black, including mandibles, 
antennae (flagellum very obscurely brownish beneath), tegulae 
and legs ; dense hair of face and front, and long hair of vertex 
and thorax above, clear fulvous ; hair dull white on under side 
of head and thorax ; mouth parts very long, extending more 
than 4 mm. beyond head ; scape greatly swollen ; flagellum 
thick, crenulate below, with the spine-like apex produced and 
curved ; vertex shining on each side of ocelli ; eyes when fresh 
a beautiful light greenish blue; mesothorax and scutellum 
shining on disc, finely punctured ; notauli linear ; wings clear 
hyaline, with outer margin broadly dusky ; stigma dusky red- 
dish; marginal cell rather broadly rounded at end; basal ner- 
vure going slightly but evidently basad of nervulus ; first re- 
current nervure joining second cubital cell a considerable dis- 
tance from base, the distance equal to more than half length 
of first intercubitus ; second recurrent slightly nearer to end 
of cell ; legs with pale hair, spurs dark reddish ; abdomen shin- 
ing but well punctured, tergites i to 5 with ochreous tinted 
pale hair-bands, broadly interrupted on first, and slightly on 
second ; a strong spine at each side of sixth tergite, and a 
strong straight apical spine ; second sternite with a very large 
transverse shining obtuse protuberance ; third with a deep 
V-like emargination, beneath which is a fringe of white hair ; 
fourth more broadly and shallowly emarginate. 

Roggen, Morgan Co., Colorado, 4,718 ft., 1933 (Chas. H. 
Hicks). Bred from the nest, April 28, two males. Related to ^. 
uvulalis Ckll., from the Mojave Desert, but smaller with strongly 
reddened hair on thorax, wings not yellowish, projection of second 
ventral segment different. 

Contributions, queries and discussion are urgently solicited 
for our new section. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the BrooMyn Entomological Society 19 


By C. R. Crosby, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Prof. E. J. Hambleton sent me some time ago a small collection 
of minute spiders taken by sifting at Vigosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 
on May 12, 1930. Among them was a series of males and females 
with only two eyes. In attempting to place them generically I was 
at first struck by their close similarity to Tetrablemma mediocula- 
tum Cambridge, described from a single male from Ceylon (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. Lond. 1873, p. 114, pi. 12, f. i). The species resembles 
this Tetrablemma in the form of the cephalothorax, in having a 
tooth on the face of the chelicerae near the base, and most strik- 
ingly in the form and arrangement of the plates on the abdomen, 
in fact, in this respect they are almost identical. It dififers in the 
number of eyes (2 instead of 4), in their position and in having 
the spiracular plates present ; in Tetrahlemnia they are evidently 
suppressed. Another species of Tetrablemma, okei Butler (Royal 
Soc. Victoria Proc. n. s. 44(2) : iii, 1932) was described from 
Victoria, Australia. Butler states that the tarsi bear three claws 
but does not indicate whether a pretarsus is present or not. Neither 
the number nor the position of the tracheal spiracles is indicated. 

Another form to which this species seems most closely related is 
Diblcmma donisthorpii Cambridge (Proc. Dorset Nat. Hist. Club, 
29: 188, pi. A. f. 7. 1908) described from specimens found in a 
hothouse in Kew Gardens, original habitat unknown. 

Our species agrees with this form in the number of eyes but not 
in their position, in the double row of inward-directed hairs on the 
cephalothorax and in the presence of epigastric plates ; although 
they seem to be soldered to the surrounding sclerite and may not 
be functional ; it differs markedly in the number and arrangement 
of the abdominal sclerites. Cambridge states that a pretarsus is 
present but does not give the number of tarsal claws. 

A third genus in this group is Hexablemma Berland, from Brit- 
ish East Africa (Res. Sci. Voy. Alluaud and Jeannel Af. Orient. 
Ar. 4: 167. 1920). It is very close to Tetrablemma but has six 
eyes. The tarsi are armed with three claws. The position of the 
tracheal spiracles is not indicated. 

It is evident that this Brazilian species possesses a puzzling com- 
bination of the characters of Hexablemma, Tetrablemma and Di- 
blcmma. Rather than place it in any of these it seems best to erect 
for it the new genus : 

20 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. XXIX 


Type, Matta hainhlctonl new species. 

Its distinguishing characters are given above and in the descrip- 
tion of the type species. 

Matta hambletoni n. sp. 

Male. Length, 1.4 mm. Cephalothorax orange-yellow, 
suffused with dusky except on the top of the head, viewed 
from above roughly octangular, the anterior side gently con- 
vex. Behind each eye there is a row of six small stiff hairs 
directed upward and inward. Cephalothorax viewed from the 
side very high, moderately arched behind to the base of the 
head where it rises perpendicularly, nearly straight on top of 
head and gradually ascending to a point just back of the eyes. 
The front and clypeus slanting steeply forward in a nearly 
straight line, slightly convex in the middle part. Only two 
eyes present, white, slightly oblique, separated by 2% times 
the diameter. Chelicerae, short, stout, armed on the face near 
the base with very narrow, short, blunt tooth; each chelicera 
armed mesally above the claw with a thin semitransparent 
plate-like tooth, the front margin concave, the mesal angle 
acute. Claw of chelicera rather stout, moderately curved. 
Sternum broad, clear yellow orange, sparsely clothed with 
stiff, fine black hairs, broadly truncate in front; the margin 
rebordered; hind coxae separated by more than the length. 
Labium short, transverse. Endites short, broad, convergent, 
meeting in a straight line in front of the labium, front margin 
straight. Legs paler than body, patella yellow. Coxae globu- 
lar, trochanters very short, femora compressed, tarsal claws 
three, borne on a distinct pretarsus ; the paired claws armed 
with a series of three or four long teeth of nearly equal 
length; unpaired claw slender, moderately curved. Just be- 
low base of this claw there is a rounded bulb-like pulvillus. 
Spines on the tarsi and metatarsi minutely plumose. Femur 
of first leg armed on the inside with a double series of eight or 
nine stiff hairs, tibia armed retroventrally near tip with two 
stiff spines and on the front surface near tip there is a diag- 
onal row of five spines, metatarsus armed below near base 
with one stiff spine. Abdomen ovate, covered with hardened 
sclerites as follows: a large convex sclerite covering the 
greater part of the dorsal surface, followed posteriorly by 
three transverse sclerites which are narrowly separated on 
each side from three similar very narrow pleural sclerites, on 
the ventral side a very large sclerite surrounding the petiole 
and extending far forward, containing the epigastric plates, 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 21 

rounded in front, truncate behind, followed posteriorly by 
two transverse sclerites, the anterior one the narrower, and 
last by a large circum-mammillary sclerite. The tracheal 
spiracles are very small, oblique, located behind and a little to 
the side of the epigastric plates. They are very difficult to see 
unless the specimen has been treated with caustic potash. 

Femur of palpus a little broader at base than distally, armed 
at base ventrolaterally with a row of four long slender hairs 
and on the mesal side near tip with a pair of very small spines. 
Patella short, armed laterally with one fine hair. Tibia greatly 
enlarged, ovate, attached to the patella at the side, rounded at 
base, broadest in the middle, narrower distally. Tarsus very 
small, obliquely truncate, the dorsal margin pointed and bear- 
ing two very long, slender hairs; on each side there are two 
shorter hairs. The bulb extremely large, short pyrif orm ; the 
seminal duct can be seen through the semitransparent integu- 
ment. The embolus is terminal, black, slender, gently curved ; 
it is accompanied by a shorter, slender, black process. 

Female. A little larger than the male. Similar to the male 
in color. The eyes are farther forward and the clypeus is 
more convex. No tooth on front of chelicera. Palpi pale, 

Holotype, male ; allotype, female. Vi(;osa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 
May 12, 1930. 5 male paratypes. E. J. Hambleton collector. On 
July 6, 1933, Professor Hambleton collected iSJ*, 24$. 

I am uncertain as to the family to which Matta should be as- 
signed. It is evidently closely allied to Hexahlemma, Tetrablemma 
and Dihlenima and more remotely to Hadrotarsiis Thorell (see 
Pocock, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7)11: 619, 1903). In fact these 
four genera form a very compact natural group. They do not be- 
long in the Theridiidae as proposed by Simon for Tetrablemma 
(Hist. Nat. Ar. i: 573), and followed by Berland (1920) for 
Hexahlemma, because of the nature of the respiratory system and 
the structure of the palpal organ. They are excluded from the 
Oonopidae, where Petrunkevitch (Syst. Ar. p. 88) placed Dih- 
lemma and Tetrablemma, because of the presence of an unpaired 
tarsal claw and because of the arrangement of the teeth on the 
paired claws, in a single, instead of a double series. In other re- 
spects they are very closely related to members of that family. In 
view of these considerations it seems best, for the present at least 
to revive for this group the family Tetrablemmidae proposed by 
Cambridge in 1873. 

The drawings were made by Miss Helen M. Zorsch. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 1 

Plate I 

Feb., 1934 BuUetin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 23 

Explanation of Plate. 

Matta hainhleiom: i, male, cephalothorax from side; 2, female, 
cephalothorax from side; 3, female, abdomen from below; 4, fe- 
male, cephalothorax from above ; 5, female abdomen from side ; 6, 
male, right palpus from the side: 7, male, chelicerae from in front; 
8, male, tip of first leg, hairs omitted from pretarsus. 


By Geo. P. Engelhardt, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

The Asiatic Mantis, now well established in many localities in 
New York State, is fast losing its notoriety as a dangerous, fear- 
some insect. Rather is it being regarded merely as one of the 
common, though evil looking, bugs. In the writer's garden at 
Hartsdale a good crop of mantids had matured early in September. 
Many were observed stalking and capturing crickets and grasshop- 
pers over low ground. Others had selected fixed stations on the 
stalks and branches of flowering plants and shrubs, where visiting 
insects fell easy victims, and where they remained until the blos- 
soms dropped off, about 10 to 14 days. No discrimination, what- 
soever, was shown in the selection of their prey. Flies, bees and 
wasps, butterflies, all were seized with utter disregard as to defen- 
sive weapons or unpalatable qualities. A favorite abode for several 
of the mantids was on a butterfly bush (Budleya) in a sheltered 
corner of the garden. The principal make-up of their varied menu 
is indicated, even now, October 12, by the wings of butterflies scat- 
tered on the ground below. These include Pieris, Colias, Papilio, 
Grapta, Basilar chia and, most numerous, the milkweed butterfly, 
Danaus archippus. Unpalatability evidently is not recognized by 
the mantis, although in some instances the abdominal parts, still 
attached to the secondary wings, have been rejected. 

Panther, the neighbors' friendly cat, loves to toy with the man- 
tids. They try to escape by running, jumping and short flights, but 
finally, when cornered, they show their pugnacious nature. Rear- 
ing up they assume a defensive attitude, the spurred, grasping legs 
held in readiness. The cat dislikes to be pricked on the nose and 
so usually confines itself to gentle pawing, without real injury to 
the insect. It is most amusing to watch. 

In color the mantids run from bright green to slaty gray. The 
first egg mass was noted for October 2. To-day, October 12, a 
pair were seen in copula on the rose ramblers. 

24 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^"i. XXIX 


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It is suggested to authors that no reprints be requested, unless 
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are asked to bear this in mind when ordering reprints. 

These prices are effective as of date of this issue of our pub- 

The Publication Committee of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 25 


Points for Mounting Small Insects. — Most directions for 
making points for mounting small insects are very elaborate. 
Nearly all call for an assortment of punches for the most fancy 
shaped points ; and in assorted sizes, too. Also, the material is 
carefully speciiied — bristol-board, celluloid, mica, isinglass. In 
general, the easiest way of doing things is generally the simplest 
and best. The material for points is not so important as whether 
or not it will stay without curling up or drooping down; and 
whether or not it is stiiT enough to hold up the usually small in- 
sects mounted on points. Perhaps the best material is the thickest 
ledger paper or cold-rolled heavy drawing paper. These are both 
linen, fibrous and stiilf, but easily pinned and fastholding. A sheet 
of either (about 24x36 inches) will cut into thousands of points. 

Cutting the points also is simple; all you do is to cut a strip of 
paper as wide as the length you want your points. With a pair of 
sharp scissors (and a little practice) it is possible to cut points of 
any width or pointedness you require. A strip of paper 1/3 inch 
(about 8 mm.) wide and 4 inches (100 mm.) long will yield about 
150 points in a few minutes. — J. R. T.-B. 

Glue for Mounting on Points. — In my work I use a glue 
made out of the best granulated cooking gelatine dissolved in glacial 
acetic acid, to be purchased for a few cents at any drug store. Put 
aljout one ounce of this in a wide-mouthed glass jar (small, about 
2-ounce size) with a bell cap — not a stopper; this can be secured 
from any dealer in entomological supplies. Add about half as much 
quantity of the gelatine (to be bought at any grocer's), stirring it 
about for a while until it is well mixed. It will be full of air bub- 
])les and undissolved grains of gelatine, but pay no attention to 
this. Let it stand in a warm place overnight ; and the next day it 
will be quite clear and free from bubbles. If it is too thick, add a 
few drops of acetic acid and let it stand again ; if too thin, put in a 
little more gelatine — but not much. Stir it after adding the one or 
the other and let it stand again. Bear in mind that glue of the 
right thickness in winter will be too liquid in summer, and vice 

To put the glue on a point, use a glass rod drawn to a point and 
short enough to fit into the jar when the lid is on. A glass pen, to 
be bought at any stationery store, is excellent for this purpose. 

26 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^z. XXIX 

Glacial acetic acid absorbs water from the atmosphere, which 
tends to thin the glue ; and it also evaporates, according to condi- 
tions. To prevent this, grease the bottom of the bell cover with 
petroleum jelly (vaseline) and it will form a tight seal where the 
edge of the cover sits on the shoulder of the jar. 

This glue sets quickly, but it does not glaze over nor soften in 
time, as shellac does. It will hold such things as slippery water- 
beetles.— J. R. T.-B. 

Locality Labels. 

The smaller the locality label, the better — so long as it is 
legible and has enough room on it to write in clearly the date or 
any other data needed. Of course, where labels are prepared for 
any specified catch, it is possible to print all data on them at one 
time. But where labels are for a given locality, to be used over long 
periods of time, this cannot be done. One point without which the 
modern locality label is incomplete is the collector's name, which 
should always appear as an integral part of the data. 

Printed labels are always the best and neatest. When they could 
be brought at 25 cents per 1000 it was possible to get them for a 
small lot of insects at a nominal cost ; but now that they sell at $1 
per thousand, that makes quite a difference. Hence, labels for 
small lots are either hand-printed with a fine pen, or else typed and 
photographed. For large lots, a zinc plate is good, especially for 
repeat orders. In connection with photographing labels and making 
plates of them for future use, it should be stressed that the typing 
must be done with clean type and a good black permanent ribbon 
on good white paper, backed by a sheet of carbon with the black 
side to the back of the sheet being typed. This gives depth and 
clearness to the typing and ensures a good, distinct reproduction. 

The size of type about best for labels is that known as 4-point. 
All labels should be set solid and printed on heavy linen paper, in 
strips in such form that one cut of the scissors will separate one 
label from another. All data written in should be in waterproof 
India ink, with a Gillott crowquill pen — preferably in print char- 

Dates are best indicated on a label by means of figures: e.g. — 
July 4, 1933, may be written vii. 4. 33 ; or, in the English fashion, 

4. vii. 33. J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO. 

Send in Your Short Notes for this Page. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 27 




By Charles H. Martin^ Division of Truck Crop and Garden In- 
sects, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of 


In 1929 investigations on the lesser bulb flies of the genus 
Eumerus were initiated at Babylon, N. Y., on Long Island." Stud- 
ies were especially directed toward the feeding habits of the larvae, 
for the purpose of determining whether they are primary pests or 
scavengers, but some notes on life history were also made. 

Previous to 1928 it was generally considered that the lesser bulb 
fly was only one species. The work of Hodson, Cole, Latta, and 
others indicated that this group actually consisted of three species, 
E. tnherculatus Rondani, E. strigatus Fallen, and E. narcissi Smith, 
Only a few specimens of E. strigatus and none of E. narcissi were 
taken on Long Island,^ E. tuherculatiis being by far the most com- 
mon. Therefore, the investigations here were confined chiefly to 
this species. Although the data thus far obtained do not clear up 
the status of E. tiiherciilatus, it is believed that they do throw 
further light on the subject. This work was done during July, 
August, and September, 1929. 

OviPOSiTioN IN Cages 

In the first attempts to obtain eggs, several hundred flies were 
placed in each of several Riley cages about 36 inches high and 18 
inches square and the cages were kept in the sun. The flies were 
fed daily with undiluted extracted honey. Bulbs that had been dis- 
carded at the packing sheds were placed in the cages and examined 
daily. The flies were never seen on the bulbs and no eggs were 

^ These investigations were conducted under the general direction 
of Dr. C. A. Weigel, with the assistance of Dorothy Martin, field 

^ Work along the same lines was already in progress in Cali- 
fornia and at Sumner, Wash. 

^ The determinations of the several hundred Eumerus specimens 
used in this work are based on comparisons with material and fur- 
nished by Dr. F. R. Cole. 

28 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^z. XXIX 

Flies confined in a stock cage 6 feet high and 5 feet square re- 
mained on the sides near or at the top, and never near the heavily 
infested and decaying bulbs covering the floor of the cage. Mating 
was observed, but no eggs were ever found in this cage. 

When the flies failed to oviposit in the Riley and stock cages, they 
were placed in small cylindrical ones. These cages were of i6-mesh 
screen, 10 inches long and 5 inches in diameter, and closed at the 
ends with cloth sleeves. From 30 to 60 flies from a few hours to 
two days old were released in each cage. Every day the dead flies 
were removed and replaced by newly emerged ones. Only a small 
percentage of the flies laid eggs. These eggs, supplemented by 
some collected in the field, were used for the various studies. 

Eggs found in the cages were laid singly or in clusters up to 40. 
They were usually out of sight either at the neck under the dead 
skin covering the bulbs or in the crevices in the cork tissue at the 
basal end. These observations are in agreement with those made 
by Broadbent.* The few eggs found on completely decayed bulbs 
were usually on some dry spot; those laid upon very moist de- 
cayed tissue became discolored and eventually collapsed. 

Field Observations on Oviposition 

Field observations of egg laying made on Long Island confirmed 
those made by Hodson^ in England. As harvest time approaches, 
the drying leaves shrink and fold, leaving holes in the soil beside 
them. Also at this time cracks are formed by the drying of the 
soil, such crevices following the ridge of the bulb row, often ex- 
posing some of the basal portion of the leaf. Flies were frequently 
observed entering such holes, presumably in search of places in 
which to oviposit. Many Eumerus eggs were collected in the folds 
of the dried leaves or in the bits of soil that happened to cling to 
them. Most of the eggs were found i or 2 inches beneath the 
surface of the soil, although occasionally they were found upon the 
surface. This is in agreement with the foregoing observations in 
the cages, where the eggs were generally laid in dry or slightly 
moist places. 

According to Wilcox,*' E. strigatus in Oregon deposits the ma- 

* Broadbent, B. M. 1925. Notes on the life history of the 
lesser bulb fly, Eumerus strigatus Fallen. Jour. Encon. Ent. 18: 

^ Hodson, W. E. H. 1927. The bionomics of the lesser bulb 
flies, Enmerus strigatus Fin., and Eumerus tuberculatus Rond., in 
southwest England. Bui. Ent. Res. 17:373-384, illus. 

^ Wilcox, Joseph. 1926. The lesser bulb fly Eumerus strigatus 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 29 

jority of its eggs about one-quarter inch beneath the soil. "Some 
eggs are deposited directly on the surface, while others have been 
found three inches deep in the ground * * *." 

While watching for oviposition upon freshly dug bulbs in the 
field, the author observed a female of E. tuherculatus laying eggs 
in the soil. As soon as the fly settled on a clod, she extruded her 
ovipositor and began to search for suitable places in which to de- 
posit eggs. After inserting and withdrawing the ovipositor from 
a number of tiny holes in the clod, she finally selected one and 
remained with her ovipositor thrust in the hole for about a minute. 
From the muscular contractions of the abdomen it was evident that 
eggs were being laid. Later examination disclosed 30 eggs side 
by side in the tiny soil pocket. The female then made examinations 
of another clod and laid three more eggs. Other females were 
observed to oviposit in the same manner. The clods in which the 
flies were laying eggs were several feet from the nearest bulb. 

The behavior of the female usually ovipositing in the soil or on 
the leaves of the bulb rather than directly upon it, may explain why 
so few eggs were obtained under artificial conditions. These habits 
also suggest that the female makes no distinction as to location or 
condition of the bulb. 


Eggs produced under cage conditions and held for incubation 
were removed with a bit of bulb and placed in test-tubes, which 
were then stoppered with cotton. Eggs laid in the field were al- 
lowed to remain upon the leaves. Too dry conditions in the test- 
tube made it difficult for the larvae to escape from the egg and also 
caused them to desiccate rapidly after hatching. This was avoided 
by keeping the walls slightly moist ; too much moisture increased 
the mortality at the time of hatching. The larvae were removed 
with a camel's-hair brush. 

Although the data were gathered within a period of nine weeks, 
the temperature varied sufficiently to make it possible to measure 
its eff^ect upon the length of the relatively short incubation period. 
The mean temperatures were calculated from hygrothermograph 
records by means of a planimeter and then the mean length of the 

Fallen in Oregon. Jour. Econ. Ent. 19: yGi-yjz. For these stud- 
ies Wilcox states that he retained only the name, E. strigatus. Cur- 
ran determined specimens for him as E. strigatus and E. tuhercu- 
latus. There is even a possibility of E. narcissi Smith being pres- 
ent in his complex of species, since this insect occurs on the Pacific 
slope as far north as Oregon. 

30 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^i. XXIX 

incubation period was determined at the different temperatures. 
The numerical records" are summarized as follows : 

Forty-two eggs incubated at a mean temperature of 64.7° F. ; 
mean length of stage 5.1 ± 0.20 days; standard deviation 1.9 days; 
minimum length of stage 2 days ; maximum length of stage 9 days. 

One hundred forty-four eggs incubated at a mean temperature 
of 67.4° F ; mean length of stage 4.4 ± 0.06 days ; standard de- 
viation 1.2 days ; minimum length of stage 3 days; maximum length 
of stage 7 days. 

One hundred eggs incubated at a mean temperature of 70.2° F. ; 
mean length of stage 4.1 ± 0.07 days; standard deviation i.i days; 
minimum length of stage 2 days ; maximum length of stage 8 days. 

Twenty-two eggs incubated at a mean temperature of 72.1° F. ; 
mean length of stage 4.0 ± 0.14 days; standard deviation i.o day; 
minimum length of stage 4 days ; maximum length of stage 6 days. 

The mean lengths of the egg periods have been plotted against 
the corresponding mean temperatures in PI. II. The diameters of 
the circles in PI. II vary in size in proportion to the square root of 
the number of cases. Of course, as one would expect at these tem- 
peratures, the curve shows that the length of the egg stage de- 
creases with rise in temperature. 

Feeding Habits of the Larvae and Effect on Mortality 
Since Hodson^ has already published field observations of larval 
habits which are in agreement with the notes from Long Island, 
excerpts are taken from his comments: Larvae "hatching from 
eggs laid on the soil make no attempt to burrow through it, but 
travel * * * towards the cavity surrounding the adjacent bulb- 
neck * * *. Eventually all * * * arrive * * * where the dried 
foliage meets the still living neck of the bulb * * * undoubtedly 
attracted by the presence of a certain amount of damp and rotting 
tissue at the actual point of union. Many larvae commence to 
feed * * * and gradually enlarge the rotted area * * *." He 
comments upon the manner of entrance into the base as follows : 
"Such a point of entry is occasionally available in form of a cavity 
left where a root has died away, or a split where an offset is break- 
ing away from the main bulb. * * * entry may be made at any 
suitably damaged point in the bulb." 

'' Sixty-four eggs, recorded as laid on August 27, hatched in two 
days at a mean temperature of 67.5° F. These data differed so 
widely from the remaining data that they are believed to have been 
entered incorrectly and accordingly are not included in the sum- 

* Hodson, W. E. H. Loc. cit. 

Feb., 193d Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 31 

In the studies on Long Island with dormant bulbs full-grown 
Humerus larvae were always found in decayed tissue. This sug- 
gests the possibility that decayed tissue is necessary for the develop- 
ment of the larvae. Close observations in the laboratory of 335 
newly hatched larvae caged upon bulbs under a number of dif- 
ferent conditions give added weight to this opinion. 

It should be remembered, however, that these observations were 
made on dormant bulbs, as the experiments were conducted in 
August and September. At this time of the year the bulbs are full 
of stored starch and very hard. No doubt the condition of the soil 
surrounding undug bulbs or of the growing bulbs before the tops 
die back would influence the results. For this reason no conclusions 
can be drawn as to how the larvae will act in the spring when on 
the growing bulbs. 

Bone rings one-eighth inch thick and an inch in diameter (such 
as are used for fancy needlework) fastened to the bulb with paraf- 
fin made convenient cages for microscopic studies of the larval 
habits and of the condition of the bulb tissue. With a pair of hot 
tweezers the wax was spread evenly around the inside and outside 
of the ring where it touched the bulb. A cover glass fastened with 
parafifin served as a cover. The cage could be easily opened by 
pushing a needle between the glass and the bone ring. The outer 
dry skin covering the bulb was removed before setting the cage 
upon the epidermis. Two or three drops of water were placed 
daily in most cages to delay desiccation of the larvae. Dormant 
bulbs, mostly of the Emperor and King Alfred varieties, were used 
for food. 

Experiment A 

Fifty-seven larvae were sealed in three cages on spots of appar- 
ently healthy bulbs where the epidermis had been broken and the 
tissue bruised to a pulp. Twenty-six of the larvae died in 4 days, 
12 in 5 days, and 15 in 13 days ; 4 disappeared. The bruised tissue 
did not discolor or decay in any of the cages. 

Experiment B 

One hundred and nineteen larvae were placed in seven cages upon 
unbruised epidermis of healthy bulbs. They were placed on the 
sides, neck, and base of the bulbs, the base being cut so as to re- 
move the tough cork and expose the tissue. They rasped the 
epidermis continually and shortly the injured cells were marked 
in block patterns by a light brown discoloration. Only the cells 
forming the outside surface of the bulb seemed to be injured, dis- 
coloration remaining confined to the rasped areas. Larvae placed in 

32 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

the neck of the bulb crawled between the storage leaves. All the 
larvae in this set of experiments gradually desiccated and died. 
The fact that none entered the tissue indicates that these larvae 
were unable to break the tough epidermis of dormant bulbs with 
their mouth parts, and that the epidermis was probably not af- 
fected by salivary juices. Hodson has suggested that "Liquefac- 
tion [of the bulb] is apparently aided by strong salivary 
juices * * *." 

Experiment C 

Sixteen larvae were confined in a cage placed upon unbroken 
epidermis over an area of partly decayed and partly healthy tis- 
sue. Some particles of debris from a decayed bulb upon which 
the ring had previously been placed clung to it. The larvae im- 
mediately congregated upon the ring. They were moved a number 
of times to the epidermis, but each time they returned to feed 
upon the decayed particles. Most of the debris had been eaten by 
the fifth day, at which time the larvae attempted to enter the de- 
cayed tissue of the bulb. This area was sliced off after they had 
been on the epidermis a week. The larvae were able to develop in 
the soft, decayed portion, and eventually adults emerged. 

Experiment D 

( 1 ) Twenty larvae were confined upon a flat area made by slic- 
ing off a piece of the bulb. The water placed daily in the cage did 
not seem to soften the tissue except in two spots. No decay or 
discoloration of the tissue appeared. The larvae moved restlessly 
back and forth between the bottom of the cage and the cover slip. 
They were able to scrape the tissue only in the softened spots to the 
depth of a millimeter. Sixteen larvae were unable to develop and 
died after being in the cage i6 days. At this time a similar flat 
area was made on a decayed bulb and the four remaining larvae 
were transferred to it. They grew from 1.25 to 8 mm. in length 
in II days. At this time the studies had to be discontinued. 

(2) This experiment was similar to (i). Sixteen larvae at- 
tempted to feed upon a sliced-off area of a healthy bulb, but were 
not able to develop. They died in a week. 

(3) About a half inch of the base of a healthy bulb was sliced 
off and a cage mounted upon the flat surface. The 17 larvae placed 
in this cage attempted to feed, but without success. They died in 
a week's time. 

Experiment E 

The larvae were confined upon the unbruised epidermis of bulbs 
in the advanced stages of decay, two on the side of one bulb and 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 33 

four at the side of the base of another. In each case the dead, dry 
skin was removed. The larvae rasped the epidermis but v^ere not 
able to break it. For a time the two on the side increased in size, 
l)ut they did not appear heahhy and they died before reaching 

Experiment F 

(i) Twenty-six larvae were caged upon healthy, bruised tissue. 
The bulbs for two cages were soaked lO days, making the tissue 
much softer than normal for dormant bulbs. The larvae immedi- 
ately began cutting channels, their efforts being confined between 
the epidermal walls of the storage leaves. The tissue cut from 
the bulb discolored and decayed several days after the larvae had 
been confined in the cage. As soon as decay appeared, the larvae 
began to develop rapidly. 

When the larvae began to pupate, the two bulbs were opened. 
The only decayed tissue present in the two cages was that which 
had been cut off the bulb by the larvae. The surface of the hole 
which they had cut in the bulb was pitted and very uneven, and the 
hole was discolored only a few cells deep. The tissue beyond the 
discolored cells was unaft'ected by decay. The larvae had been able 
to cut healthy tissue, but apparently were not able to assimilate it 
until decay had appeared. 

(2) The bulb used for the third cage was not soaked; however, 
the tissue began to decay shortly after 10 larvae had been placed 
upon it. Decay did not spread much beyond the feeding limits of 
the larvae. They reached the pupal stage. 

Experiuient G 

Sixty-one larvae were confined in three cages upon the broken 
epidermis of decayed bulbs. They immediately burrowed into the 
tissue and began feeding. Several of the larvae pupated while the 
rest were in various stages of development, when the cages had to 
be abandoned. 

Discussion of Results 

The results of these experiments are shown in PI. III. From 
these data it appears that Burner us tnherculatus larvae are able to 
cut healthy bull:) tissue only when they have a suitable entrance 
through the epidermis and when the tissue is soft, as it probably 
l)ecomes under growing conditions. That there is a tendency for 
the larvae to develop as scavengers is shown by the following facts : 

34 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

(i) When placed on healthy tissue the larvae did not begin to de- 
velop until it decayed; (2) when on decayed tissue they began to 
develop immediately; (3) mature larvae w^ere alw^ays found in 
decayed bulbs. 

The data of Hodson^ give an idea of the ability of this species to 
enter healthy bulbs in the soil. For example, in a series of three 
experiments he found that 19 out of yz healthy bulbs were attacked 
while 41 out of yz decayed bulbs were entered. Thus, slightly more 
than twice (2.1) as many larvae were able to enter diseased bulbs 
as were able to enter healthy bulbs. 

The larvae in a number of cages were observed to rasp the wax, 
which was softer than bulb tissue. Each rasped spot was marked by 
a fine striation which could be seen with the microscope. The wax 
often became discolored with bits of carbon from the match used 
to melt it. After the larvae had fed on the discolored wax, their 
alimentary canals were clearly outlined by the carbon particles 
through the transparent walls of their bodies. 

Shellac was painted over the paraffin of several cages. Water 
caused it to become quite soft. The larvae were observed rasping 
upon it rather than upon the firm bulb tissue. 

Length of the Larval Period 

The length of the larval period seems to depend, in part at least, 
upon whether the larvae begin feeding in healthy or in decayed 
tissue. Under the former conditions the mean developmental 
period of seventeen larvae was 27.4 d= 0.55 days at a mean tempera- 
ture of 72.5° F. Thirty-six larvae reared at the same time in de- 
cayed tissue completed their development in 22.1 ± 0.25 days. The 
difference between the two groups is 5.3 ± 0.6 days. 

The Pupal Stage 

The pupation habits of the flies on Long Island were about the 
same as described by Hodson^° and by Wilcox^^ for the complex 
of species he called E. strigatus. In the field the pupae were found 
in the soil near the surface in close proximity to the bulbs or be- 
tween the bulb leaves. 

The data upon the efi^ect of temperature upon the pupal stage 

^ Hodson, W. E. H. Loc. cit. 
1° Hodson, W. E. H. Loc. cit. 
^^ Wilcox, Joseph. Loc. cit. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 35 

were obtained in the same way as those of the egg stage and may be 
summarized as follows : 

Twelve pupae developed at a mean temperature of 65.8° F. ; 
mean length of stage 14 days. 

Twelve pupae developed at a mean temperature of 65.8° F. ; 
mean length of stage 12.9 ± o.ii days ; standard deviation 0.6 days ; 
minimum length of stage 11 days; maximum length of stage 13 

Fifty-four pupae developed at a mean temperature of 69.0° F. ; 
mean length of stage 1 1.9 ±0.10 days; standard deviation i.i 
days; minimum length of stage 8 days; maximum length of stage 
14 days. 

One hundred forty pupae developed at a mean temperature of 
70.3° F. ; mean length of stage ii.o d= 0.03 days; standard devia- 
tion 0.6 days ; minimum length of stage 9 days ; maximum length 
of stage 13 days. 

These data are shown graphically in PI. II. In this figure 
the steeper slope of the curve for the pupal stage seemingly indi- 
cates that temperature accelerates the development of the pupal 
stage more rapidly than the egg stage. If, however, instead of 
using the absolute lengths as dependent variables, the logarithms of 
the mean lengths of the egg and pupal periods are used, the rela- 
tive effect of temperature upon development is clearly seen. The 
logarithm curves, which eliminated the effect of the dissimilar 
lengths of the stages, have nearly the same slopes, demonstrating 
that temperature had approximately the same effect upon the egg 
and pupal stages. The length of the pupal stage of the females was 
tlie same as that of the males. 


Emergence took place l)etween 8 a. m. and 12 m., the peak oc- 
curring between 9 and 10 a. m. A few stragglers appeared in the 
afternoon. Broadbent^'- states that the species she had usually 
emerged at night. She has explained to the author that "night" 
covered a period between 4.30 p. m. and 8 a. m. Her unpublished 
notes made at Washington, D. C, in 1926 show emergence begin- 
ning at 5 a. m. and continuing throughout the morning. The peak 
appears a little earlier than in the data taken at Long Island. This 
might be explained by differences of light intensity. At Washing- 
ton, D. C, the pupae were held in an outdoor, screened cage where 
they were exposed to more intense light than the pupae on Long 

^- Broadbent, B. M. Loc. cit. 

36 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^^^- ^^^^ 

Island, which were held in a room where little direct sunlight 

At the time of Miss Broadbent's studies the taxanomic status of 
E. strigatus and E. tuherculatus had not been established. Since 
E. tuherculatus is the most common species, probably most of the 
flies she had were E. tuherculatus. 


Eumerus tuherculatus Rondani laid its eggs in the soil near the 
bulb or upon the leaves of the bulb just beneath the surface of the 
soil, usually in dry or slightly moist places. 

Newly hatched larvae were not able to cut through the un- 
broken epidermis of either healthy or decayed bulbs. They were, 
however, able to enter dormant bulb tissue after it was soaked and 
broken. Decayed tissue seemed to be preferred by the larvae and 
is probably necessary for their development. 

The developmental period for larvae in decayed tissue was 
5.3 ± 0.6 days shorter than for larvae beginning their development 
in healthy tissue which later decayed. Apparently not much de- 
velopment took place until the bulb tissue began to decay. 

Temperature had about the same effect upon the length of the 
egg and of the pupal stages. The length of the pupal period was 
the same for both sexes. 

The peak of emergence appeared to be during the morning hours. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Pl. II. The effect of temperature upon the length of the egg and 

pupal stages. 
Pl. III. Summary of the results of the larval feeding experiments. 

Dorcus brevis Say in Alabama. — This rare, much disputed, 
but abundantly distinct species was first discovered in the State at 
Chicasaw, Mobile Co., in June, 1924, a female in the soil under an 
old Magnolia grandiflora. 

Several years of hard work in the same locality failed to bring 
to light another specimen until June, 1929, when I took a male at 
sap on the base of an oak; friend Engelhardt was along that day, 
and he usually brings good luck as well as good cheer. 

In May this year another male on the same tree and spot, and in 
June two more males were found under small rotten beech logs 
near lock 14 on the Warrior River, Tuscaloosa, Co. — H. P. Lod- 
iNG, Mobile, Ala. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 1 

Plate II 







U Q 

(0 e 

^ 7 
o ' 


O 5 


-I 4 

Z 3 
2 2 













G ^ 






n — 


i 6 

5 6- 

7 6i 

5 6 

9 7< 





Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 1 

Plate III 








Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 39 


Cyril E. Abbott, Morgan Park, 111. 

Observing the oviposition of Megarhyssa lunator, one is 
startled by the apparent resiliency of her abdomen. As the latter 
is elevated, forming approximately a right angle with the thorax, 
the looped ovipositor lies within the intersegmental membranes, 
doubling the eighth segment and its associated structures back 
against the body. This at once suggests that the internal organs 
must be modified to withstand considerable stretching and torsion. 
It was with the object of verifying this conclusion that the follow- 
ing study was undertaken. 

Specimens were fixed in Bouin's solution and preserved in 70 
per cent, alcohol. Fresh material was used for study of the tracheal 
system. A binocular magnifier, giving a magnification of 40 diam- 
eters, was used. 

The ovarioles (Fig. i, OT), or individual tubes of the ovaries, 
extend from the thorax to the sixth segment of the abdomen. 
There are a considerable number of them. That portion of each 
ovariole that occupies the second and third segments is filled with 
elongate oval eggs in various stages of development (Fig. i, OV). 
Due to the fact that they are slightly longer than the portion of the 
body they occupy, the tubes are somewhat coiled. In the sixth seg- 




4^ FIG.3. 

40 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^l^ 

ment the ovarioles of each ovary fuse, forming an oviduct (Fig. i, 
OD). Just posterior to the point of fusion, the oviduct is bul- 
bously expanded, forming the egg calyx. Near the posterior mar- 
gin of the eighth segment each oviduct doubles back, and passing 
forward to the anterior margin of the same segment, again doubles 
back before entering a large sack, the accessory gland (Fig. i, 
AC, G). Anteriorly the gland is continuous with the vagina (Fig. 
I, VAG), a wide, thin- walled tube that opens to the exterior of the 
body between the lancets. Between the accessory glands, and very 
near the terminus of the abdomen, lies the spcrmathcca (Fig. i, 
SP). Its posterior is continuous with several digitiform processes 
that are doubtless glandular. The body of the spermatheca is 
C3dindrical and nearly transparent ; anteriorly it continues as a slen- 
der tube communicating with the vagina. Its dark color indicates 
the presence of a chitinous intima. The vagina and the sperma- 
theca are the only single reproductive organs ; all the others are 

The organs described above have considerable slack, that is, they 
can be stretched considerably without danger of being ruptured. 
Even the tube of the spermatheca is slightly coiled. 

The digestive and nervous systems, although they are not coiled, 
exhibit considerable slack. The midgut (Fig. i, MI), which occu- 
pies the fifth and sixth segments, though heavy- walled, is much 
wrinkled ; the remaining parts of the system are not only much 
wrinkled but thin and membranous. 

The two terminal ganglia of the central nervous system (Fig. i, 
VNC) lie close together upon the dorsal surface of the vagina. 
The fine fibers which connect them with the organs of that region, 
are, because of their tenuity, not easily broken. 

The heavy musculature of the ovipositing mechanism requires a 
plentiful supply of oxygen, which is furnished by the heavy trache- 
ation of this region (Fig. 2). The spiracles {S^, S'' , S^) of this 
portion of the abdomen are all large ; that of the eighth segment 
especially so. The figure shows the tracheation of the right side 
of the abdomen as viewed dorsally, with the ovipositing mechanism 
split and the right half tipped to the right to expose the ental sur- 
face. Actually that part of the tracheal trunk (Fig. 2, TT) lying 
between the large spiracle of the eighth segment and the drill plates 
is folded longitudinally with the bend directed ventrally between 
the wall of the abdomen and the outer wall of the drill plate. The 
larger tracheae are thin-walled, wrinkled, and slightly papillose. 
In a dissected specimen they are more or less collapsed, so that 
their appearance is flat rather than cylindrical. 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41 

Each spiracle is equipped with a closing apparatus, especially 
conspicuous in that of the eighth segment (Fig. 3). OM repre- 
sents the muscle which opens, CM, that which closes, the spiracle. 

In conclusion we may summarize the above observations by not- 
ing that in the female Megarliyssa abdominal modifications have 
taken place in two directions: (i) by the development of slack as 
illustrated, for instance, by the coiling of the reproductive ducts, 
and (2) enlargement of the tracheal system in response to the need 
of heavy musculature for oxygen. The peculiarities of the ter- 
minal segments of the abdomen of this insect illustrate the remark- 
able modifications that follow the extreme development of special- 
ized structures. 


By Hugh B. Leech, Salmon Arm, B. C. 

On May 12, 1932, a Mcloc montanus Lee. fat and very much 
alive, was brought to me with a smaller beetle clinging tightly to the 
sutural edge of its right elytron. The little one proved to be 
Pedilns monticola (Horn) ; a few days later a second couple turned 
up, and on May ist, 1933, another Pedilus-ridden Meloe was taken. 
Examination shows that in each of the three cases the elytra of the 
Meloe have actually been eaten away by the Pedilus. The 1933 
specimen has lost the apical third and a smaller basal part of the 
left elytron, and some of the right; one of the 1932 examples 
shows a ragged edge from base to apex of the sutural margin of 
each elytron, and jaw marks breaking right through the integument 
all along the outer margins. 

There is absolutely no doubt that the damage was done by the 
Pedilus, for in each case the offender was discovered in place, with 
jaws clenched in the host's wing case. Specimens of P. monticola 
Lee, are here most commonly found on flowers of the Black Haw- 
thorn {Cratccgus brevispiua (Dougl.)), and their fall to the flesh- 
pots of beetle life must 1)e rare, for of sixty-seven examples of 
Meloe before me, all collected at Salmon Arm, B. C, none but the 
three already mentioned shows the ragged gnawing feeding-marks 
of Pedilus. 

42 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 


The Amateur. 

On occasion we have pointed out the place — the important 
place — of the amateur in entomology. The foundations of the 
science were laid deep and sure by the amateurs, starting with 
Reaumur and even earlier. 

The amateur is bound by no traditions save that of accomplish- 
ment; he has no preordained theories to demonstrate; he has no 
professional ties to condition his activities. In other words, he is 
a free man. His final results, therefore, depend solely on his will 
and on his capacity. 

But in current phrase of high coinage, he is "the forgotten man" 
of our science. He has no home — our societies are becoming so 
highly professionalized that he gasps in their atmosphere like a 
trout out of water; or he is drowned in the carbon dioxide of 
esoteric science. His means of communication are cut. Our 
journals, on which he has relied to a certain extent, have become 
increasingly technical and dry. We give him good tough bones 
where he should have tenderloin steak suited to his milk-teeth. 

And where do we leave the amateur now? In the hands of the 
insect speculators — the $5000 butterfly men. His reading matter, 
if any, is now of the most popular and futile "transition form." 
We all know just what "popular" science is, from Einstein right 
down the line. The general qualifications for writing the stuff that 
is far too often seen in print seem to be an extremely superficial 
knowledge of the subject, mated to a profuse flow of language the 
child of which is that perfectly sterile hybrid "popular science." 

Now, it behooves us one and all to forget our erudition and to 
consider the amateur, both in our publications of a general nature, 
and in the structure and conduct of our societies. J. R. T.-B. 


In this number of the Bulletin we present a new department. 
It is going to be dedicated to collecting and preparing hints in short 

We have long felt that our publication, in common with others, 
was getting to be too highly technical and specialized. Thus, but 
little attention was being given to the beginner and the amateur, 
who, in the long run, are the experts of the future. They meet with 
problems long since solved, but nowhere do they find in concrete 

Feb., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 43 

form the answers to their queries. It is rather hard to find just 
what you are looking for in some general work. Or, if the in- 
formation is given, it is in a general form and not specific. Or 
else, it fails to fit the particular problem. 

Now, we will in this page, answer questions from our readers. 
Do not be bashful about asking them, no matter how elementary 
they may seem to be. If the questions are of sufficiently general 
interest, we will answer them here; if not, we will either answer 
them by letter or refer them to some one better informed in the 

We will also be glad to receive very short notes on technique for 
inclusion in this department; and suggestions for subjects that 
might be discussed in it. Longer articles, but in popular form, 
will also be welcome. 

We will also be glad to answer queries about books or other 
printed sources of information. — J. R. de la Torre-Bueno. 

New and rare beetles on a sand beach. — In May, 1916, my 
friend Van Aller brought me two tenebrionids, which he had taken 
at light ; they did not fit into any of the known North American 
genera and were submitted to Dr. Schwarz for an opinion. 

Dr. Schw^arz had no doubt it was an introduced species belonging 
to the genus Lelchcniim Blanch, and urged me by all means to find 
the habitat. 

A random guess from their similarity to Ammodomis took us to 
the sand beaches of Mobile Bay, where ten hours' work finally was 
rewarded with one specimen, enough to warrant another try, this 
time equipped with collapsible bucket and by pouring water on the 
sand we had forty specimens in no time. 

The species proved to be Leichenum variegatum Kiist. and had 
no doubt been introduced in ballast unloaded in the river above and 
coming from Madagascar. 

Incidentally these proceedings brought forth a number of other 
things, among them Pscndephalus hrevicornis, later described by 
Casey, Mem. Col. xl, 1924, p. 333, and from the history of 
Leichenum there is room for suspicion that this may be another 
introduction ; Ulus maritimns Csy. Psammobius hydropicus Horn, 
P. criientus Harold and P. schzuarci Linell, Mecynotarsiis elegans 
Lee, Ammodomis fossor var. squamulatus Chand. and Meristhus 
cristatus Horn, not to mention a severe case of sunburn. — H. P. 


44 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^l. XXIX 


This one page is intended only for wants and exchanges, not 
for advertisements of articles for sale. Notices not exceeding 
THREE lines free to subscribers. Over lines charged for at 
15 cents per line per insertion. 

Old notices will be discontinued as space for new ones is 

COLEOPTERA. — Am interested in exchanging Coleoptera. 
Carl G. Siepmann, R. F. D. No. i, Box 92, Rahway, N. J. 

DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA.— Have many desirable west- 
ern species to exchange, including Argynnis atossa, macaria, mor- 
monia, malcolmi, nokoinis; Melitaea neiimoegeni; Lycaena speci- 
osa; etc. Send lists. Dr. John A. Comstock, Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, CaHf. 

CATOPINI: Catops (Choleva), Prionochaeta, Ptomaphagus. 
— Wanted to borrow all possible specimens of these genera from 
North America for a revisional study. Correspondence solicited. 
— Melville H. Hatch, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 

HISTERIDAE — Desire to obtain material, all localities, for 
identification, by purchase or exchange of other families. Chas. 
A. Ballou, Jr., yy Beekman St., New York, N. Y. 

LOCALITY LABELS. — 60c per 1000, 5 in strip, i to 3 lines. 
5 sizes type. 33^ point, 75c per 1000. Good heavy paper. Prompt 
service. A. L. Stevens, 691 Culver Rd., Rochester, N. Y. 

I WILL COLLECT all orders of insects and allied groups for 
those interested. Louise Knobel, Hope, Ark. 

BUY OR EXCHANGE : Pinned Microlepidoptera and papered 
Pieridae of North America. Full data with all specimens. Named 
material of all groups offered. Alexander B. Klots, College of the 
City of New York, New York City. 

Vol. XXIX 

APRIL, 1934 


No. 2 


Brooklyn Entomological 



J. R. de la TORRE'BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 

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Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed March 22, 1934 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 

honorary President 
President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

J. R. DK LA TORRE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 




EARLY HATCH, Duncan 56 


A CORRECTION, Richards 64 



NAMABLE?, Forbes 65 







SQUIRREL, Davis & Sloop 79 


BOOK NOTES, J. R. T.-B 84 


Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
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Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year; foreign. $2.75 in advance; single 
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38 De Kalb Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 



Vol. XXIX April, 1934 No. 2 


By Doris H. Blake, Bureau of Entomology, United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

The following notes have been made for the most part in connec- 
tion with the determination of some Cuban Chrysomelidae sent me 
Ijy Mr. S. C. Bruner, of Santiago de las Vegas. In addition four 
new Mexican and Central American species of Galerucella have 
been described which are related to G. fuscomaculata Jacoby and 
at least one of which was included by Jacoby in that species as 
originally described. The writer is indebted to K. G. Blair and G. 
E. Bryant, of the British Museum, for comparing type material. 

GaleniccUa fuscomaculata Jacoby. Fig. i, pi. IV. 
Galerucella fuscomaculata Jacoby, Biologia Centrali-Americana, 
vol. 6, pt. I, p. 491, 1886 ; vol. 6, Supplement, table 28, fig. 2. 
Elongate oblong, about 4 mm. long, densely punctate and covered 
with short, thick, and closely appressed pubescence ; dull pale 
brown with darker markings, often a spot on occiput, irregular 
darkening in lateral and median depressions on prothorax, and vit- 
tate sutural, median, and lateral elytral infuscations. Head densely 
but shallowly punctate over occiput, and covered with short pubes- 
cence ; a deep, impressed, median, vertical line extending from oc- 
ciput to interantennal area, a slight depression running from above 
antennal socket along inner side of eye, and between this and the 
median line a somewhat swollen boss on each side of upper vertex ; 
pale brown, with region about median line on occiput frequently 
darker. Antennae short, not reaching much behind humeri, third 
joint longest, fourth and following joints of approximately equal 
length, gradually thickening; brownish. Prothorax scarcely twice 
as wide as long, with slightly arcuate sides and obliquely truncate 
basal angles ; widely depressed on sides and with a shallow^ median 


46 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

depression ; surface densely and finely punctate and covered with 
short pubescence ; dull yellow, usually with a darker median and 
lateral spots. Elytra oblong, with narrow lateral margin and 
prominent humeri ; a basal callosity near scutellum ; densely and 
more coarsely punctate than prothorax and covered with dense, 
closely appressed pubescence; dull yellow brown, with darker 
brown markings on humeri, an interrupted subsutural vitta widen- 
ing in middle and toward apex, a median interrupted vitta, and a 
lateral darkening extending from humerus nearly to apex, these 
frequently evanescent in pale specimens. Body beneath shining 
under pale pubescence, more or less darkened, in dark specimens 
entirely dark; in pale specimens with metasternum somewhat 
darker ; legs pale. Claws in female with shorter basal tooth than in 
male. Length 3.5 to 5 mm., width 1.6 to 2.3 mm. 

Distribution: Mexico (Cerro de Plumas; figured specimen in 
British Museum, not examined by the writer) ; Guatemala (Cham- 
perico; Zapote; Cacao Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz) ; Nicaragua 
(Chinandega, Managua, San Marcos) ; Salvador (Acajutla) ; 
Canal Zone (Paraiso). (All these localities are represented by 
specimens in the National Museum, except Cerro de Plumas.) 

Jacoby, in describing G. fuscomaculata, stated that he had speci- 
mens from Mexico to Panama which showed considerable variation 
in size and color. In the Biologia material in the United States 
National Museum labelled G. fuscomaculata there are two species, 
one from Zapote, Guatemala, the other from David, Chiriqui. K. 
G. Blair, of the British Museum, has compared the specimen from 
Cerro de Plumas figured by Jacoby in the Biologia with a specimen 
from Champerico, Guatemala, sent by the writer, and states that 
the one from Champerico and the Zapote specimen in the British 
Museum, presumably of the same lot as the Biologia specimen in 
the National Museum, agree with the specimen figured. He sug- 
gests that it would be better to consider the figured specimen the 
type rather than the one labelled fuscomaculata by Jacoby, which is 
from Rio Hondo, British Honduras, and which he thinks may be a 
dififerent species. 

Galerucella brevicollis, new species. Fig. 4, pi. IV. 

Broadly oblong, about 4.5 mm. long with short, wide prothorax, 
and oblong elytra broadly rounded at apex ; densely punctate and 
covered with short pubescence; dull pale brown, with darker mark- 
ings in depressions on prothorax and interrupted subsutural, 
median, and lateral vittate elytral markings. Head densely punc- 
tate and pubescent over occiput, with a median depressed vertical 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 47 

line extending to between antennal sockets; brown, sometimes with 
darker occipital infuscation. Antennae slender, extending to con- 
siderably behind humeri but not nearly to middle of elytra, third 
joint long; brown, with paler basal joints. Prothorax considerably 
more than twice as wide as long, wuth rounded sides and slightly 
obliquely truncate basal angles ; lateral and median depressions ; 
surface finely and densely punctate, and finely pubescent ; pale 
brown, W'ith lateral and sometimes median infuscation. Elytra 
broadly oblong, little depressed, with broad apex and narrow lat- 
eral margin ; humeri prominent, with a short intrahumeral sulcus ; 
surface densely and somewhat coarsely and deeply punctate, cov- 
ered with short pubescence ; pale brown, wath darker brown sub- 
sutural, median, and lateral interrupted and not clearly defined 
vittae. Body beneath shining under the short, pale pubescence ; 
brown, with darker shadings on metasternum ; ' legs pale ; claws 
toothed in both sexes. Length 4.3 to 5 mm. ; width 2 to 2.5 mm. 

Type, male, and one paratype, female, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 
44028. Other paratypes in the British Museum. 

Type locality. — David, Chiriqui, Panama, collected by G. C. 

Distribution. — Panama (David) ; Costa Rica (Piedras Negras) ; 
Nicaragua (Chinandega). 

This is one of the two species in the Biologia material in the Na- 
tional Museum labelled G. fuscomaculata Jacoby. It differs from 
G. fuscomaculata, as here interpreted, by having a shorter and 
broader prothorax, wider and more deeply punctate elytra, and a 
quite differently shaped aedeagus. In its short, wide prothorax 
and broad elytra it resembles G. uiarmorata Jacoby rather than G. 
fuscomaculata, but it is a smaller and less densely pubescent species 
with different elytral markings and entirely differently shaped 
Galerucella cyclopea, new species. Fig. 2, pi. IV. 

Elongate oblong, about 4 mm. long, densely punctate, and finely 
and densely pubescent ; head with a deep pit in middle of front ; 
pale brown, with darker occipital spot, dark spots in lateral and 
median depressions on prothorax, and dark vittate subsutural, me- 
dian, and lateral elytral markings. Head densely punctate and 
pubescent over occiput, with an impressed, median, vertical line ; 
in middle of front above frontal tubercles a deep round hole ; an- 
tennal sockets very close together; yellow brown, often with darker 
area along median line. Antennae brown, with paler basal joints, 
not extending much behind humeri ; third joint longer than the suc- 
ceeding ones, which gradually thicken. Prothorax not twice as 
wide as long, with rounded sides, obliquely truncate basal angles, 

48 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

and wide lateral and median depressions ; finely punctate and cov- 
ered with short, appressed pubescence ; pale brown, with darker 
lateral and median spots. Elytra oblong oval, with narrow lateral 
margin, well marked humeri, and intrahumeral sulcus; densely 
punctate and covered with dense pubescence; pale yellow brown, 
with darker subsutural infuscations and traces of median and lat- 
eral vittae. Body beneath shining under the fine, pale pubescence, 
brown, with darker metasternum ; legs pale. Claws in male toothed. 
Female unknown. Length 4.2 mm., width 1.8 to 2 mm. 

Type, male, and three paratypes, male, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 

Type locality. — Paraiso, Canal Zone, Panama, collected 27 April, 
191 1, by E. A. Schwarz. 

Other localities. — Cacao Trece Aguas, Alta Vera Paz, Guate- 
mala, collected by E. A. Schwarz and H. S. Barber. 

This species, closely resembling G. fuscomacidata, and having a 
similar aedeagus, is slightly larger and has more closely placed an- 
tennae. It is at once distinguished from G. fuscomaculata and all 
related species by the striking pit in the front of the head. 

Galerucella orthodera, new species. Fig. 3, pi. IV. 

Elongate oblong, about 4 mm. long, head unusually broad, pro- 
thorax broad at apex and slightly constricted near base, with promi- 
nent nodule at basal angle ; elytra with broadly rounded apex ; 
densely punctate and pubescent ; pale brown, with darker infusca- 
tions on occiput, in depressions in the middle and on either side of 
prothorax, and dark submarginal, median, and lateral vittate mark- 
ings on elytra. Head broad, with antennal sockets widely sepa- 
rated ; a median, impressed, vertical line from occiput to interan- 
tennal area, well defined tubercles, and a slight depression near 
inner side of eye ; between this and the median depression a cal- 
losity on each side of vertex ; densely punctate and pubescent over 
occiput. Antennae slender, not quite reaching back to middle of 
elytra, third joint longer than succeeding ones, which gradually 
thicken ; brownish, with paler basal joints. Prothorax about twice 
as wide as long, broad at apex, constricted near base, with promi- 
nent nodule at basal angle ; depressed on sides and in middle, 
densely punctate, and covered with short, appressed pubescence ; 
darker markings in depressions. Elytra oblong, with narrow lat- 
eral margin, broadly rounded at apex and with prominent humeri 
and a callosity on each elytron near scutellum ; densely punctate and 
densely pubescent ; pale yellow brown, with darker subsutural, me- 
dian, and lateral vittate markings. Body beneath shining under 
pale pubescence ; brown, sometimes with metasternum darker ; 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 49 

claws in both sexes with short basal tooth. Length 3.5 to 4 mm., 
width 1.5 to 1.8 mm. 

Type, male, and 3 paratypes, one male and two females, U. S. N. 
M. Cat. No. 44322. 

Type locality. — Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama, collected 5 April, 
191 1, by E. A. Schwarz and A. H. Jennings. 

This species is distinguished by its broad head, its long antennae, 
the basal sockets of which are widely separated, and by the fact 
that the prothorax is not narrowed apically but is constricted near 
the base. The aedeagus is quite unlike that of G. fitscoinaculata 
or that of G. cycle pea. 
Galerucella pauperata, new species. Fig. 5, pi. IV. 

Slender, elongate oblong, about 4 mm. long, densely punctate and 
covered with short pubescence ; pale yellow brown, with darker 
markings frequently on occiput and in lateral and median pronotal 
depressions, and traces of vittate subsutural, median, and lateral 
elytral infuscations. Head densely punctate and pubescent over 
occiput, with an impressed median vertical line and a depression 
running from above antennal sockets along inner side of eye ; an- 
tennal sockets close together ; head brownish, with darker area fre- 
quently along median line on occiput. Antennae extending con- 
siderably behind the humeri but not nearly to middle of elytra, 
third joint longer than succeeding ones, which are approximately 
of equal length and gradually thicken ; brownish, with paler basal 
joints. Prothorax scarcely twice as wide as long, with arcuate 
sides and somewhat obliquely truncate basal angles ; depressed on 
sides and in middle, densely punctate, and covered with short, 
closely appressed pubescence; pale brown, with darker infuscations 
in depressions. Elytra narrowly oblong, with a narrow lateral mar- 
gin and well marked humeri ; a basal callosity near scutellum ; 
densely and distinctly punctate and covered with fine pubescence : 
pale yellow brown with traces of subsutural, median, and lateral 
darker vittae. Body beneath shining under pubescence ; pale, usu- 
ally with darker metasternum ; legs pale ; claws in both sexes 
toothed. Length 3 to 4.3 mm. ; width 1.3 to 2 mm. 

Type, male, with three paratypes, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 44323. 

Type locality. — Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, collected in April, 
1908, by A. Fenyes. 

This species is closely related to G. fitscoinaculata Jacoby, but is 
more slender and elongate, and has a smaller prothorax and nar- 
rower head. 
Galerucella oteroi, new^ species. Fig. 6, pi. IV. 

Oblong oval, about 5.5 mm. long, not shining, densely punctate 
and pubescent, the prothorax short, the elytra elongate and consid- 

50 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o'- -X'XZZ 

erably wider than the prothorax ; pale yellowish brown, with darker 
occipital spot, four black spots in a row across pronotum, elytra 
with dark grayish brown vittae, the paler and narrower intervening 
vittae being somewhat raised, and the two pale humeral vittae so 
closely placed as to be almost merged. Head densely punctate 
above, with short, closely appressed pubescence; an impressed 
median line down occiput to tubercles, the latter well defined; in- 
terantennal area flat, not produced, antennae well separated ; region 
about median line and labrum dark. Antennae not quite reaching 
back to middle of elytra, first and third joints longer than re- 
mainder; first seven joints pale, with darker apex, the remainder 
entirely dark. Prothorax more than twice as wide as long, with 
rounded sides and small apical and basal nodules ; deeply depressed 
on the sides and somewhat in the middle; surface densely and 
rugosely punctate, with short, fine, inconspicuous pubescence; pale 
brownish, with four black spots in a row slightly before the middle. 
Scutellum rounded at apex. Elytra elongate, with parallel sides, 
considerably broader than prothorax ; humeri well developed ; sur- 
face densely punctate, with short, fine, but dense, pubescence; the 
sutural edges and narrow pale vittae raised; a pale median vitta, 
two humeral vittae closely placed and at some points merged, the 
inner one beginning at base of elytra and ending at apical angle, the 
outer one beginning at humerus and at apex curving about to join 
the median vitta, a lateral vitta arising also at humerus and ending 
before apex, the lateral margin and apex also pale. Body beneath 
finely pubescent, pale, with darker shadings on metasternum and 
abdominal segments ; legs pale, with dark anterior coxae and a dark 
median and an apical spot on femora and tibiae and darkened apices 
to tarsal joints. Length 5.2 to 5.8 mm., width 2.6 to 2.8 mm. 
Type, male, and one paratype, female, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 


Type locality. — Buenos Aires, Trinidad Mts., Cuba, collected in 
May, 1932, by A. R. Otero, S. C. Bruner, and J. Acuna. 

Galeriicclla oteroi is one of the largest of several closely related 
West Indian Galerucellas, and is distinguished by its four-spotted 
pronotum and pale-lined elytra with two nearly united pale humeral 
vittae. Two related species have been described from Cuba. G. 
venustula Suffrian is smaller, being not more than 4 mm. long, 
lacks pronotal spots, and has fewer elytral vittae. G. maculipes 
Blake is of approximately the same size, but has a more spotted 
pronotum, transverse elytral impressions, and wider pale vittae. 
The aedeagus is also different. Three related species of Galerucella 
have been described from Porto Rico. G. obliterata Olivier has 
fewer elytral vittae. G. walcotti Bryant and G. varicornis Weise 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 51 

are smaller, are without pronotal spots, and have transverse elytral 

impressions and fewer vittae. 

Disonycha laevigata Jacoby. Fig. ii, pi. IV. 

Disonycha laevigata Jacoby,^ described from the island of Gre- 
nada, British West Indies, and recently assuming economic impor- 
tance in Porto Rico as a garden pest of beet and chard, is also rep- 
resented in the National Museum collection from Jamaica (Chapel- 
ton, Spanishtown, Kingston), Haiti (Rio Froide, Bayeux), Do- 
minican Republic (Macoris R., San Cristobal), Panama (Alha- 
juela, Ancon, Bohio, Chagres R., Corozal, Gamboa, Gatun, Juan 
Mina Plantation, La Sabanas, Panama City, Miraflores, Old Pan- 
ama, Summit), and Costa Rica (Port Limon). In the Bowditch 
collection at the Museum of Comparative Zoology are specimens 
from Venezuela ("L. Laglaize") and Colombia (Puerto Colombia, 
Atlantico). Its occurrence in South and Central America, which 
has not been previously reported, has led the writer to suspect that 
this may be the species described by Harold- as Disonycha eximia 
from New Grenada (Calamar, Magdalena River, northern Colom- 
bia). From Harold's description, no distinction can be drawn be- 
tween D. laevigata and D. eximia. 
Argopistes coccinelloides (SufTrian). Fig. 8, pi. IV. 
Argopus coccinelloides Suffrian, Archiv. f . Naturgesch., vol. 34, p. 

223, 1868. 
Sophraena coccinelloides Harold, Deutsch. Ent. Ztschr., vol. 21, p. 
138, 1877. 

A. R. Otero has recently reared at Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba, 
from larvae mining the leaves of Forestiera rhamnifolia, this sec- 
ond known American species of Argopistes. Suffrian's detailed 
description of Argopus coccinelloides entirely fits these Cuban 
specimens. In referring the species to the European and Asiatic 
genus Argopus, Suffrian stated that he was doubtful whether this 
beetle belonged to that genus. Harold, from Suffrian's descrip- 
tion, referred the species to Sophraena (described by Baly,^ not by 
Clark, as stated by Harold). The species of Sophraena are more 
oval than those of Argopistes, and only moderately convex. G. E. 
Bryant, of the British Museum, to whom I have sent specimens of 
A. coccinelloides, states that "it is correctly placed in this genus 
{Argopistes) , and has nothing to do with Sophraena." Baly* in 

^ Jacoby, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, pt. 3, p. 262, 1897. 
^ Harold, Coleopt. Hefte, vol. 15, p. 6, 1876. 
^ Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, third series, vol. 2, pt. 4. p, 
342, 1865. 

* Baly, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 202, 1874. 

52 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXIX 

1874 described a species of Argopistes from Japan which he named 
Argopistes coccinelloides. Suffrian's earlier use of the same spe- 
cific name requires that Baly's species be given another name. 

The Cuban species is closely related to A. scyrt aides Lee. (Fig. 
7) of Florida, which has been recorded as a leaf miner of Fores- 
tiera poridosa.^ As in the Florida species, the coloring of A. coc- 
cinelloides is somewhat variable, but no specimens have been ex- 
amined showing the red elytral spots typical of the Florida species. 
The apical joints of the antennae are dark, which is not true of the 
Florida species, and the aedeagus is slightly shorter, more slender, 
and with a somewhat differently shaped tip. Usually the elytra are 
reddish brown, with the apical half dark, and the head at the base 
and prothorax are dark. The antennae are yellow, the last three 
or four joints in the male, and the last one or two joints in the 
female, dark. The structure of the hind legs of the American spe- 
cies of Argopistes has not been adequately described (see figures). 
The legs are short and the femora are grooved on the inner side. 
The tibiae are about the same length as the tarsi, are shallowly 
grooved, and have a sheath-like prolongation; they are serrate on 
the inner side, end acutely, and enclose a broad but acutely pointed 
spur. This spur arises from the point where the tarsal joint origi- 
nates, and projects slightly beyond the tibial sheath, making with 
the acutely pointed end of the sheath two points, from the outside 
resembling two spurs. The first joint of the anterior tarsi in the 
male is enlarged, and the first joint of the posterior tarsi is longer 
than in the anterior and middle pairs. 

Mr. Otero made the following observations regarding the habits 
of the larvae of this species : 

"Leaf miner on Forestiera rhamnifolia Gris., known locally as 
the 'Hueso bianco.' April 15: It was observed that the insect en- 
tered the leaf through the base, near the petiole. From this point 
it worked almost entirely around the border of the leaf, then 
turned backwards and continued the gallery in a direction more or 
less parallel to the first section. The larva is somewhat flattened, 
yellow or pale orange in color, with the head yellowish brown and 
the prothorax fuscous above; legs blackish. The plant was badly 
injured. April 25 : Ten larvae emerged from the leaves placed 
under observation in the laboratory, and transformed to pupae, 
each constructing a small uncovered cell in the soil, just large 
enough to accommodate its body, where they remain until transfor- 
mation takes place. (Larvae and pupae preserved in alcohol.) 

^ Dyar, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., vol. 5, p. 137, 1905, and Blatch- 
ley, Florida Entomologist, vol. 8, p. 19, 1924. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 53 

May 5 : Two adults emerged, and four more the following day. 
Adults were collected in the field while they were eating the leaves 
of the same host plant." 

Bryant'^ has described two species of Argopistes from South 
Africa that are leaf miners of olive trees. The only two Amer- 
ican species whose food plants are known feed on species of For- 
estiera, a genus which also belongs to the family Oleaceae. 

Argopistes rubicundus, new species. P'ig. lo, pi. IV. 

Rounded, convex, shining, finely punctate, deep reddish brown 
above, the anterior and middle legs, posterior tarsi, and antennae 
slightly paler yellowish brown. Head withdrawn into the pro- 
thorax so as to be nearly hidden from above, eyes large, close to- 
gether, vertex indistinctly punctate, a larger fovea on each side near 
eye, lower front somewhat retracted. Antennae at base closely 
placed, extending a little beyond humeri, third joint very short and 
slender, remainder slightly longer, of approximately equal length, 
and gradually thickening. Prothorax strongly convex, narrowed 
anteriorly and forming a half circle about head, lateral margin nar- 
rowly reflexed, basal margin sinuate over scutellum ; shining, very 
finely and rather densely punctate. Scutellum small and triangular. 
Elytra strongly convex, with rounded sides, shining, finely and 
rather densely punctate. Body beneath with short prosternum and 
mesosternum, the anterior coxal cavities open ; legs short ; posterior 
femora much enlarged, tibiae shaped as in the preceding two spe- 
cies. Length 3 to 3.3 mm., width 2.5 to 3 mm. 

Type, male, and three paratypes, one male, 2 females, U. S. N. 
M. Cat. No. 44792. 

Type locality. — Cordoba, Vera Cruz, Mexico, collected in May, 
1908, by Dr. A. Fenyes. 

This species, the third of the genus known in this hemisphere, 
closely resembles the two species described in the preceding pages, 
but is dilTerent in coloring. The four specimens known are uni- 
formly deep reddish brown without spots or other markings. The 
aedeagus, too, differs from those of the Florida and Cuban species. 

Stoiba marginata, new species. Fig. 9, pi. IV. 

Rounded, not shining, about 6.5 mm. long, with convex, coarsely 
punctate elytra and a wide, explanate, lateral margin on both pro- 
thorax and elytra ; head, antennae, lateral margin, apex and some- 
times all but base of femora, the tibiae, and the tarsi pale reddish 
yellow ; middle of pronotum, and elytra, except narrow margin. 

Bryant, Bull. Entomol. Research, vol. 12, p. 474, 1922. 

54 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^"Z. xxix 

deep blue black ; under-surf ace black. Head pale yellow, with- 
drawn into prothorax and nearly invisible from above ; a median 
vertical line down occiput, tubercles swollen, antennal sockets 
closely placed ; carina not produced but lower portion of front 
under the antennae swollen on each side. Antennae not extending 
below prothorax, pale yellow, with first four joints subglabrous, the 
rest pubescent; third joint long, fourth and fifth shorter and ap- 
proximately of equal length, thicker than third, and the succeeding 
ones gradually thickening. Prothorax narrowed anteriorly, with 
slightly emarginate anterior margin and with sinuate basal margin ; 
sides widely explanate and pale reddish yellow ; median area slightly 
convex and dark blue black; alutaceous, coarsely, and in some 
places densely, punctate, with trace of a median line. Scutellum 
triangular, black, shining. Elytra strongly convex, lateral margin 
at more than right angles with declivity of convex median portion 
and widely explanate in basal half ; surface coarsely and densely 
punctate, the punctation becoming even coarser on lateral margin ; 
deep blue black in color with narrow reddish yellow lateral mar- 
gin; wings vestigial. Body beneath shining black; apex of femora 
(in one specimen all of femora except base), the tibiae, and the 
tarsi pale; claws with short, broad basal tooth. Length 6 to 7 mm., 
width 6 to 6.5 mm. 

Type and one paratype, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 44325. 

Type locality. — Buenos Aires, elevation 2,350 to 2,800 ft., Trini- 
dad Mts., Cuba, collected 4 May, 1932, by S. C. Bruner and A. 

This species differs from related species of Stoiba with dark 
elytra in having a pale lateral margin and in being coarsely punc- 
tate. The elytral punctation is not so coarse as in the extremely 
coarsely punctate species of Elytrogoiia, but is coarser than in 6". 
decemuiacidata Blake. As in 6". dcceuuuaculata and vS. hruneri 
Blake, the wings are vestigial. The antennae resemble those of 5". 
flavicollis Klug and S. ind'wisa Blake in having the fifth antennal 
joint short, pubescent, and like the succeeding ones. 

Stoiba fascicollis, new species. Fig. 12, pi. IV. 

Rounded oval, about 8 mm. long, with explanate margin on both 
prothorax and elytra ; not shining, alutaceous, distinctly punctate ; 
elytra strongly convex ; antennae, margin of prothorax, and legs, 
except at base, yellow ; prothorax banded ; elytra deep blue black, 
undersurface black. Head pale yellow, withdrawn into prothorax 
and barely visible from above ; a median vertical line down occiput ; 
frontal tubercles well marked, alutaceous, and punctate ; antennal 
.sockets closely placed. Antennae not reaching much beyond pro- 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 2 

Plate IV 

IQ Anjo|)istes robicundus 

11. Disonijcha laevigata 

2. bToiba fascicoiiis 

56 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^<'^- ^^i^ 

notum, pale yellow; first four joints subglabrous, third joint a little 
longer than fourth, fifth and remaining joints pubescent and gradu- 
ally thickening. Prothorax narrowed anteriorly, with slightly 
emarginate anterior margin and sinuate basal margin ; sides widely 
explanate; disc slightly convex and with wide dark band; surface 
alutaceous and with scattered coarse punctures and median line. 
Scutellum dark and shining. Elytra strongly convex, with margin 
spreading at an obtuse angle from declivity of convex median por- 
tion, and wider in basal half ; distinctly punctate and alutaceous ; 
blue black; wings fully developed. Body beneath shining black; 
legs, except at base, pale; claws with a short, broad basal tooth. 
Length 7.5 to 8.5 mm., width 6 to 6.8 mm. 

Type, male, and one paratype, U. S. N. M. Cat. No. 44326. 

Type locality. — Buenos Aires, elevation 2,350 to 2,800 ft., Trini- 
dad Mts., Cuba, collected 4 May, 1932, by S. C. Bruner and A. 

This appears to be a distinct species rather than a dark variety of 
S. flavicollis Klug, since the elytral punctation is a little denser and 
more distinct than in any form of that species, and the aedeagus is 
slightly wider. There are undoubtedly several forms or species 
confused under the name 6'. flavicollis, but no form has been de- 
scribed having a band across the pronotum. 

A Change of Name in the Genus Rhagovelia (Hemiptera, 
Veliidae). — In a recent paper on the genus Rhagovelia (Annals 
Ent. Soc. Amer., Vol. 26, pp. 467-468, Sept., 1933), I described a 
new species from Peru, South America, under the name Rhagovelia 
hungerfordi. Since this article appeared, it has been called to my 
attention that Lundblad previously used hungerfordi for a variety 
of Rhagovelia femorata Dover from the East Indies region (Son- 
der-Abdruck aus dem Archiv fiir Hydrobiologie 1933. Suppl.-Bd. 
XII. Tropische Binnengewasser IV Seite 1-194, pp. 293-295, fig. 
88). I therefore propose the new name Rhagovelia abrupta to re- 
place R. hungerfordi Gould, 1933 (not of Lundblad, 1933). — 
George E. Gould, Purdue University Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Lafayette, Indiana. 

An unusually early hatch. — While duck hunting on the Gila 
River about fifteen miles below the Coolidge Dam, on January 15, 
1934, I noticed an unusually early and heavy hatch of Libythea 
backmani (Lepidoptera-Rhopalocera). This insect usually hatches 
from hackberry but there is no hackberry in this locality. — D. K. 
Duncan, Globe, Arizona. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 57 


By George P. Engelhardt, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Field investigations during the past season were conducted prin- 
cipally in the arid regions of eastern Oregon and Washington and 
in southern and eastern Utah. Agents of the U. S. Bureau of 
Entomology and friends from respective State Colleges, by pre- 
arrangement acted as companions and guides. As usual, with my 
special interest, the Aegeriidae or clear-wing moths, uppermost 
in mind, there were obtained some 200 specimens of this family 
comprising 25 species, including several undescribed. 

Crossing the continent by rail, with stop-overs at Mobile, San 
Antonio, Tucson, Los Angeles, and San Francisco, serious col- 
lecting was not attempted until I joined B. G. Thompson of the 
Oregon State College at Corvallis and we started on the morning 
of June 25 with John Davis, High School Principal, and Kwan 
Lun Wong, Graduate Student, for the Steen Mountains. Mr. 
Thompson's reputation as an accomplished archer is attested by 
trophies of bear, mountain lion and deer; Mr. Davis proved him- 
self an expert at the wheel and Mr. Wong earned our gratitude by 
his skill in the culinary arts. 

We travelled by a way of Eugene, Grant's Pass, Medf ord to Kla- 
math Lake, a famous breeding place for aquatic birds, so beauti- 
fully commemorated in a habitat group at the American Museum 
of Natural History. In spite of much draining and fast growing 
industrial developments, bird life is still abundant, particularly the 
white pelicans. On the second day, passing through rough country 
of volcanic formation, sage brush plains and forests of yellow pine, 
we reached Lakeview in time for an afternoon's detour to mos- 
quito-infested Lake Albert and the straggling little town of Paisley, 
where a big, iron-barred cage was explained to us as constituting 
the jail. Returning to Lakeview, we left the highway, continuing 
over deeply rutted, high centered dirt roads through bleak, barren 
country with hardly any human habitations to Berkley. This is a 
veritable ghost town of a once prosperous colony of dry wheat 
farmers, ruined after a succession of years of drought. The high 
spots of the day were fine tiger beetles and Cicadas collected along 
the shores of dry lakes, and the numl)er of pronghorn antelopes 
roaming the hills, singly, in pairs, and in herds of a dozen or more. 
Natives volunteered the information that the pronghorns in east- 
ern Oregon from near estimation have increased to 2000 or even 

* Abstract of an address delivered at the Brooklyn Entomolog- 
ical Society, February 15, 1934. 

58 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^^- ^^I^ 

lOjOCX). The first estimate may be accepted as conservative. Our 
last run for the day took us over fifty miles of execrable, washed- 
out roads to the Donner and Blitzen River, where we found shelter 
in a fisherman's camp. The river, a formidable, turbulent stream, 
abounding in trout, attracts followers of Isaac Walton from far 
and near. The fish were jumping constantly for stone- and may- 
flies hovering in myriads over the water. The Steen Mountains, 
close at hand, but under a deep mantle of snow, proved inacces- 
sible. However, collecting in the river canyon was fine. 

With the exhaust pipe smashed and the engine coughing, we 
barely managed to get back to a passable road leading to Malheur 
Lake, another famous bird refuge, now mostly drained and con- 
verted into pasture lands. Ducks, divers and gulls still populate 
the marshes and open spaces and sandhill cranes stand guard along 
the ditches. Temporary repairs to the car were made at Burns, a 
typical cowboy town, still breathing the air of the wild and woolly 
West. In the wake of a rodeo, pool parlors, dance halls and eating 
places were crowded with cowboys, girls and Indians. 

Good collecting again was found in the forest reservations at 
Silvies and Seneca on the way to the old mining camps of Canyon 
City and John Day. Neither of these places has undergone many 
changes since the gold rush of the early days, though of late there 
is renewed activity in rewashing the old dumps and about the pros- 
pecting holes which perforate the hillsides. Here we learned of a 
huge fossil turtle, weighing at least two tons, exposed on the fossil 
bearing blue clififs, some miles down in the canyon of the John Day 
River. Detouring, we found the location, real blue rocks of crum- 
bly, hardened clay, eroded into all sorts of fantastic shapes, but 
nothing resembling a turtle. The rocks, dissolved in water, might 
well serve as a substitute for bluing. 

At Primeville and at Bend on the Deschutes River, we found 
much material of interest, well-nigh filling our specimen containers. 
The sixth and last day took us over the McKenzie Pass, ascended 
through miles and miles of black, forbidding lava beds, through 
narrow lanes of snow twenty feet high on the divide and on the 
descent of the western slope through splendid forests of Douglas 
spruce and cedars. What contrasts may be encountered in a day's 
travel in the West ! Bleak, barren country in the morning, snow 
covered mountains at noon and vast, shady forests and verdure 
clad valleys before sunset. 

This experience was repeated on subsequent trips in company 
with Dr. Melville H. Hatch of the University of Washington at 
Seattle, and with Mr. Joseph Wilcox, specialist on robber flies, 
and Mr. S. E. Crumb, authority on cut worms, both U. S. agents 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 59 

at the Experiment Station at Puyallup. On these excursions, the 
Cascade Mountains were crossed over Snoqualmie Pass to Cle 
Elum, Ellensburg and Yakima, the latter a striking example of 
what can be accomplished by irrigation in transforming a barren 
country into one of the finest orchard regions of the world. New 
life histories of clear wing moths and captures of many other in- 
sects rewarded our efforts at White Swan, near Yakima, and also 
on our return over Naches Pass. There was no collecting above 
timber line in the Cascade Mountains during the season of 1933. 
On a visit to Sunrise Park on July 5 and to Paradise Park a few- 
days later only the gables of cabins peaked through the snow. 

At Pullman, Washington, I was met by J. F. Gates Clarke of 
the Department of Zoology at the State College. An enthusiastic 
and indefatigable collector, we roamed his country hither and yon, 
discovering species never collected before. We explored the Snake 
River Canyon, crossed the state line into Idaho and followed tor- 
tuous gullies among rounded hills, bearing heavy crops of grain. 
Hardly any of the former prairie vegetation has escaped the plow. 
Only a small patch of original prairie land is being kept intact near 
the State College at Pullman. 

Jim Baker, a young amateur collector from Baker, Oregon, hav- 
ing heard of my visit in Corvallis, had motored there, 300 miles 
each way, just on the chance of making my acquaintance, missing 
me by a few hours. Passing through Baker on the way to Utah, I 
stopped over. I shall always cherish the hearty welcome extended 
to me by Jim and his parents. We had three days of unexcelled 
collecting in the Blue Mountains. They are an entomologist's 

E. W. Davis, of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology, in charge of 
sugar-beet insects, was waiting for me in Salt Lake City, ready to 
start on one of his monthly inspection trips to southern Utah and 
Las Vegas, Nevada. We breakfasted in Salt Lake City and supped 
at Las Vegas, Nevada, on the same day. What a dififerent experi- 
ence from a first visit to Utah in 1904. In those days, travelling 
by covered wagon, it took a week to cover about half the distance ! 

Beet growers in Utah are subjected to great losses by a virus dis- 
ease, known as curly-top, which stunts the growth of the beets. 
This disease is transmitted only through the agency of a small leaf- 
hopper, Eutettix tenella, also called "white fly." The disease can- 
not pass over the winter on the beets, nor in the soil. Remedial 
measures, therefore, depend entirely on control over the insect car- 
riers, a difficult problem as the leafhoppers live on a variety of 
plants, but particularly the Russian thistle, Salsola pestifcr. This 
weed has taken possession of the road sides, fields and waste places 

60 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^oi. xxix 

in many of the Western states. With constant check-ups along the 
lines of the leafhopper distribution and their routes of migration, 
it has become possible to predict with surprising accuracy the ex- 
tent of an outbreak of the disease in advance of the growing season, 
thereby guiding the farmer at the time of planting. This may be 
accepted as an example of the many ways in which the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Entomology is rendering services of incalculable value to 
the farmer. Contact with agents in charge of such work proved 
them to be well fitted, mentally and physically, to carry out their 
arduous tasks. On trips through rough, unbroken country no bet- 
ter companions could be found. 

Utah, among all the states, it must be conceded, stands preemi- 
nent as regards diversity and grandeur of scenery. Splendid high- 
ways are fast giving speedy access to colorful canyons, natural 
bridges and surprising monuments, hitherto hidden in mountains 
and deserts. 

Returning from an inspection of Boulder Dam on the afternoon 
of July 25, Main Street in Las Vegas registered 110° in the shade. 
Our air-cooled rooms in the hotel registered 75°. What a relief ! 
Sunrise the next morning found us well along the road leading to 
St. George and Zion Canyon, Utah. There were many opportuni- 
ties for good collecting while Mr. Davis checked up on his leaf- 
hopper work. Our round trip of 1200 miles ended at Salt Lake 
City on July 27. 

Excursions to Ogden, the State College at Logan, and the Wa- 
satch Mountains, included a three days' visit to the University 
Camp at Timpanogus, a wonderful mountain, elevation 11,000 feet, 
set apart as a forest reservation. How my host and guide. Dr. 
Vasco Tanner, of Brigham Young University, enjoyed the pristine 
beauty of the Alpine meadows of this mountain. Overgrazing has 
obliterated so much of the native flora of the West, it is a satis- 
faction to note that there are some places which have survived. 

The last chapter of this narrative deals with the eastern part of 
Utah, a region as yet almost devoid of railroads and highways, and 
consequently a closed book to the travelling public. It is a country 
of vast deserts and bad lands, abounding in curious rock formations 
and treacherous streams. One's impressions alternate about equally 
between thrills and frights. 

On August 2, Mr. Davis swapped passengers at Richfield, Utah, 
he taking on Dr. White from the home office in Washington, and I 
joining Mr. W. A. Shands, from Grand Junction, Colorado, a field 
agent also engaged on the leafhopper work. Our first run was to 
Bryce Canyon and the hot dusty settlement of Escalante in the 
desert below, Navajo Mountain loomed in the distance as a land- 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 61 

mark. Chasing tiger beetles at Otter Creek Reservoir, we got 
badly mired on the boggy shore. In camp at Fish Lake, a popular 
mountain resort, elevation 9,000 feet, we found hoar frost in the 
morning, but it thawed out quickly on descending to the town of 
Loa, where we filled our tank and extra containers with gasoline in 
preparation for the long run to Hanksville on the Dirty Devil 

At Torry we entered the narrow canyon of the Fremont River, 
known as "Capitol Wash" for the singularly dome shaped clififs 
crowning the top. This canyon, five miles long, is the only drain- 
age outlet for many miles. In the season of summer showers and 
cloudbursts it must be traversed with caution. If caught in the on- 
rushing water, between the perpendicular walls, there is no escape 
for car or man. Blackening clouds were adding to our feeling of 
uneasiness. We were constantly on the alert to catch the roar of 
water that would warn of danger from behind. Dodging around 
boulders, crossing and re-crossing the stream, it took two hours to 
get through to expanding valleys, deeply filled with soft alluvial 
soil. The streams here have cut channels twenty to fifty feet deep, 
ever changing their course after heavy rains. Often we had to re- 
sort to shovels to effect a crossing. The Russian thistle thrives 
along the streams and on the flats, hence they are favorite breeding 
places for the leafhoppers and we made numerous detours to check 
up on their prevalence and development. At Hanksville, where we 
replenished with gas, the natives were at work repairing the damage 
of a disastrous flood. The town lies near the junction of the Dirty 
Devil and the Muddy Rivers, the latter compelling a crossing al- 
ways dangerous because of quicksand. Unknown numbers of 
horses, cattle, wagons and men have disappeared in it without leav- 
ing a trace. Only the previous week an auto, stuck in the sand, had 
sunk in to its very top by the following day. 

The stream bed is wide and harmless looking, with just a trickle 
of water here and there. It must be crossed in a sudden dash with 
never a stop, lest the sand takes hold on the wheels, when there is 
no escape. As an additional precaution, we blew our horn, which 
brought on a team of horses from a neighboring farm. With these 
harnessed to the front of the car, we simply galloped across. 

Next came a stretch, a hundred miles or more, of open, water- 
less desert. No cars passed us on the single track, deeply rutted, 
sandy road. This desert is a stronghold for wild horses. We saw 
moving objects at a distance too far to make them out. At inter- 
vals these horses are subjected to round-ups, usually ending in a 
corral at one of the few water holes. They are now attempting 
round-ups with airplanes, unsuccessful so far. The wild horses, 

62 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^i. XXIX 

contrary to reports and to the movies, are in fact a rather poor, de- 
generated lot, unfit for practical uses. Their only value lies in the 
hides, and in the meat, when converted into chicken feed, dog bis- 
quit and such. 

At Greenriver, we returned to a well surfaced highway and con- 
tinued in comfort to Moab on the Colorado River, to Monticello in 
the Abajo Mountains and through the town of Blanding to an es- 
carpment affording a magnificent view over the Valley of Monu- 
ments to the San Juan River. This is the country of natural 
bridges. There are many of them, some passed on the highway. 
All are of the same formation in red or white sandstone. The dif- 
ferences are only in size. 

Deserts in midsummer are poor places for collecting. Occasion- 
ally one does capture a prize. This happened at Moab below a red 
sandstone cliff. On low growing, stiff leaved shrubs, we found 
three caterpillars which might well turn out to be Sphinx elsa, one 
of the rarest of North American hawk moths, of which only a few 
have been collected in many years. Of the three caterpillars only 
one gave a strong healthy pupa. Its true identity will not be re- 
vealed until emergence time next summer. 

Most promising of the mountain ranges in eastern Utah, appear 
to be the La Sal Mountains, easily accessible from Moab. They 
are an isolated unit in the desert, are heavily wooded, and have 
peaks well above 12,000 feet. Also they are a National Forest 
Reservation. They may be the objective on another occasion. 

My field activities terminated at Grand Junction, Colo., on Au- 
gust 9th. 

In retrospection, the season of 1933 stands out as one of the 
most successful in many years. Never have I been privileged to 
travel with more congenial and helpful companions. 

For an old-time collector and nature lover it is difficult to refrain 
from picking up all sorts of insects, even if they fall outside of his 
special hobby. There is the joy of first acquaintance with many 
of the creatures in their native haunts ; and then the satisfaction of 
passing them on to friends and deserving workers, eager for just 
such material. This is the disposition that will be made of a mis- 
cellaneous collection of some 3000 specimens including all Orders. 

Over 1000 specimens of the Coleoptera were kindly mounted by 
Mr. Lionel Lacey, but only a few of these have thus far been de- 
termined. The specimens are still in the original lots, according to 
the localities in which they have been collected. This is of interest 
as illustrating the association of species in ecological environments. 
Sea shore, lake margins, forests, sage brush country, deserts and 
regions above timber line are represented — its varied make-up pre- 
sents the appearance of a very fine lot of beetles; but judgment 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 63 

must be deferred until they have been passed upon by experts. One 
species, however, should be mentioned because of the thrill its cap- 
ture gave — it is Dcsmocenis pipcri, one of the elderberry Ceram- 
bycids recorded only from the Blue Mountains in Eastern Oregon. 
The brilliant colors of the living beetle surely evoke admiration — 
the males with rich scarlet elytra and the females steel blue with 
red margins. Unfortunately the brilliance of these colors is much 
dimmed in the dead and mounted specimens. 

In the Eastern States there has been noted a progressive scarcity, 
as yet unexplained, in comparison with former abundance, of some 
of the common butterflies, such as Papilios, Argynnis, Vanessas, etc. 
In the West also there have been drastic changes, due to over- 
grazing, timber operations and forest fires. This has brought about 
the establishment of many forest and forage reservations, under 
government control, followed by a gratifying recovery of the flora 
and fauna. Such reservations are the best collecting places of to- 
day. Insects are again as abundant in some places as ever they 
could have been. Productive collecting generally can be expected 
in protected mountain valleys along water courses. The Blue 
Mountains of Eastern Oregon are an example. The abundance of 
butterflies there is amazing. Basilarchia lorquini and Aglais cali- 
fornica can be caught by the hundred. Fairly common also was 
Papilio indra, one of the rarest of North American swallowtails. 
In the Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Washington this butter- 
fly appeared to be replaced by Papilio salicaon and in the Wasatch 
Mountains of Utah by P. bairdi. The swallowtails riitulus, daimus 
and eurymedon were rather frequent in many of the regions vis- 
ited ; and there were abundant Parnassins, clodius on the western 
and sminthens on the eastern slopes of the Cascade Mountains. 

Thecla bairdi was encountered in numbers in open fields at the 
eastern end of Snoqualmie Pass, Wash., visiting the flowers of 
Sedum spathidifolimii and Eriogonuin iimbellatum. On these flow- 
ers we discovered also its larvae, blending in with the blossoms. 
Holland states that the food plant of this species is not known, but 
it seems doubtful that the observation should have escaped Dr. 
Comstock and other keen students on the Pacific Coast. 

Mount Timpanogas at Provo, Utah, proved another delightful 
experience in the beauty of its setting and the splendid collecting 
in all orders. At the foot of the glacier we caught Argynnis leto, 
both sexes ; and higher up on the Alpine meadows, lots of Argynnis 
clio and Mclitaea neumoegeni, so named provisionally by compari- 
son with illustrations in Holland's Butterfly Book. A small blue, 
closely resembling Lycaena aqiiilo from Labrador, was found only 
along the upper edges of the meadows at an elevation of looo ft. 

64 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol.xxiX 

Brigham Young University of Provo supports a biological sta- 
tion consisting of several small frame buildings in a grove of wil- 
lows near the shore of Utah Lake. On our visit we were startled 
by swarms of the underwing moth Catocala sirene, which flew out 
from under the eaves. They suggested bats leaving their roosts in 
caves at dusk. 

At this time I must forego mentioning many more species of 
Lepidoptera as well as the extensive collections of Hymenoptera, 
Diptera, Hemiptera and other Orders. 

A Correction: Just too late for change two errors were dis- 
covered in the Noctuid list included in Dr. Klots's "New Records 
of Lepidoptera from New York" (Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. XXVIII : 
209-210. Dec, 1933). The first was my error, the second not. 
P. 209, ''Hormisa orciferalis Wlk. Resort, 23 July, '31." A re- 
check of structural characters removes this from the genus Hormisa 
entirely; I hesitate to try a second name on this somewhat imper- 
fect specimen. P. 210, "Chlorisagrotis thanatalogia Dyar. Mor- 
ton, 18 July" has been redetermined by Dr. McDunnough as Euxoa 
pleiiritica Grt. This specimen is a female, and according to the 
state list otherwise known from N. Y. only by the type. — A. Glenn 
Richards, Jr., Rochester, N. Y. 

Acmaeodera papagonis Duncan. — The original description 
of this species published in December, 1933, Bulletin of the Brook- 
lyn Entomological Society, Vol. XXVIII — No. 5, on page 231, 
through oversight of the author neglected to state the locality of 
this species. This should be as follows : Baboquivari Mts., S. W. 
Arizona, El Oro Canyon, elev. 4000 feet, August 20, 1932. Since 
the description was written two additional specimens of this have 
been taken by the author just below the Coolidge Dam, Arizona, 
elevation 2600 feet, August 3, 1933. — D. K. Duncan, Globe, Ari- 

The Cuban Society of Natural History. — The Sociedad Cu- 
bana de Historia Natural "Felipe Poey" has recently been reor- 
ganized after about five years of inactivity due to abnormal political 
conditions prevailing in that country. Meetings will be held as 
before at the Universidad Nacional in Havana, the first regular ses- 
sion was held on January 15, 1934. Dr. Carlos de la Torre has 
been again elected President. Among other officers elected for the 
ensuing year are the following: First Vice-President, Dr. A. 
Mestre ; General Secretary, Dr. Carlos Guillermo Aguayo ; Director 
of Section of Entomology, S. C. Bruner. — S. C. Bruner, Habana, 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 65 


By Wm. T. M. Forbes, Dept. of Entomology, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. 

The question has frequently heen raised where the line lies be- 
tween forms which may be properly given a scientific name and 
those that may not. Recently the dispute has centered largely about 
the statements of Mr. J. D. Gunder in this Bulletin and else- 
where, with reference to species and their subdivisions. So far as 
the official code goes, there is no definite provision. The code 
merely provides rules for the naming of species and subspecies 
(races, etc.) without either authorizing or restricting the names 
for other categories. Under the conditions the following summary 
can be considered only a personal opinion. 

Instead of making merely two categories, as Mr. Gunder does, it 
seems that three must be considered ; namable, potentially namable 
and unnamable. In the category of namable we obviously have all 
true species, and such forms as in the judgment of the namer are 
probable enough species to deserve the same treatment. Next come 
subspecies, whether races (local) or based on ecological, food-plant 
or other definite restriction. Here no sharp line can be drawn, 
since local variations, etc., are of no standard size, and some line 
must be drawn between local forms that are distinct enough to 
name, and mere field forms, of which each sedentary species may 
contain an infinity. I think a fair rough criterion might be this: 
races are namable if 90 per cent determinable; that is if 90 per 
cent of the specimens from their type locality could be recognized 
without reference to the locality label. Of course the boundaries 
of races are not sharp unless there happens to be some physical bar- 
rier, as between island races, and we must expect material from 
half-way between the type localities of two races to be unworkable. 
Thirdly I consider those forms that take a definite place in the bio- 
logical pattern of a species as namable, with the same qualification 
that they must be at least 90 per cent determinable without their 
labels. In this category namables will include dimorphic forms, 
seasonal forms and the like, including among dimorphic forms 
those few of Gunder's "transition forms" which are so frequently 
recurrent as to form a definite part of the normal picture of the 

Secondly we have unnamahles. There is universal agreement to 
consider monstrosities, mutilations, variations due to mere state of 
development of the individual or sporadic accident, chance mon- 

66 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

grels between mere subspecies and the like as unnamable. And of 
course nothing dehberately made by man is namable in this sense, 
regardless of what we may allow to the horticulturist for his con- 
venience. I should also put in the unnamable, unique aberrations 
which are neither common enough nor of such a character as to be 
likely to be mistaken for species if not specially tagged. And finally 
the members of the following category will revert to the unnam- 
able so far as there do not exist special reasons for giving them 

Thirdly there is the classification of potentially namable. I be- 
lieve this group cannot be strictly defined, and that much must be 
left to the judgment and good taste of the worker. In general I 
believe that in this class one may be much more radical in working 
out a definite revision, where the various named forms are brought 
together and properly compared, than they would be in isolated 
cases. Firstly there will come a limbo of local forms not quite 
sharply enough defined to name in their own right — for the sake of 
example, perhaps those from 75 per cent to 90 per cent recogniz- 
able. These might well be discriminated where abundant material 
and unified publication make a definite and solid picture possible, 
but certainly should not be made the subject of scattered descrip- 
tions. Second there are those cases where a name will serve to 
clear up some existing source of confusion, for instance, where a 
form of one species has been already credited by mistake to an- 
other, or where an aberrant form is of such a striking character of 
such frequent occurrence that it is likely to be mistaken for a good 
species. Thirdly there are hybrids. My own taste would be to 
relegate these last to the category of unnamable, on the ground that 
the formula of naming them by their two parents, with an x be- 
tween the names, is sufficient, but they have already been recog- 
nized by the code, and so, I suppose, must be allowed. 

It will be noted that I say nothing about inherited characters 
(Mendelian forms, etc.) vs. forms the direct effect of environment: 
I believe this distinction is of no importance for our present prob- 
lem. It is of course biologically of fundamental importance, but 
the distinction is better expressed in other ways than by nomencla- 
ture ; in particular those who are working on Mendelian inheritance 
have already their own system of nomenclature, with arbitrary 
abbreviations and formulae, which expresses the complexities of 
their problems much better than any system of scientific names 
could do, and which they will obviously go on using. As to the so- 
called "transition form," which has started so much of this discus- 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 67 

sion, I believe that it is no unitary concept at all, and that the indi- 
vidual cases should be treated individually. In general they will 
have the character of aberrations, potentially namable if they are 
so recurrent as to be part of the regular pattern of the species 
or so striking as likely to be mistaken for species, but in general 
not to be named. Here also I should give more latitude in the case 
of a unified study which might cover the whole pattern of varia- 
tion of a species. If I am not mistaken, like other aberrations they 
divide in two categories, about half (such as most cases of albinism 
and melanism) being Mendelian, and the other half (the fusisms 
as a rule) being direct responses to abnormal environments. A 
few (pellucidism) come rather in the class of minor monstrosities, 
and should be considered basically unnamable. 


The indices to the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological 
Society and to Entomologica Americana are more than a sim- 
ple listing of names and pages. They are made rather from the 
point of the view of the technical user than from that of the mere 
library cataloguer. Hence, we reserve for the Tables of Contents 
the segregation of articles into the families or other categories of 
which they treat; and the indices become an alphabetical list of 
all genera and species, without indication of, or segregation into 
separate lists for each Order. However, we show in the Bulletin 
index six categories, namely: valid species, synonyms (both as 
recognized by the authors of articles) ; new species, plants, and 
animals other than true insects ; and since the primary interest of 
the Society is in the Long Island Fauna, the species reported from 
that region are also designated. In the Entomologica Americana 
indices we omit the last-mentioned segregation, but we have the 

In other words, it is possible for the botanist to find his plants 
at a glance, without having to read the whole volumes or the in- 
dices through. The mammalogist or the arachnologist may also 
find the objects of his study with a minimum of sterile work. The 
specialist may likewise discover immediately if there are any new 
species in his group, or new synonyms to be reckoned with. 

In short, our indices are not only the keys to each volume, but 
they are also — within limits — an analysis of its contents ; and taken 
in connection with the tables of contents, help to reduce dead labor 
to a minimum. J. R. T.-B. 

68 Bidletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- -STXZZ 


H. B. HuNGERFORD^ Lawrencc, Kansas.* 

Through the kindness of Mr. H. Hacker I have received for 
study some insects taken in the vicinity of Brisbane, Queensland, 
AustraHa, in December, 1932. Since the shipment contains a genus 
new to AustraHa it seems worth while to present this brief report. 
During the past ten years Herbert M. Hale has published a number 
of valuable papers dealing with the Aquatic and Semiaquatic He- 
miptera of Australia. These papers should stimulate further col- 
lections and studies of the water bugs of the Australian continent 
and add materially to our knowledge of this interesting ecological 


Plea brunni Hale. Records of South Australian Museum, Vol. II, 
No. 3, June 30, 1923, pp. 421-422, Fig. 371. 
A good series of what appears to be this species. The descrip- 
tion and the figure fail to note however the constriction of the lat- 
eral margin of the pronotum just behind the anterior angles, a 
character that is marked in the specimens before me. 


Enithares hergrothi Mont. Rev. Ent. Fr. XI, 1892, p. 71. 
A fair series of this species. 

Paranisops inconstans var. lutea Hale. Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales, XLIX, Pt. 4, 1924, pp. 463-464, pis. XLVII 
There are two males and four females of this interesting insect. 
A figure of the male genital capsule is presented on plate V, 
to show the long flat claspers or parameres. The capsule itself is 
cleft behind as in Notonecta, Enithares, Nychia and Martarega. 
This genus is certainly intermediate between the above group of 
genera which I assign to the subfamily Notonectinae and the Ani- 
sopinae which includes Anisops, Buenoa and Paranisops. Para- 
nisops has a labrum like Notonectinae and a cleft genital capsule 

* Contribution from Department of Entomology, University of 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 69 

like Notonectinae yet I agree with Hale in assigning it to the Ani- 
sopinae because it possesses the claval orifice and appears to have 
oxyhaemoglobin cells in the abdomen. The general appearance, 
shape of the legs and antennae also suggest Anisopinae. Mr. Hale's 
types came from New South Wales and it is a pleasure to add this 
record from Queensland. 

Anisops stall Kirkaldy. Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXHI, 1904, p. 113. 
One female specimen of this larger species. 

Anisops doris Kirkaldy. Wien. Ent. Zeit. XXHI, 1904, p. 112. 

A series of 9 specimens. There is in addition another species 
which I cannot identify. 


Sigara truncatipala (Hale). Rec. S. Australian Mus. H, No. 2, 
Apr. 3, 1922, pp. 314-316, Fig. 341. 
A good series of this species. 

Sigara halei n. species. 

(= Sigara suhlacvifrons Jaczewski (not Hale). Archiv. fiir 
Hydrobiologie 193 1, XXHI, pp. 507-509, Figs. 1-6. 
Dr. Jaczewski figured and redescribed a male from the Zoological 
Museum in Hamburg which he thought must be Sigara suhlaevi- 
frons (Hale). However, I have studied paratypes kindly sent to 
me by Mr. Hale and find that Dr. Jaczewski had another species 
which is smaller, darker and the male of which has serrations' on 
the curved tip of the right clasper or paramere. In Hale's 5". suh- 
lacvifrons these serrations are lacking. 

Sigara halci n. sp., is 4.8 mm. long in the male and not quite 
5.4 mm. long in the female. The width of the head in the 
male is 1.6 mm., in the female 1.7 mm. It is thus the smallest 
species described from Australia. It is dark and shining. The 
pronotum is crossed by 6 or 7 yellow bands which are nar- 
rower than the dark ones. The hemelytra are dark ; the clavus 
with a few oblique narrow yellow bands at basal angle, else- 
where the pale markings are slender, irregular lines; on the 
corium the small yellow figures are arranged faintly into longi- 
tudinal series. The membrane is also pigmented and figured. 
The face of the male has a broad oval depression. In 5". siih- 
laevifrons (Hale) this is much less marked. The notes and 
drawings of structure given by Dr. Jaczewski apply to this 
species. I am designating as types of this species the five spec- 
imens before me. 

70 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol. XXIX 

Agraptocorixa parvipuncta (Hale). Rec. S. Australian Museum 
II, No. 2, Apr. 3, 1922, pp. 320-321, Fig. 344. 
A dozen specimens of this species. 

Agraptocorixa euryonome Kirkaldy. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 
XX, 1897, p. 54. 
A single female specimen. 

Sphaerodema rusticus (Fabr.) ? Syst. Ent. p. 691, n. 2 (1775). 

Fourteen specimens. Whether this Australian species is the 
same as the one recorded for the oriental region I do not know. 
The genus should receive a careful revisional study. 

Naucoris congrex Stal. 
A long series. 

Laccotrephes tristis Stal. Of v. K. V. Ak. Forh. XI, 1854, p. 241. 
One male and 2 nymphs. 

Ranatra longipes Stal. Of v. Vet. Akad. Forh. 1861, p. 203. 
Four adults and four nymphs. 

Gerris euphrysone Kirk. Ent. XXXV, 1902, p. 138. 
Ten specimens, all apterous. 

Limnogonus skusei (Bueno). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. XXI, p. 
129 (192). 

(Hydrouietra australis Skuse. Rec. Aust. Mus. II, 1893, p. 42, PI. 
XI, Fig. 3.) 
Four specimens, all apterous. 

Gerris antigone Kirk. Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige. XLIII, 1899, p. 507. 
Five specimens, all apterous. 

Naeogeidae (= Hebridae) . 
Naeogeus axillaris Horvath. 
= A^. latensis Hale. 
One female specimen. 

Merragata hackeri n. sp. 

Size: Length including hemelytra 1.75 mm.; width at hu- 
meri .85 mm. ; width of head across the eyes is to the width at 
humeri as 29 : 60. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 71 

Color: Head, thorax, hemelytral veins and sternum, brown, 
antennae and legs lighter. Last segment of antenna, spot be- 
hind each ocellus, connexivum and abdominal venter dark 
brown, nearly black. Claval area of hemelytra white, mem- 
brane smoky with some indefinite whitish spots. 

Structural characteristics: Somewhat hirsute but appendages 
by no means as hairy as Distant's figure of Merragata palles- 
cens in Fauna Brit. India — Rhynchota Vol. V, p. 133. Head 
with two parallel depressed longitudinal lines on vertex ; an- 
terior margin of pronotum elevated into a collar ; lateral mar- 
gins twice constricted, front one just behind the collar and 
other just before the middle; two longitudinal ridges on an- 
terior part of pronotum, separated by a groove and bordered 
laterally by a deep depression; surface of posterior lobe of 
pronotum uneven, with faint longitudinal ridges and pitted 
depressions; anterior lobe of scutellum transverse and ele- 
vated; posterior lobe depressed with median longitudinal ca- 
rina and tip of lobe appearing entire in museum specimens but 
slightly incised in cleared mount. Venation of hemelytra as 
shown in drawing. The antennal formula for segments as fol- 
lows: ist: 2nd: 3rd: 4th: : 9: 9: 8: 12. The last segment a 
little thicker than the others at its middle. The formula for 
the legs as follows : Front leg : femur : tibia : tarsus : : 29 : 29 : 
10 ; Middle leg : 32 : 28 : 10 ; Hind leg : 38 : 40 : 14. The genital 
capsule of the male as shown in the figures on Plate V. The 
claspers or parameres are sturdy and bent. 

Location of types: Described from 20 specimens from Bris- 
bane, Queensland, Australia, taken in December, 1932, by H. 
Hacker, in whose honor the species is named. Holotype, allo- 
type and some paratypes in Francis Huntington Snow Ento- 
mological Museum of the University of Kansas. Paratypes 
also in British Museum and in South Australian Museum at 
Adelaide, Australia. 

Comparative notes: This species is less hirsute and smaller 
than M. pallescens Dist. and the first representative of the 
genus from Australia. 


Microvelia paraniocna Hale. Arkiv. f. Zool. K. Svenska Vet. 
Akad. XVH, A. 1925, p. 8, fig. 5. 
A good series both winged and apterous. The ventral side of 
the first genital of the male is provided with a pair of small ele- 
vated processes. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 2 

Plate V 

Paranisops inconstans var lutea Hale. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 73 

Plate V. 

1. Male genital capsule from right side. 

2. Male genital capsule from above. 

3. Left hemelytron. 

4. Male genital capsule from left side. S = suranal plate ; P. = 
paramere. Note that the genital capsule is cleft behind. The 
parameres are alike in shape. 


By Harold O'Byrne, Webster Groves, Missouri. 

I have already called attention to the considerable variety of in- 
sects preyed upon by the wasp Polistes riibigenosus Lept.^ The 
following note adds another interesting record to the list. 

At Ranken (between Valley Park and Eureka, in St. Louis 
County), Missouri, on July 29, 1933, I noticed a pair of Papilio 
troilus Linn, taking their nuptial flight. I followed closely and 
noted that the female was carrying the male, when a Polistes rubi- 
genosus suddenly started in pursuit of them. The female, bur- 
dened with the inert male, was flying heavily, and the wasp had no 
difficulty in keeping close behind. When the butterflies came to 
rest on a low branch of a shrub, the wasp attacked at once, seizing 
the body of the male with its legs. A violent struggle ensued, dur- 
ing which the butterflies separated and the female escaped. The 
wasp continued to grapple with the male but was unable to attain a 
position favorable for stinging the prospective victim because of its 
rapidly fluttering wings. After a full minute, the butterfly beat its 
assailant off and escaped unharmed. 

In the region southwest of St. Louis, these two species are 
among the most abundant and conspicuous representatives of their 
respective orders, yet I have never before, in many years of ob- 
servation, seen ruhigenosus attempt to molest this butterfly. The 
present observation suggests that the infrequency of such attacks 
is not due to disinclination on the part of the wasp so much as to 
the inability of the wasp to catch the butterfly because of its nor- 
mally rapid and erratic flight. In this instance, the female was 
hampered by the weight of the pendant male. Its flight was con- 
sequently slower and more direct than usual ; the wasp at once per- 
ceived this difference and started in pursuit. 

^ An attack on a cicada by Polistes ruhigenosus. Can. Ent., Ixv, 
6: 129. June, 1933. 

74 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o'- ^^I^ 


Albert W. Trippel^ Mishawaka, Indiana. 

In the past year the author has examined some 6,000 specimens 
of Chrysomehdae collected throughout Indiana by members of the 
staff of the Entomology Department and students in entomology 
at Purdue University, or himself. The identifications were checked 
or corrected by Mr. Charles F. A. Schaeft'er, of the Brooklyn Mu- 
seum; Prof. L. G. Gentner, of Oregon Agricultural College Ex- 
periment Station, and Dr. H. C. Fall, of Tynsboro, Massachusetts. 

In several previous studies of Indiana insects the county has 
been used as a unit for recording distribution ; this practice is fol- 
lowed in this paper, but specific localities are also given if available. 

The specimens in the Purdue Student Collection were collected 
by students of entomology as part of their class work. Records of 
these specimens and specimens collected by Montgomery alone or 
with the author are indicated by the initials "P. U.," "M.," or "M. 
and T.," respectively. All other specimens except where the name 
of the collector is indicated were taken by the author. 

All dates except those specifically indicated otherwise are from 
collections made in 1932. 
• Donacia texacana var. minor SchiYr.^ 

Gibson Co., 3 specimens, June 12, 1925 (M.) ; June 17, 1925 

15253 Lema trilineata var. trivittata Say. 

Jefferson Co., Madison, Aug. 3 (P. U.) ; Morgan Co., June 28, 
wild sweet potato (Musgrave) ; Tippecanoe Co., May i, 193 1 (P. 
U.) ; May 3, 1931, weeds (P. U.) ; May 14, 1931 (P. U.) ; May 
15, 1 93 1 (P. U.); Aug. 10, 1 93 1, Datura (M.) ; 2 specimens, 
July 26 (P. U.) ; Sept. 16, Datura (M.) ; 2 specimens, Sept. 17, 
Datura; Sept. 28. roadside (Musgrave and Deay). 

This variety has not been recorded from the state previously al- 
though Blatchley's material of Lema trilineata not improbably in- 
cluded specimens of it, which he did not consider distinct. 
15382 Pachybrachys confederatus Fall. 

Knox Co., 4 specimens, July 11, 1929 (M.) ; Posey Co., 2 speci- 
mens, July II, 1929 (M.). 
15412b {}) Pachybrachys cephaliciis var. parvus Fall. 

Kosciusko Co., June 27 (Gould). 

^ The arrangement and nomenclature used is that of Leng 
(1920) or Leng and Mutchler (1927) except in cases where more 
recent authoritative revisions have shown this to be in error. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 75 

Fall in letter states, "X'ear this variety which it may be, though 
not typical." 
1 541 3 Pachyhrachys roboris Fall. 

Knox Co., 2 specimens, July 11, 1929 (M.) ; Kosciusko Co., July 
8 (Gould) ; Posey Co., July 11, 1929 (M.) ; St. Joseph Co., July 
25, sumac; Tippecanoe Co., July 6 (M.) ; Sept. 24, herbage. 
15415 Pachybrachys rclictus Fall. 

St. Joseph Co., 2 specimens, June 15, 1931, dewberries, June 15, 
15495c Crypt DC cpliahis voiustiis var. oniatulus Clav. 

Clark Co., July 15, 1931 (P. U.) ; June 13 (M.) ; Jefferson Co., 
Madison, June 26, 1930 (P. U.) ; Porter Co., Mineral Springs, 2 
specimens, Aug. 31, 1925 (M.). 
I5495d Cryptoccphalus veniistus var. simpler Hald. 

Clark Co. (Ruby) ; Knox Co., Aug. 9, 1929 (M.) ; Jefiferson 
Co., Madison, June 29, 1930 (P. U.). 
15500 Crypt ace phalns calidus Suffr. 

St. Joseph Co., 3 specimens, Aug. 11, bluegrass. 
15566 GrapJiops various Lee. 

St. Joseph Co., July 12, red beets. 
15626b Paria candla var. gilvipes Horn. 

St. Joseph Co., June 12, 1931, red clover; Aug. 22, locust; Tip- 
pecanoe Co., Feb. 15, 1925 (P. U.) ; Apr. 26, 1925 (P. U.) ; 16 
specimens, Sept. 24, hickory (M. and T.). 
15626J Paria cancUa var. scutellaris Notm. 

Tippecanoe Co., May 15, 1931 (P. U.) ; July 20, willow. 
15655a Zygograiinna suturalis var. casta Rogers. 

Clark Co., July 12, 1931 (Baker) ; Clinton Co., Frankfort, 1926 
(P. U.) ; Knox Co., Aug. 8, 1929 (M.) ; 9 specimens, Aug. 9, 
1929, sweeping herbage (M.) ; 17 specimens, Aug. 9, 1929 (M.) ; 
II specimens, Aug. 20, 1929, sweeping weeds (M.) ; Lawrence 
Co., July II (Musgrave) ; Porter Co., Mineral Springs, Aug. 31, 
1925 (M.) ; Sept. 3, 1925 (M.) ; Posey Co., Aug. 23, 1924 (M.) ; 
Pulaski Co., July 25 (Gould) ; St. Joseph Co., June 17, 1931, mint 
along roadside; 3 specimens, July 25, ragweed; Tippecanoe Co., 2 
specimens, July 19, blue grass; July 19, sweeping weeds; 29 speci- 
mens, July 20, asparagus ; 2 specimens, Sept. 24, sweeping herbage ; 
Sept. 24, lamb's quarter; Sept. 25, ragweed; Sept. 26, weeds; Sept. 
28, roadside weeds (Musgrave). 
15678 Calligrapha pnirsa Stal. 

Tippecanoe Co., June 17 (P. U.). 
Phaedon americana Schffr. 

Kosciusko Co., May 20 (Gould). 

76 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- -S'xzz 
• Trirhahda borealis Blake. 

St. Joseph Co., July ii, grass along St. Joseph River. 
20192 Galerucella crihrata Lee. 

Lawrence Co., Bedford, 2 specimens, July 25, 1931 (M.) ; Clark 
Co., Henry ville, 3 specimens, June 13 (M.) ; June 17, 1930 (P, 
U.) ; June 13, 1931 (Manuel) ; June 15, 1931 (Manuel) ; July 3, 
1931 (McQueen) ; July 9, 1931 (Myers) ; 2 specimens, July 11, 
193 1 (Manuel) ; 2 specimens, July 12, 1931 (Baker) ; July 12, 
1931 (Myers) ; July 14, 1931 (Harden) ; July 22, 1931 (Mc- 
Queen) ; July 23, 1 93 1 (Sweigart) ; July 26, 1931 (Baker) ; Jef- 
ferson Co., Madison, June 25, 1930, clover field (P. U.) ; St. 
Joseph Co., grass along St. Joseph River; Tippecanoe Co., July 10 
20208 Disonycha davisi Schfifr. 

Tippecanoe Co., Oct. i, 1931. 
1 5946 Haltica foliacea Lee. 

Knox Co., 3 specimens, July 18, 1929 (M.) ; 5 specimens, Aug. 
9, 1929 (M.) ; Aug. 16, 1929 (M.). 
16106 Ana plitis rosea (Web.). 

Lawrence Co., Bedford, July 26, reared from Chcnopodium 
album (Marshall) ; Lawrence Co., Aug. 21, honey locust (Mus- 
grave) ; Morgan Co., June 28, wild sweet potato (Musgrave) ; 
Posey Co., 2 specimens. May 25, 1924, beating roadside bushes 
161 52 Chirida guttata yslt. lucidida (Boh.). 

Knox Co., May 17, 1924 (M.) ; 2 specimens. May 24, 1924 
(M.) ; Tippecanoe Co., May 20, 1926 (P. U.) ; Sept. 19, 1927 (P. 
U.) ; Apr. 12, 1930 (P. U.) ; May 25, 1930 (P. U.) ; June 12, 
1930 (P. U.) ; Apr. 20 (P. U.) ; May 14 (P. U. ) ; May 20 (P. 
U.) ; 3 specimens, July 19, golden rod (M. and T.) ; 3 specimens, 
Sept. 13, wild sweet potato (M. and T.). 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 11 


By E. p. Felt, Stamford, Conn. 

The following are descriptions of species brought to the writer's 
attention some years ago and which, for one reason or other, have 
not been heretofore described. 

Asphondylia mimosae n. sp. 

Female. Length 2.5 mm. Antennae probably nearly as 
long as the body, sparsely haired, light brown, the fifth seg- 
ment cylindrical, with a length five times its diameter. Palpi 
small, biarticulate, the first segment quadrate, the second one- 
half longer than the first. Mesonotum rather thickly haired, 
dark slaty brown. Scutellum yellowish brown with numerous 
long hairs at the lateral posterior angles, postscutellum a little 
darker. Abdomen rather sparsely haired, reddish brown. 
Halteres yellowish transparent. Coxae yellowish brown. 
Legs mostly dark straw, the tarsi somewhat darker. The ovi- 
positor as long as the body. 

Exuvium. Length 3 mm. Mostly a rather uniform reddish 
brown, the thorax distinctly more yellowish. 

Gall. This appears to be a somewhat swollen, fusiform 
bud with a length of 6 mm. and a diameter of 2.5 mm., the 
exuvium protruding from near the tip of the gall. 

This species runs in our Key (N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 186, p. 116, 
1916) to the West Indian siccae Felt, from which it is most easily 
separated by the decidedly shorter palpi, the darker postscutellum 
and the lighter color of the legs. 

The material was labelled as being reared from Mimosa, July 
18, 1912, Brownsville, Tex., Exp. 2, Webster No. 6467, and was 
received under date of January 24, 1922, from Dr. W. R. Walton 
as the material from which Ceratoncura pretiosa Gahan was reared. 
The host of this parasite may have been the gall midge or another 
insect, apparently a Cynipoid. It was not found possible to secure 
the botanical name of the host. There were six specimens of the 
galls and four midges, apparently all females and exuviae which 
comprised the sending. 

Types in the U. S. National Museum. 

Lasioptera psederae n. sp. 

Female. Length 2 mm. Antennae dark brown. The third 
to sixth segments yellowish white, the third and fourth fused 

78 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^l^ 

and the fifth with a length about three-quarters its diameter, 
21 or 22 segments. Palpi whitish, transparent. The first and 
second segments with a length one-half greater than the diam- 
eter, the third longer than the second and the fourth about 
twice the length of the third. Mesonotum a nearly uniform 
dark brown, sparsely haired, the anterior-lateral margins 
sparsely white scaled. Scutellum dark brown, postscutellum 
yellowish brown. Abdomen with the basal segments thickly 
white scaled ; the other segments a nearly uniform dark brown 
and sparsely margined posteriorly with dull yellowish scales. 
Ovipositor probably nearly as long as the body, yellowish, the 
terminal lobes narrowly oval. Costa dark brown, the third 
segment uniting with the margin at the basal half. Legs 
mostly dark brown, the articulations of the tibiae and tarsi 
narrowly ringed with yellowish white. Tarsi dark brown, the 
posterior with silvery reflections in certain lights. 

Larva. The larva is reddish yellow. "On the dorsal side 
near the caudal end there is a heavy black horn which, at its 
origin, appears to be under the skin at the base of the last seg- 
ment and which projects out through the last segment. These 
larvae lie in their cells with the head towards the center of the 
gall." They were nearly full grown the last of April before 
the plants were in leaf. The change to the pupa occurs about 
the middle of May. 

Gall. "These galls are corky formations about half an inch 
in diameter and varying from almost round to long galls, some 
being an inch or more in length. . . . The general position of 
the larval cell is, as a rule, in a plane almost perpendicular to 
the long axis of the gall which is the same as the course of 
the woody portion of the root. They are arranged in an ir- 
regular order close to the wood of the root." 

This species runs in our Key (N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 198, p. 108, 
1917) to Lasioptcra farinosa Beutm., from which it may be most 
easily separatecl by the yellowish white third to sixth antennal seg- 
ments and the dark brown scutellum. Described from one dried 
female reared in June, 1924, by Joseph A. Reeves, then at the Ohio 
State University, Columbus, from a root gall on Virginia Creeper. 
The type is in the New York State Museum. The above quoted 
descriptions of the larva and the gall are from Mr. Reeves' notes. 
The describer is unable to offer an explanation for the peculiar 
structure he observed near the caudal end of the larva. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 79 


By a. C. Davis, Takoma Park, Md., and K. D. Sloop, 
Berkeley, Calif. 

It has been known for some time that some rather rare beetles 
might be captured in the spring of the year by examining the en- 
trances of the burrows of the California ground squirrel, Citellus 
bcechyi beechyi (Richardson). As far as we could learn, none of 
these burrows had ever been excavated for the purpose of collect- 
ing insects, hence the present paper. 

In most parts of Orange County, California, the burrows are 
made in adobe that is almost as hard as brick, and their excavation 
was impossible in the limited time at our disposal. In the vicinity 
of Cypress, California, however, in the spring of 1930, we found a 
field that had evidently been overlooked in the annual poisoning 
campaign against the squirrels, since it contained upward of 75 
burrows, most of them occupied. The soil was a light sandy loam, 
and the water here comes within 2 or 3 feet of the surface of the 
ground, insuring against having to dig down 6 feet or so to reach 
the nest. In this field we dug out nine burrows, exploring them as 
thoroughly as possible. In addition to this, the loose dirt was re- 
moved and carefully sifted from the inside of possibly 50 more 
burrows for as far as we could reach. 

In general these ground squirrel burrows are from 2.5 to 3.5 
inches in diameter, radiating from the vicinity of the nest chamber, 
with many turns and blind passages. The total length of the vari- 
ous galleries varies from a few feet to 100 feet or more. The nest 
chambers are usually although not always, at the ends of short lat- 
eral passages from the main galleries. The nests are made of dry 
grass, grass-roots, etc. An excellent account of the burrows and 
nesting habits of the squirrels is given by Grinnell and Dixon (i). 

When one nest chamber becomes uncomfortable for one reason 
or another (probably on account of accumulation of vermin and 
rubbish) the squirrel moves out and constructs a new nest. The 
old chamber is then used as a dump for deposition of faeces and 
rubbish. It is in these rubbish, or dung chambers, that the great- 
est numbers of insects are taken, although they are also found in 
the galleries and in the occupied nest chamber. 

The present list is by no means complete — it barely grazes the 

80 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o'- -^-Z^IZ 

surface of the subject, in fact — but contains some records that we 
hope will be of interest. Coleoptera predominate in the nests, but 
such other insects as came our way were taken and preserved. 


Lasiopogon bivittatus Loew. One specimen of this small fly was 
taken within a burrow at Cypress, on February 22. Its presence 
here was probably accidental. 

Pseudoleria pectinata Loew. Cypress. February and March. 
Two specimens were taken in the burrows and numerous others 
were seen about the entrances. It is common to see these insects 
rise from the burrows and fly a few feet as one approaches. 

Pegomyia ruficeps Stein. This fly is apparently a normal in- 
habitant of the burrows. Numerous larvae and pupae were found 
in the dung chambers and one adult was reared from a puparium 
so secured. 

These three species were identified by Mr. C. W. Johnson. 

Other flies of at least three species are commonly seen about the 
entrances of the burrows, but whether or not these go into the pas- 
sages is not certain. 


Fleas are very common throughout the galleries and especially so 
in the beds. There must be 300 or 400 to a burrow. On warm 
days they may be seen about the entrances. McCoy (2, pp. 46-47) 
reports Ceratophyllus acutus Baker and Hoplopsyllus anomalus 
Baker as commonly infesting ground squirrels in California, and 
has proven the former to be a carrier of bubonic plague from 
squirrel to squirrel ; and, since these fleas will bite man upon occa- 
sion, they are perfectly capable of transmitting the disease from 
squirrel to man. There have been cases of persons contracting 
bubonic plague in California under circumstances that conclusively 
pointed to squirrels as the carriers. 


A number of specimens of a small wasp, parasitic upon the 
larvae of flies within the dung chambers, were secured in Cypress. 

Upon various occasions and in several localities large ants, prob- 
ably of the genus Formica, were seen carrying fly pupae and larvae 
from the holes. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 81 


Of this order 21 species were taken, 3 of which are probably 
pecuHar to the burrows, at least in the larval stages, and 7 of which 
seem to be regular inhabitants, although found also in other places. 

Ainara insignis Dej. Two specimens were found in the main 
gallery of a burrow at Cypress, February 22. Probably the bur- 
row served them merely as a temporary refuge during daylight. 

Ptomaphagns calif orniciis Lee. Several specimens were taken 
from the dung chamber of a burrow at Cypress in February, and a 
number more were sifted from the dirt from within the entrances 
of burrows on different dates. Two were taken from near the en- 
trance of a burrow in Santa Ana Canyon in February. This beetle, 
while probably not confined to the burrows, is undoubtedly a regu- 
lar inhabitant of them. 

A number of Staphylinidae, mainly Aleocharini, were taken 
from 1929 to 1 93 1 about the burrows in various localities. They 
occur commonly in the nest and dung chambers. None of these 
have been determined. 

Hister sexstriatus Lee. Cypress, February 22. One specimen 
found in the dung chamber of a burrow. 

Hister umbilicatus Csy. Cypress, February 22. One specimen. 

Saprinus pectoralis Lee. Cypress, February. Several specimens 
taken from the dung chambers of various burrows. 

Saprinus obscurus Lee. This species was very numerous in all 
the burrows examined, and especially so in the dung chambers. 
This and the two following species are apparently regular inhabi- 
tants of the burrows, although not peculiar to them. 

Saprinus sp. Cypress. Very numerous in the dung chambers. 
Of this, Mr. H. C. Fall says in a letter, "... a form between 
paeminosus and obscurus and represented in the Leconte collection 
by examples placed with obscurus. . I am inclined to believe, how- 
ever, that it is a variety of paeminosus." 

Saprinus paeminosus Lee. Cypress. Very numerous along the 
galleries and in the nest and dung chambers. It appears either 
that this and obscurus may be one very variable species or that they 
are naturally hybridizing in the burrows. 

Notoxus cavicornis Lee. One pair found in a burrow at Cypress 
in the material of the nest. Their presence was probably acci- 

Metoponium convexicoUe Lee. Santa Ana Canyon, March i. 
Three specimens taken near the entrance to a burrow. 

82 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^°^- ^^^^ 

Blapstinus sulcatits Lee. Three or four specimens found near 
the entrance of a burrow in Santa Ana Canyon, March 3. 

Eleodes dentipes Esch. Numerous in burrows everywhere. At 
Cypress about 20 specimens were found closely packed into a lat- 
eral gallery about 4 inches long. It is almost sure tliat although 
these Tenebrionidae, and especially Eleodes, regularly use the bur- 
rows as retreats during daylight, they are not otherwise associated 
with them. 

Aphodius granarius CL.) . Cypress, February and March. Two 
specimens were found in the entrances to two burrows. 

Aphodius I'widiis (Oliv.). Several specimens were taken at Cy- 
press, at Costa Mesa, and in Santa Ana Canyon, in the entrances 
of burrows. 

Aphodius rugatus Schm. Cypress, Costa Mesa, and various 
other localities, from late fall to early spring. In February, at Cy- 
press, only a few specimens were found in the lower galleries, most 
occurring within 3 feet or so of the entrances. A few specimens 
were taken in the dung chambers. There were so many Scara- 
baeid larvae of different sizes in the chambers that it could not be 
determined definitely whether or not those of rugatus were pres- 
ent, but it seems fairly certain that the main brood emerges in the 
late fall, after the first rains. These pretty little beetles may be 
taken all through the winter and early spring about the entrances 
of the burrows. They have been in nearly every burrow examined, 
and as many as five have been taken from the entrance to a single 
burrow. They may also be found under bricks, boards, etc., at 
some distance from any burrow, after the first soaking rain in the 
fall (see H. C. Fall, Ent. News, VI; 1895, p. 108). This species 
is without doubt a regular inhabitant of the burrows and in all 
probability breeds nowhere else. 

Aphodius rubidus Lee. This beetle is not uncommonly taken in 
flight on warm days in all parts of southern California, but we are 
not aware that its breeding place has heretofore been recorded. It 
was found in large numbers in the galleries and dung chambers of 
all the burrows opened at Cypress, and larvae and newly emerged 
adults were taken from the dung chambers and the soil immedi- 
ately surrounding them. More than 200 adult specimens were 
taken from a single burrow. The species is vmdoubtedly peculiar 
to the burrows in its immature stages. 

Aphodius ungulatus Fall. Cypress, February. Two specimens 
were taken by sifting the dirt about the burrow entrances and sev- 
eral more were found in the galleries and dung chambers. In all, 
enough of this species was found to demonstrate fairly well that 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 83 

it is a regular inhabitant of the burrows. As nothing has been re- 
corded of the habits as far as we can find, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that it may be peculiar to the burrows in its early stages. 

Trox atrox Lee. Taken in small numbers at Cypress and Costa 
Mesa on several dates. It was present in nearly all burrows ex- 
amined, and seems to be a regular inhabitant, although found else- 

Trigonoscuta pilosa Mots. Two specimens. Cypress, February. 
Being a feeder upon grass roots and therefore subterranean, its 
presence here is not to be wondered at, although it probably has no 

Calendra granaria (L.). One specimen, Cypress. 

Aphodiiis luxatus Horn. Was said by Mr. A. T. McClay, if a 
conversation with him is remembered correctly, to occur about the 
entrances to burrows at Berkeley, California. 

The Coleoptera mentioned above were all identified by Mr. H. 
C. Fall, with the exception of Aphodius luxatus Horn. 

The best time to investigate the burrows is in the winter and 
early spring after the rains have soaked and softened the ground. 
There is very little in the way of collecting to be done at this time 
of the year, so the collector does not feel that he is working hard 
for rather meager results, or that he might be more profitably em- 
ployed elsewhere. 

Literature Cited. 

1, Grinnell, J., and Dixon, J. 1918. Natural History of the 

Ground Squirrels of California. Monthly Bui. Calif. 
State Comm. Hort., 7: 11-12, 597-708. 

2. McCoy, G. W. 191 1. Studies upon Plague in Ground Squir- 

rels. U. S. Public Health Bui. 43, 71 pp., illus. Wash- 
ington (Printing Office). 

Note on Heteroptera in Wood Rat Nests. — The few bugs 
taken under like conditions by Mr. Davis were sent to me for nam- 
ing. There were three species, of no ecological significance. One 
was the aradid Mcaira cmargiuata Say ; and one each of the two 
lygaeids CropJiins augitstatns Van Duz. and an undetermined spe- 
cies of Ereiiwcoris (not ferns Say). The first species named lives 
under loose bark of dead trees; possibly it was in a casual hiber- 
naculum, since I have thus found Aradiis robusfus Uhler under 
fallen leaves in winter. Of the other two, Crophius is a denizen 
of grasses and field weeds. — J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, White 
Plains, N. Y. 

84 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^Z. XXIX 


The History of the Entomological Society of London, 1833- 

1933, by S. A. Neave and F. J. Griffin, with an Introduction 

by E. B. Poulton and a Financial Chapter by A. F. Hemming. 

(Pp. i-xxviii + 1-224, pis. I-VH. (Pubhshed by the Society, 

London, 1933). 

This is a fascinating record of one of the great (if not the great- 
est) entomological societies of the world, of its vicissitudes, its 
successes and its accomplishments. It contains the honored names 
of the Rev. F. W. Hope, of John Obadiah Westwood, W. B. 
Spence, and J. Curtis among its founders. Other great and out- 
standing names in its roll are Charles Darwin, the Rev. Wm. 
Kirby, James F. Stevens, Thomas Wollaston, H. T. Stainton, 
Robert McLachlan, H. W. Bates, Lord Walsingham, G. H. Ver- 
rall, F. C. Godman, Eleanor Ormerod, Osbert Salvin, G. C. 
Champion, Lord Avebury (Sir John Lubbock)^ all now gone from 
the scene of their labors. To mention those living now would be 
to recite the tale of the great British leaders of the science, led by 
Dr. E. B. Poulton. 

The low ebb of the Society was between the years 1856 and 1870, 
when dissension of one kind or another existed in its ranks. Since 
the latter date, however, harmony and progress have distinguished it. 
It now owns its own home, with a beautifully appointed meeting 
room. Its finances, weak in the formative period, under able man- 
agement, are now most flourishing. 

Today, the Society publishes three ranking journals — the Pro- 
ceedings, the Transactions and Stylops. 

A most interesting part of the record is the list of members with 
their years, from its foundation, when it had some thirty or forty, 
until in 1933 when it had 685 Fellows. 

The plates include portraits of Kirby, Westwood and Poulton. 

Methods for the Study of the Internal Anatomy of Insects, by 
Clarence H. Kennedy. (Pp. 1-103, numerous figures, not num- 
bered. C. H. Kennedy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

This work of Dr. Kennedy's is an extremely useful compendium 
for the dissection of insects for the study of their minute anatomy, 
of methods of preparing the tissues, and of devices for studying 
them. It does not start by assuming that the user possesses any 
previous knowledge of the subject, hence all directions are lucid 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 85 

and complete. It also gives directions for preserving, hardening, 
staining and mounting of tissues, telling the end to be attained 
and the tested way to do it. 

To the writer, the most interesting section is XI, Apparatus and 
Tools. Here are set forth in clear terms the use of the microscope, 
microtome, and camera lucida ; of methods of lighting and devices 
therefor; micrometer eye-piece, various dissecting tools (and how 
to make them), and of many others. Section XII, Concerning 
Illumination, is also most useful for the student of insects under the 
microscope ; and so is Section XIV, Drawing and Making Illustra- 
tions, including suggestions for lettering and arranging plates. A 
useful list of works on the subject and a full index complete the 

A working entomologist who meets so many minor problems 
will find this a useful work to have on his table for ready refer- 

Les Larves des Coleopteres d'apres A. G. Boving et F. C. Craig- 
head et les Grands Criteriums de I'Ordre, par P. de Peyerim- 
hofif. (Annates de la Societe Entomologique de France, CII : pp. 
77-106. March, 1933.). 

In this paper. Dr. Peyerimhoff presents a critique of the paper by 
Drs. Boving and Craighead (Entomologica Americana, vol. XI, 
1931-1932). It is divided into three parts: a resume of the work, 
a critical examination of the subject-matter and proposed classifica- 
tion, and a dififering classification by Dr. Peyerimhofif based on his 
own interpretation of the characters of the group as a whole, 
adults and larvae, and on their validity. A bibliography of the 
principal works on classification of the Order on a combination of 
various foundations closes this paper. 

Dr. Peyerimhofif is most warm in his praise of Drs. Boving and 
Craighead's monograph, as fundamental to the study and knowl- 
edge of beetle-larvae ; his discussion is purely technical and factual. 
It would appear needless to say that all who possess Drs. Boving 
and Craighead's masterly treatise should likewise have at hand Dr. 
Peyerimhofif's essay. J. R. T.-B. 

86 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL xxix 


Meeting of October 12, 1933. 

The regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held on October 12, 1933, at the Brooklyn Museum. Mr. Wm. T. 
Davis in the chair, and members present: Messrs. Engelhardt, 
Lemmer, Torre-Bueno and Wilfert; also two visitors, Messrs. 
Bird, Sr. and Jr. 

Minutes of the meeting of May 12th read and approved. 

Mr. Engelhardt gave the treasurer's report; and Mr. Torre- 
Bueno that of the Publication Committee. 

Mr. Engelhardt showed a specimen of the rare Dictyosoma elsa 

This being the first meeting of the Fall, members' summer col- 
lecting experiences were on the programme. 

Mr. Wilfert collected in North Carolina ; he will present his re- 
port more formally later. It was very difficult for him to find 
lodgings, as most houses in that section are one room huts with 
neither doors nor windows, except openings in the walls. 

Mr. Engelhardt spoke on Enodia portlandia Fabr. and E. creola 
Skin. He also mentioned the praying mantis, Paratenodera sinen- 
sis and the fall canker-worm, Alsophila pometaria Harris, the lat- 
ter having been a great pest in Westchester County in the past 

Mr. Torre-Bueno had found collecting poor in the Catskills ; his 
full report will be made later. 

On the other hand, Mr. Bird had found plenty of mosquitoes in 
the far North. 

Mr. Lemmer reported collecting in Lakehurst, N. J. It was 
especially good on October 8, with a bright moon; but earlier on 
the same evening, before moonrise, it was much poorer. 

Meeting of November 16, 1933. 

The regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held on November 16, 1933. Present: President Davis in the 
chair, and Messrs. Engelhardt, Moennich, Nicolay, Ragot, Schaef- 
f er, Shoemaker, Wurster and Lemmer ; and visitors, Messrs. Bird, 
Stecher and Dr. R. F. Hussey. Meeting called to order at 8:15 
p. m. 

Minutes of the meeting of October 12 were read and approved. 
In the absence of the Secretary, Mr. Siepmann, the Chair appointed 
Mr. Lemmer secretary pro tem. 

April, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 87 

Mr. Engelhardt for the Publication Committee reported the 
December Bulletin in press. 

He also told of visiting our one time President, Mr. Wm. T. 
Bather at his home in Nutley, N. J. 

Mr. Shoemaker showed a specimen of Macronoctua onusta, bred 
in root of lily. Mr. Wurster showed a form of Enodia portlandia. 

Dr. Hussey said he had preserved insects taken in Paraguay in 
paper tubes filled with sawdust and ethyl acetate, and that they 
could be handled later without relaxing. 

Mr. Ragot showed a walking leaf and a butterfly fish. 

Mr. Bird spoke on "The Decline of Noctuid Moths, genus Papai- 
pema, in the Eastern United States." He stated that the general 
consensus of many observers was to the effect that the Papaipema 
group as a whole were becoming exceedingly rare or totally extinct 
in localities where formerly they were abundant. He drew at- 
tention to the ease with which such observations could be checked, 
since collections in this genus were made mainly through securing 
the larvae in the field; the certainty of the prevalence of natural 
enemies or other causes against them was clearly indicated. In 
addition to the detrimental results of agricultural and industrial 
growth and a growing population, fire, through man's ruthlessness, 
was the final and most prevailing cause for the decline of this 
generic group. Specimens of the most widely separated species of 
this, the country's most outstanding noctuid genus, were shown, to- 
gether with drawings of systematic details. 

Mr. Wm. T. Davis exhibited two boxes of Cicadas of eight 
species collected in Oregon, Nevada and Utah in June and July, 
1933. Of interest was the fact that on two very warm and sunny 
days in late July Mr. Engelhardt and his companions (who col- 
lect them) noticed that Okanogodes gracilis did not commence to 
sing at Las Vegas, Clark County, Nevada, until nearly dark. In 
the Journal of the New York Entomological Society (September, 
1930). L. D. and R. H. Beamer record that they found Okanagodcs 
gracilis "singing happily in the sun when the temperature was 122° 
in the shade." Mr. Davis said that he and Mr. Engelhardt had 
found Okanagodes pallida singing in the hot sun, June 21, 1931, 
along the shore of the Salton Sea in Southern California. 

Dr. Hussey will speak on "Collecting Insects in Paraguay" at 
the next meeting. 

The meeting adjourned at 9:45 p. m. 

Frederick Lemmer, 

Sec'y pro tcm. 

88 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oL XXIX 


This one page is intended only for wants and exchanges, not 
for advertisements of articles for sale. Notices not exceeding 
THREE lines free to subscribers. Over lines charged for at 
15 cents per line per insertion. 

Old notices will be discontinued as space for new ones is 

COLEOPTERA. — Am interested in exchanging Coleoptera. 
Carl G. Siepmann, R. F. D. No. i, Box 92, Rahway, N. J. 

DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA.— Have many desirable west- 
ern species to exchange, inckiding Argynnis atossa, niacaria, mor- 
monia, inalcolmi, nokomis; Melitaea neumoegeni; Lycaena speci- 
osa; etc. Send lists. Dr. John A. Comstock, Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CATOPINI: Catops {Choleva), Prionochaeta, Ptomaphagus. 
— Wanted to borrow all possible specimens of these genera from 
North America for a revisional study. Correspondence solicited. 
— Melville H. Hatch, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 

HISTERIDAE — Desire to obtain material, all localities, for 
identification, by purchase or exchange of other families. Chas. 
A. Ballou, Jr., yy Beekman St., New York, N. Y. 

LOCALITY LABELS. — 60c per 1000, 5 in strip, i to 3 lines. 
5 sizes type. 3^ point, 75c per 1000. Good heavy paper. Prompt 
service. A. L. Stevens, 691 Culver Rd., Rochester, N. Y. 

I WILL COLLECT all orders of insects and allied groups for 
those interested. Louise Knobel, Hope, Ark. 

BUY OR EXCHANGE : Pinned Microlepidoptera and papered 
Pieridae of North America. Full data with all specimens. Named 
material of all groups offered. Alexander B. Klots, College of the 
City of New York, New York City. 

Vol. XXIX 

JUNE, 1934 


No. 3 


Brooklyn Entomological 

^^#»«'« '«%% 


[^ MAY ;. 1 1334 1^ 


J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


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Vol. XXIX June, 1934 No. 


Bv K. L. Bell, Flushing, X. ^'. 

Pyrrhopyge nigrocephala n. sp. (Plate VI, Fig. i.) 

Male. Upperside. Primaries black with a green sheen ; the 
veins l)lack. Secondaries black, with elongate green spots be- 
tween the veins, extending inwardly about one-quarter of the 
breadth of the wing; veins black. These wings narrow rapidly 
toward the anal angle, in the male, thus having an elongate ap- 
pearance, and are a little excavate on the outer border. 
Fringes of the primaries white to vein 6 and blackish from 
there to the apex ; of the secondaries white. 

Beneath. Both wings blackish with less sheen, the pri- 
maries a little paler along the inner margin. 

Body on both sides blackish. Head l)lack. Palpi beneath 
blue-black. Collar red. Shoulder covers l)lack with a red spot 
on each side in front of the base of the primaries. Tegulae 
black. Pectus and anal tuft red. Antennae black. 

Female. Similar to the male, larger, the secondaries more 
rounded, fringe of primaries darkened from apex to a little 
l)elow vein 4. 

Expanse. Male, 52 mm.; female, 6j mm. 

Holotyjie male, Colombia, in collection of the author. Allotype 
female, locality unknown, in collection of the U. S. National Mu- 
seum. \\'ashington. Ti. C. 

The uncus terminates in a slender arm. cin'ved downward toward 
the ape.x. The aedoeagus is long and slender. The clas])ers are 
bifid at the apex, the lower arm curved upward, pointed at the apex, 
serrate on the outer margin ; the upper arm is .shorter with a broad, 
somewhat rounded apex. 

This species is most nearly allied to Pyrrhopyge gellias Godman 
and Salvin, Pyrrhopyge gocera Hewitson and Pyrrhopyge gony- 


90 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

■iiiedes Bell, from which the outstanding superficial difference is in 
the black head and palpi and the lack of the projection in the outer 
margin of the secondaries found in gcllias and ganyuiedcs. 

Apyrrothrix mulleri n. sp. (Plate VI, Fig. 5.) 

Male. Upperside. Primaries blackish with a green sheen, 
a roundish scarlet spot near the base of interspace i. Fringes 
white from vein i to the apex. Secondaries black with a green 
sheen except toward the base, outer margin a little crenate with 
a noticeable excavation between veins ib and 2. Fringes white. 

Beneath. Primaries blackish with a green sheen, paler below 
vein 2, especially toward the base; a narrow orange-yellow 
basal stripe. Secondaries blackish with a green sheen ; a nar- 
row orange-yellow basal band extending from the costa to 
about the middle of the abdominal fold and produced as a 
thin ray on the upper and lower edges of the cell and on vein 
2 as far as the end of the cell. 

Thorax and abdomen above blackish-brown; abdomen be- 
neath black, banded with orange-yellow and on the lower part 
of each side with narrow, orange-yellow stripes. Head black 
with eight white spots. Collar black with four white spots. 
Shoulder co\'ers blackish-browai. Tegulae blackish with a 
small, basal orange spot. Palpi beneath blackish-brown with a 
central, oval white spot. A large white spot below each eye. 
Pectus black with some orange yellow hairs in the center. 
Legs black, striped with orange-yellow. The antennae are 
broken off. 

Expanse : 54 mm. 

Holotype male, locality unknown but possibly from Central 
America, in collection of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. Named for Mr. R. Muller, the collector. 

Most nearly allied to crythrosticta Godman and Salvin from 
which it differs superficially in the entirely different color of the 
wings, in the fringes being entirely white and not cut by darker at 
the veins, in the entire absence of all hyaline spots of the primaries 
and in the narrow orange-yellow basal area of the secondaries be- 
neath. The form of the genitalia is very similar to that of crythros- 
ticta as figured by Godman and Salvin and the two insects must be 
closely related but the superficial differences between the two are 
so great that they had best be considered distinct, for the present, 
at least. 

Telegonus xerxes n. sp. (Plate VI, Fig. 2.) 

Male. Upperside. Primaries brown, a narrow, indistinct 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 91 

pale stripe in the apical pai-t of the cell, beginning at the upper 
edge but not extending entirely across the cell, an indistinct 
pale spot in each of interspaces i, 2, 3 placed similarly to those 
found in Aclialarus albociliatus MaJMlle, except that the spot 
in interspace 3 is a little further outward than that in inter- 
space 2, a bent row of pale spots around the end of the cell, 
in interspaces 4. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, those in 7 and g are yellowish, 
that in 8 is partly hyaline. Sordid whitish scales are sparsely 
scattered over these wings. Fringes brown at the base, paler 
at the tip, which becomes whitish toward the anal angle. A 
prominent costal fold is present. 

Secondaries somewhat elongate, the anal angle produced 
into a short, rounded tail-like lobe. Same color as primaries 
with two indistinct, narrow, darker bands, one toward the base 
and the other discal. At the base and along the abdominal 
fold are long brow^n hairs, with some of a pale yellowish in- 
termixed. Fringes dark at the external angle, with a few 
white hairs intermixed, below this they are entirely white to 
around the tail-like lobe, from there to the abdominal fold 

Beneath. Paler brown than above, through the cell of the 
primaries is a longitudinal dark streak, which is divided by the 
pale spot of the upper side and this spot contains a few sordid 
white scales, the spots in interspaces i, 2, 3, are brown, larger 
than above, and have slightly paler centers and form a some- 
what curved row, the rest of the spots of the upper side are 
repeated. A narrow, paler area extends along the external 
border and is cut by darker veins (not so distinctly showai in 
one paratype) ; just before the apex to the subapical spots is a 
darker area which is continued as a narrow, ill-defined sub- 
marginal band interiorly limiting the pale marginal border. 
The extreme costal edge toward the apex is pale yellowish 
(very feebly so in one paratype) . The internal border is much 
paler yellowish-brown, which extends streak-like into inter- 
space I. A pale area between the end of the cell and the sub- 
apical spots. Secondaries a little darker than the primaries, a 
dark brown l)asal spot crossing the interspace below vein 8 
and followed outwardly by a nearly straight band of the same 
color extending from vein 8 to the abdominal fold and another 
band of equal length in the outer two-thirds of the wing which 
projects a tooth toward the middle of the cell-end and is bulged 
a little outward just below this, this band is separated by a 
narrow line of the paler ground color from the broad mar- 
ginal brown area. These wings are sparsely sprinkled with 
sordid yellowish scales, particularly in the abdominal fold. 

Body above brown intermi.xed with fulvous scales, beneath 
grayish-brown, the abdomen with the segments edged with 

92 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oJ. xxix 

sordid whitish. The anal tuft is sordid yellowish at the tip. 
Legs sprinkled with yellowish scales, in the type very heavily 
so. Palpi heneath sordid grayish with brown scales inter- 
mixed. Pectus yellowish and brown intermixed. Antennae 
rather long, brown above, narrowly yellowish beneath, the 
club pale mellow with scattered brown scales before the api- 

Expanse. 52 mm. in the tyj^e. 

Holotype male, British Honduras, in collection of the American 
JVIuseum of Natural History, New York City. Allotype female, 
Santa Rosa, Mexico, in the collection of the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, Washington, D. C. Paratypes: i male, Rancho Hannover, 
Vera Cruz, Mexico ; i male, Rinconada, Vera Crux, Mexico ; i 
male, 3 females, locality unknown but possibly Mexico, in collec- 
tion of the U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. ; i male, 
locality unknown, in collection of the Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences, Philadelphia, Pa. ; i male, Guatemala, in collection of the 

This species seems to be most nearly allied to that described by 
Mabille as Tclcgoiiis iitifliras from Porto Cabello but among other 
characters it disagrees with the description of that species in that 
there are spots on the primaries, in addition to the cell spot, in inter- 
spaces 1-9, those of mithras are said to begin between veins 5 and 
6 and extend to vein 3 ; in that the fringe of the primaries is mostly 
dark and of the secondaries is pure white, mithras being said to 
have dirty white fringes ; in that the secondaries above have two in- 
distinct bands, mithras said to be immaculate ; in that the ground 
color of the underside is distinctly brown and not blackish. The 
figure of mithras given by Mabille does not show the tail-like l()l)e 
at the anal angle of the secondaries. 

This species has been found in collections under the name Aclia- 
lants albociUatus Mabille, which it resembles but from which it may 
readily be separated by the costal fold of the male, which albocUia- 
tits lacks, and the more elongate secondaries with the short tail-like 

The uncus terminates in two slender arms, a little hooked at the 
apex. The scaphium is well developed and rather long. The aedo- 
eagus carries a long, slender internal spine at about the center. The 
claspers are rather long and slender, the ventral edge of the termi- 
nal arm is angled outwardly at the base, turned obliquely upward 
toward the apex into a rounded, serrate flange, back of which, on 
the dorsal edge, is a prominent tooth-like projection directed ob- 
liquely inward. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Kntomoloyiral Socictij !)8 

Bungalotis sc5^rus n. sp. (Plate Vl, Fig. 3.) 

Male. Upperside. Primaries red- fulvous, the outer half 
suffused with blackish-hrown ; a black spot in the cell near the 
end; two short, black stripes in the outer three-quarters of in- 
terspace I : a hyaline spot in the center of interspace 2, not 
reaching either veins 2 or 3, its outer edge straight, the inner 
edge rounded ; a minute hyaline spot toward the base of inter- 
space 3, both of these hyaline spots prominently encircled with 
black ; a black dot in interspace 4 ; a suba])ical series of four 
spots in an oblique line in interspaces 5-8. that in 5 small and 
black, that in 6 larger and white hyaline, that in 7 very minute 
and white hyaline, that in 8 black with a pale center so minute 
that it can only be seen under a lens, the spots in 6 and 7 are 
encircled with black. Secondaries red- fulvous, the costal area 
above vein 6 blackish-brown ; a black cell dot ; a sinuous line 
of seven black dots in the outer three-quarters of the wing, 
forming a transverse band, the upper dot lying in the darkened 
costal area. Fringes of both wings brown, darkest at the base. 

Beneath. Color as above but duller. Primaries with the 
apical and outer marginal area much darkened and the inner 
marginal area to the center of interspace i pale yellow fulvous. 
The spots of the upperside repeated. Secondaries with the 
outer third of the wings darkened ; the black spots of the u])- 
perside repeated and in addition two spots between veins 7 and 
8 and an irregularly shaped one between veins 2 and 3 in a 
line with the cell spot. X^early all of these spots have a pale 

Head, palpi (except the l)lack tip), body above and beneath. 
legs, are red-fulvous. Beneath the eyes yellowish. Antennae 
black abo^■e, beneath yellow, on each side yellow spotted at the 
joints, the club yellow. 

Expanse 50 mm. 

Holotype male, Yumbatos, Peru, in collection of the author. 

This species resembles scbnts Felder but the anal angle of the 
secondaries is more prolonged, the two black dots in interspaces 4 
and 5 and the pale inner marginal area of the primaries beneath are 
not present in any of the sj^ecimens of schnis at hand, the yellowish 
spots below the eyes where scbnts is white. 

The form of the male genitalia is strikingly dift'erent from that 
of sehnis, the uncus being much shorter, the saccus much longer, 
the narrow terminal arm of the claspers ending in a stout hook, in 
schnis the terminal arm is broad and obliquely truncate at the apex, 
the aedoeagus carries a long line of short internal spines, which are 
absent in sebnts. 

94 Bulletin of the Brrjokhjn Entomological Society T'oLXXIX 

Discophellus porsena n. sp. (Plate VI, Fig. 4.) 

Male. Upperside. Both wings rusty-red. Primaries with 
apical and outer marginal areas darkened ; a small, barely dis- 
cernible brown spot near the end of the cell ; two small black 
spots, one above the other, in the basal third of interspace i. 
the lower one a little the larger and with three or four white 
scales in the center; two similarly placed ones half way be- 
tween the first two and the outer margin of the wing ; a larger 
black spot in interspace 2, directly over the outer pair just 
mentioned, crescent shaped and with a few central white 
scales ; in the center of interspace 3 is another crescent shaped 
black spot which is rather hazy as it lies in the darkened area 
of the wing ; an indistinct black dot near the base of interspace 
6. Secondaries with the costal margin above vein 8 pale yel- 
lowish-brown, between veins 6 and 8 black; a black spot near 
the end of the cell and an outer row of five black spots. 
Fringes brownish a little paler at the tip. 

Beneath. Primaries brown, the costal margin in the basal 
half, the cell and below it as far as vein 2 with rusty-red hairs, 
duller than above ; inner margin a little paler, especially toward 
the base. The only one of the spots of the upperside is that 
near the base of interspace 6, which is dimly visible. Sec- 
ondaries with costal area and outer margin brown with a few 
rusty-red scales, balance of the wings dull rusty-red ; a black- 
spot in the cell-end and two just below it, the upper one of 
which has a few white scales in the center ; an outer band of 
six black spots of nearly equal size in an even and slightly 
curved row, all of which except the upper one, which is a little 
smaller, have a few white scales in the center. 

Body on both sides, head, palpi beneath and legs rusty-red, 
the palpi a little paler in tone. Behind the eyes yellowish- white. 
Antennae rusty-brown above, fulvous beneath, partly ringed 
with black, the club black above, yellowish at the base with 
black transverse stripes, beneath reddish-brown. 

Expanse : 62 mm. 

Holotype male, Iquitos, Peru, in collection of the author. 

This species resembles porcius Felder in having the slight pro- 
jection in the outer margin of the secondaries at the end of vein 2 
but dififers from that species in lacking the hyaline cell spot of both 
primaries and secondaries, in the outer band of spots of the pri- 
maries being composed of separate spots and not forming an irreg- 
ular, connected black line, in the less curved outer band of spots 
of the secondaries, beneath in the paler color of the rusty-red areas, 
in the outer band of spots of the secondaries being of nearly equal 
size in a less curved row, in the fringes being darker. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Bruollijn Enfoinologiral Society 9o 

In addition the form of the genitaha is distinct. From sebaldus 
Cramer it differs in lacking the numerous hyaHne spots of that spe- 
cies. It does not agree with the brief description of fidvins Plotz 
or the remarks on the male of that species by Draudt in Seitz, 
Macrolepidoptera. vol. v. Porscua bears some resemblance to the 
Mabille and Boullet figure of diapJiorus {dioplionts Moschler) but 
differs above in the darker color, darkened apical and outer mar- 
ginal areas of the primaries, the broad, black costal marginal 
area of the secondaries, in the uncheckered fringes, and on 
the secondaries beneath in the alined and not broken outer band 
of spots, in the lack of the two spots above vein 7 and in the ab- 
dominal fold not being paler than the rest of the wing. 

The uncus is long and slender as is also the girdle, the saccus 
short, the claspers are long and broad, the apex broad with a short 
outward projecting flange at the dorsal edge carrying a few short 
serrations which extend a little way inwardly. The aedoeagus is 
long and carries a very heavy cluster of internal spines. 

Explanation of Plate YI. 

Male genitalia. 

Figure i. Pyrrhopyge nigrocephala n. sp. Colombia. Type. 

Figure 2. Telegonus xcrxes n. sp. Guatemala. Paratype. 

Figure 3. Bungalotis scyrus n. sp. Yumbatos, Peru. Type. 

Figure 4. Discopliellus porsena n. sp. Iquitos, Peru. Type. 

Figure 5. Apyrrothrix nudlcri n. s^. Locality? Type. 

Richardia telescopica Gerst. found in Costa Rica. (Diptera, 
Ortalidae). — This species was originally described in i860 from 
a single male specimen collected in Brazil. It was redescribed 
from the type by Hendel in 191 1. The male is characterized by 
having a most extraordinarily developed head in the form of a 
slender cylinder, transversely placed, with eyes at the extremities. 
The head measures 11.5 mm. across, while the entire fly is but 8.5 
mm. in length. The thickened, spinose, hind femora with the small, 
shallow, oval depression in the upper surface and the Psila-like 
wing fracture are characteristic features. The insect was collected 
by Dr. J. C. Bradley on May 31, 1924, along a trail near Soretka in 
a dense forest on a slope ascending the mountain ridge between two 
valleys. — O. A. Johannsen, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Bull. B. E. 8., Vol. XXIX, Xo. 3 

Plate VI 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Urooklifii Entomological Society 97 


By Herman C. Moexnicii, Little X'eck. L. I., N. Y. 

On June 3, 1933, I hung a pail baited with dissolved maple sugar 
in a forest near Alpine, N. J., to see what specimens could be thus 
collected in that locality. It was hung about six feet from the 
ground in a small oak tree. 

The pail was visited about every two weeks and the catch taken 
therefrom. The variety of species taken were few, but the numbers 
of several of the rare species taken shows the importance of bait- 
ing if the collector wants to obtain a good census of the insects in 
a locality. 

The first visit was made on June 10, when four specimens of 
Coloptcrns uiacidatiis, Er., and one GUslirocliilits obfusiis, Sal., were 
taken from the pail ; the last named species was not taken again 
until July 29th, when thirty-two specimens were found in the pail 
and again on August J2th, when eight were taken, making a total 
of forty-one specimens of what is considered quite a rare beetle. 

Cryptarcha strigata, Fab., is considered fairly rare. Of this 
species five were taken on June 24 and were not taken again until 
August 12 when three were found, making a total of eight speci- 

My collecting by this method was short when some one delib- 
erately took the pail from the tree and probably did away with it as 
it was not to be found in the locality. The last insects were taken 
from the pail on Aug. 12. 

The following is a complete list of the insects collected in this 
way : — 


Silpha inaequalis Fab., July 29, 1933, i specimen. 


Xcopyrochroa flabcllata Fab., June 24, 1933, 2; July 29, 1933, 
2 ; a total of 4. 

Hcmicrcpidiiis bilohotus Say, July 29, 1933, I. 


Colopterus niaculatus Er., June 10, 1933, 5 ; July 2, 1933, 4; Aug. 
12, 1933,4; a total of 13. 

98 Bulletin of the HroulUjn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

Cryptarclia oiiipla Er., June 24. 1933, 5 ; July 2, 1933, i ; July 29, 
1933' 7; -'^"g- 1-2, 1933. 10; a total of 23. 

Cryptarclia strigata Fal).. June 24, 1933, 5; Aug. 12, 1933. 3; a 
total of 8. 

Glischrochilus obfusus Say, June 10, 1933, i ; July 29. 1933, 32; 
Aug. 12, 1933, 8; a total of 41. 


DerobracliHS bninueus Forst., Aug. 12, 1933. i. 
Leptura rubrica Say. July 12, 1933, i. 

Turpentine Orchards as a collecting ground for Coleoptera. 

— During the summer months when the rosin is flowing freely 
from the recently blazed long leaf pines and the cups are filled with 
juice, these make prolific insect traps. 

With a penknife and a pocket full of pill boxes the beetles, 
caught in flight like flies on tanglefoot, may be cut out rosin and 
all, or dipped out of the cups, filling and lalielling box after box 
with specimens. 

These boxes may be stored for an indefinite length of time until 
ready for cleaning and mounting, then the whole sticky mass is dis- 
solved in spirits of turpentine, the specimens lifted out and given 
one or more baths in turpentine and a final bath in alcohol, dried on 
some absorbent paper until ready for pin or point. 

Specimens treated this way are never subject to attack by pests 
or mold, the bane of all humid climate collections. 

Many rare nightflying species have been taken this way such as : 
Hellitouiorpha, several species; Scaphinus inuficus, Capes capitata. 
Zenoa, Cvaiatodcra. Elateridae, Buprestidae and a host of other 
insects, which ecologically belong in a pine forest. 

Try the stunt sometime ; it's a sticky, grimy job ; but at all events 
your lunch won't give you any trouble, as in some collecting jobs I 
know of. — H. P. LoDiNG, Mobile, Ala. 

Disinfection of collections. — Sometimes collections, even in 
the Eastern United States, suffer from mold, not to mention 
Anthrenus. A French publication offers the following formula for 
disinfection: chloroform, 10 gms. ; carbolic acid crystals, 5 gms. ; 
beechwood creosote, 5 gms. ; paradichlorbenzene. 5 gms. ; oil of 
mirbane (nitrobenzene, or nitrobenzol) , 79 gms. — J. R. T.-B. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of flic Biuoklyn Entomological Society 91) 



Lester I. AIusgrave/ Martinsville, Indiana. 

Blatchley in his "Heteroptera of Eastern North x^nierica" re- 
cords 148 species and varieties of Miridae as occurring in Indiana. 
Since then Blatchley (2)^ has added two species and Knight (3, 4) 
one species and one variety, making a total of 1 52 species and vari- 
eties known from the state at present. 

The writer has been making rather extensive collections of plant 
bugs in Indiana during the past tw'O years and wishes at this time 
to record 20 species and varieties of mirids which have not been 
reported from the state before. 

Dr. H. H. Knight, of Iowa State College, has examined all of 
the specimens upon which these records were based and has either 
named them for the writer or checked his determinations. 

In addition to the species listed as new to the state, the writer has 
taken a series of 34 specimens of Ainblytylus nasutus Kirschbaum 
from Lawrence and Morgan counties. This species was described 
by Blatchley (2) as A. vanduceci, but Knight (5) showed that it is 
A. uasutns, a European species. This is the third time that this 
species has been reported from the United States. 

The initials of the collector are placed in parentheses after the 
collection data. These collectors and their initials are : H. O. Deay 
— H. O. D., G. E. Gould— G. E. G., L. I. Musgrave— L. I. M., C. 
M. Packard— C. M. P., and A. \\. Trippel— A. \\'. T. 

Miridae New to Indiana. 

PlaiytylcUus frafcrmts Knight, 1923. i specimen on willow, Mor- 
gan Co., June 21, 1932 (L. I. M.). 

Phytocoris erectus Van Duzee, 1920. i specimen. Morgan Co., 
July 9, 1 93 1 (L. I. M.) ; i specimen Lawrence Co.. Aug. 21, 
1932 (L. I. M.). 

P. hrcviusciilus Reuter, 1876. i specimen on Scotch pine, Sept. 21 
(L. I. M. and H. O. D.), and i specimen at light, Sejit. 25, 
1932, Tippecanoe Co. (L. I. M.). 

^ Contribution from the Entomological Laboratories, Purdue 
University. The data used here were gathered by the writer dur- 
ing the preparation of his undergraduate thesis under the super- 
vision of H. O. Deay. 

- Numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited. 

100 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

Diclirooscytus viridicans Knight, 1918. 71 specimens, on red 
cedar, Sept. 21, 1932 (L. I. M. and H. O. D.) ; 11 specimens, 
on red cedar, Oct. 13, 1932 (L. I. M.), Tippecanoe Co. 

Horcias dislocatus gradus Knight, 1923. i specimen, Morgan Co., 
June 28, 1932 (L. I. M.). 

H. dislocatus uigriclaviis Knight, 1923. i specimen, Morgan Co., 
May 29, 1932 (L. I. M.). 

Capsits atcr semiflavns Linnaeus, 1758. 2 specimens, on dewber- 
ries, St. Joseph Co., June 15, 1932 (A. W. T.) ; i specimen, 
Tippecanoe Co., June 11, 1932 (L. L M.). 

Xcohoriis canadensis (Van Duzee, 1912). i specimen, Morgan 
Co., May 29, 1932 (L. I. M.). 

Ceratocapsus fasciatiis (Uhler, 1877). i specimen on wild grape. 
St. Joseph Co., Aug. 21, 1932 (A. W. T.). 

C. uniforiiiis (Knight, 1927). i specimen on ehn, Lawrence Co., 

Aug. 2, 1932 (L. L M.). 
Lopidea marginalis (Renter, 1909). i specimen, Clark Co., July 

26, 1931 ; I specimen, Morgan Co., July 14, 1931 (L. L M.). 
DiapJinidia pellncida (Uhler, 1895). i specimen, Morgan Co., 

June 13, 1932 (L. L M.). 

D. capitata (Van Duzee, 1912). 3 specimens, on hickory and mul- 

berry, Lawrence Co., Aug. 21, 1932 (L. L M.). 
OrtJiotylus ornaius (Van Duzee, 1916). i specimen, Kosciusko 

Co., May 25, 1932 (G. E. G.). 
0. modestns (Van Duzee, 1916). i specimen, Alorgan Co., June 

20, 1931 (L. L M.). 
Cainptobrochis poccilus (McAtee, 1919). i specimen, Tippecanoe 

Co., April 18, 1931 (L. L M.). 
Plagiognatlius dclicafits (Uhler, 1887). 2 specimens, Morgan Co., 

June 13, 1932 (L. L M.). 
P. alhifacics (Knight. 1927). i specimen, Morgan Co., June 14, 

1931 (L. LM.). 
P. salicicola dcpallcns (Knight, 1929 J. i specimen, Elkhart Co., 

June 9. 1932 (G. E. G.). 
Canipyloiiiina vcrhasci (Meyer, 1843). i specimen. Kosciusko 

Co., June 7, 1932 (G. E. G.). 
Labopidca allii (Knight, 1923). 9 specimens, on onions, Posey 

Co.. June 17, 1931 (C. M. P.) ; i specimen, St. Joseph Co.. 

June 15. 1931 (A. W. T.). This is the most eastern record 

of this species. 

L1TERATURI-: Cited. 
J. Blatchley, W. S. Heteroptera or true bugs of Eastern 

June, 1934 BiUletiu of the Brooklyn Entomological Societij 101 

North America with special reference to the faunas of In- 
diana and Florida. 1116 pp., 12 pis., 215 figs. Nature 
Publ. Co., Indianapolis, 1926. 

2. Blatchley, W. S. Notes on the Heteroptera of Eastern 

Xorth America with description of new species, I. Jour. 
X. Y. Ent. Sac. 36(1) : 1-23. 1928. 

3. Knight, H. H. Notes on the species of Polxmcnis with 

description of four new species and two new varieties 
(Hemiptera, ^liridae). Gonad. Ent. 58(7): 164-16S. 

4. Knight, H. H. Notes on the distribution and host plants 

of some North American (Hemiptera). Canad. Ent. 
59(2) : 34-44. 1927. 

5. Knight, H. H. An European plant bug {Amhl\t\lus 

tus Kirschbaum) recognized from Massachusetts (Hemip- 
tera, Miridae). Ent. N^ezvs 41(8) :• 256-258. 1930. 

Memythrus fraxini Hy Edwards, a New Record for New 
York State : — This clearwing moth, originally assigned to the 
regions of the Rocky Mountains, in recent years has been captured 
and bred in numbers by Alex K. Wyatt, Emil Beer and V. G. 
Sasko in Illinois and Wisconsin. This is a borer in Virginia 
Creeper, Anipclopsis quinqucfoUo. the larva attacking the main 
roots several inches below the ground. Pupation takes place within 
the larval galleries and the moths appear in late July and during 
August. Cultural varieties of Anipelopsis, such as Boston Ivy. 
also are attacked. 

The only previous Eastern record in the writer's collection is a 
male example collected by E. L. Bell at Ogdensburg, N. J., July 10, 


Spring cleaning in a neighbor's garden here at Hartsdale, X. Y., 
revealed a long established infestation of this borer in the up- 
rooted, common Ampelopsis. A good series of living larvae are 
now held for breeding (April 23, 1934). After years of futile 
search for the insect, isn't it amazing to find it at one's very door ! 

The females of this species run uniformly alike throughout their 
range from West to East, but the males show a striking" difference, 
those from the West having the primary wings wholly bronze-black, 
while the males from the Middle West and from the East have them 
with large transparent areas surrounding the discal mark. This 
difference has Ijeen recognized in the name Meniytlirus fraxini form 
vitriosa, restricted to the males from the Middle West and the East. 
Geo. p. ExGELH.\RnT. Hartsdale, N. Y. (April 15, 1934). 

102 Bulletin of the Broollyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 


RoBT. E. BiRDSONG. Vallejo, California. 

"All nature is a vast symbolism ; every material fact has sheathed 
within it a spiritual truth." — E. H. Chapin. 

"Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways and be wise: 
Which having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in 
the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest." — Prov. vi. 6-8. 

"The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in 
the summer." — Prov. xxx. 25. 

Ants feed on flesh, insects, and saccharine matter from trees. 
They store up corn, chafif, seeds and the like only to protect their 
nests from the damp. However, there is no denying that they sur- 
pass must insects in instinct and industry. There have been several 
of the genus Formica taken in the vicinity of Palestine. 

"They compassed about me like bees; &c. . . ." — Ps. cxviii. 12. 

There are in abundance the hive bees of England, and even more 
those of southern Europe. The allusions in the Scripture, how- 
ever, are mainly to the wild bees, which attack plunderers with 
great fury. "And the Amorites, which dwelt in that mountain, 
came out against you, and chased you, as bees do, and destroyed 
you in Seir, &c." — Deut. i. 44. 

The abundance of bees is certified by the term descriptive of 
Palestine, "flowing with milk and honey." "And all they of the 
land came to a wood; and there was honey upon the ground." — 
I Sam. xiv. 25. 

The climate and the aromatic flora of Palestine are peculiarly 
adapted for this particular insect. They are most numerous in the 
wilderness of Judaea, and they are also found in Assyria. ". . . 
and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria."— Is. vii. 18. 

Honey was one of the delicacies sent by Jacob to Egypt, and a 
commodity supplied by Judah to the market at Tyre. "And the 
same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle 
about his loins ; and his meat was locusts and wild honey." — Mat. 
iii. 4. 

I have been able to locate two species of the latter insect recorded 
for the district of Palestine; namely, Apis lucllifica and A. ligits- 

"For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the 
timber shall answer it." — Hab. ii. 11. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 103 

There seems to be some doubt as to the translation from the 
Hebrew of the word Chaphis. Gesinius and others translate the 
word "beam." In the above verse, Bochart, in his translation, ren- 
ders Chaphis as "the scarabaeus," or sacred beetle of Egypt. The 
Jews were familiar with this insect. To the Egyptians it was an 
emblem of eternity and resurrection. (See Hope, in Trans. En- 
tom. Soc, ii, 173.) 

"Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though 
your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow ; though they 
be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." — Is. i. 18. 

Tolaath, the Hebrew of Cochineal, is always translated by 
"Crimson" or "scarlet." It is literally the "crimson worm" (Arab. 
Kermez), but the latter word is omitted, because in the text the 
color, not the insect is denoted. The insect. Coccus ilicis, is a coch- 
ineal, attaching itself to the Syrian holm-oak. The male is winged, 
the female wingless ; and it is from the latter alone that the dye is 
gained. It is a dark red. The insect is about the size of the kernel 
of a cherry, but on drying it shrinks smaller than a wheat grain. 
The insect is very abundant in Palestine, though supplanted as a 
dye by the imported Mexican species, which feeds on the prickly 

"After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost 
thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea." — Sam. xxiv. 20. 

"Now therefore, let not my blood fall to the earth before the 
face of the Lord ; for the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, 
as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains." — Sam. xxvi. 

The flea is mentioned only in the two preceding verses, as an 
illustration of the most insignificant of creatures. That is hardly 
to be denied. Fleas, Pitle.v irritans, swarm in the very sand of 
Egypt, and in the dust of all parts of Palestine, the greatest pests 
of man and beast. 

"And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto Aaron, Stretch out 
thy rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice 
throughout all the land of Egypt." — Ex. viii. 16. 

Lice are only mentioned in the record of the Egyptian plague, 
and the Hebrew name is thought to be of Egyptian origin. Some 
contend that "gnats" or "mosquitoes" are meant ; but the latter 
spring from water, not from dust as stated in the preceding verse. 
Parasitic insects abound in the East, and through the summer the 
Mohammedan men keep their heads shorn to avoid them. 

104 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society '^oi.xxix 

"Else, if thou wilt not let my people go, behold, I will send 
swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and into thy 
houses : and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of 
flies and also the ground whereon they are." — Ex. viii. 21. . . . 
"He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which devoured them; 
and frogs which destroyed them." — Psalms Ixxviii. 45. 

Arob (Jewish) occurs of the plague of flies in Egypt. It is dis- 
puted whether the common house fly or mosquito is meant. Both 
are great pests in Egypt now, as also are the gad-fly and the horse- 
fly (Musca). The common fly carries the poison of ophthalmia 
from man to man, and spreads its infection. The reference here 
is probably generic, including in the "plague of swarms," flies, 
sandflies, gnats, mosquitos and other members of the related fami- 

"Dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a 
stinking savour; . . ." — Eccles. x. i. 

". . . the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part 
of the rivers of Egypt, . . ." — Is. vii. 25. 

Zebub (Jew.) is only mentioned in the above verses. The former 
is probably a gad-fly tormenting horses on the banks of the Nile or 
Jordan, incidently so pestiferous as to be deprecated by appeals to 
a special god, Baalzebub (of Ekron), whom the Jews derisively 
called "lord of the dunghill" (Baal-zebel). Probably the poison- 
ous Tsetse, described by Livingstone, is meant. The other refer- 
ence would be to the common fly, whose swarms would corrupt 
any unguent or savory compote in a few minutes. 

"Ye blind guides which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel." — 
Mat. xxiii. 24. 

The only reference to the gnat is found in the former verse, 
where the proper rendering is "strain out a gnat," a metaphor from 
the custom of straining wine before drinking. This was done to 
avoid a breach of ceremonial law, as hinted in the following verses: 

"Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth 
upon all fours, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal 
upon the earth," and "And every creeping thing that creepeth upon 
the earth shall be an abomination ; it shall not be eaten." — Lev. xi. 
21 &41. 

Gnats (Cule.v) and mosquitos are among the most prevalent 
pests of Egypt and Palestine, frequenting all marshy ground. 

Hornets (Ex. xxiii. 28) were abundant in Palestine, as indi- 
cated by the name of the valley of Zoreah (Josh. xv. 35) — "the 

June, 1934: Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 105 

place of hornets." The Bihle phraseology hetokens the dread with 
which they were regarded ; but it is conjectured that God's promise 
to drive out the Canaanites before Israel was metaphorical of a 
panic, or of the preceding plague generally, since no mention oc- 
curs in the Pentateuch of any such visitation of hornets. Four 
species (Vespa crabro, &c.) resembling ours, but larger, have been 
found there. 

The "Locust" (Ex. x. 4-6. Lev. xi. 22) includes the insects 
called in late versions by the different names : Beetle, Canker- 
worm, Caterpillar, Grasshopper, Locust, Bald-locust and Palmer- 
worm. The Rabbis say there were 800 species, but only about 
forty have been identified in Palestine. Its name, habits, ravages, 
appearances, &c., are constantly mentioned in Scripture. Nine He- 
brew words are used to express the locust species : 

1. Arbeh — Used of the Egyptian plague. (Above verses.) 

2. Salam — Probably Truxalis (Lev. xi. 22). The word is more 
than likely of Chaldean origin. 

3. Chargol — Occurs once as an edible, clean species. (Lev. xi. 
21-22.) Rendered "beetle." 

4. Chagob — Generally translated "grasshopper." From a com- 
parison of texts it is gathered that it was the smallest of destruc- 
tive locusts. 

5. Gazem — The palmer-worm. (Joel i. 4.) 

6. Yelek— The canker-worm. (Joel i. 4. Nah. iii. 15. Jer. li. 
14, 27.) 

7. Tzelatzal — Means the "tinkler" ; applied to the locust from 
the noise of its wings. (Deut. xxviii. 42.) 

8. Gob — Translated locust and grasshopper. (Is. xxxiii. 4 and 
Amos vii. i.) 

9. Chasil — Translated caterpillar, though always included in 
passages with locusts. 

The references to the moth in Scripture allude to the destruction 
of cloths by its larvae, and it is cited as a mark of the perishable 
nature of temporal things, and the folly of the prevalent eastern 
custom of hoarding costly raiment. In Job xxvii. 18, "buildeth his 
house as a moth," reference is made to some leaf rolling larvae. 
The moth is the only one of the Lepidoptera mentioned in Scrip- 
ture; but 280 species of this genus have been found, though the 
climate and absence of wood are unfa\()ral)le to l)utterflies and 

106 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

Annexed to the Teacher's Edition of the Oxford Bible is a guide 
to the study of the Bible. Contained in this are historical, chrono- 
logical and geographical tables; lists of animals, birds, insects, 
plants, minerals, &c., found in Scriptures. From this list and its 
cross references, I have gained all that is contained in the fore- 
going article. I found the subject to be most interesting and in- 
structive, and I present it to the reader hoping that he may derive 
as much from it as I did. 


H. G. Barber, Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of 

As the first true genotype designation for Cimex Linnaeus by 
Latreille in 1803 has been overlooked in Opinion 81 of Opinions 
Rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature,^ and by various authors who have discussed the question, I 
quote verbatim from the Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Na- 
turelle (Paris) XVIII, 1803, p. 577, as follow: 

"PUNAISE, Cimex, genre d'insectes de I'ordre des Hemip- 
teres et de ma famille des Cimicides. Ayant converti en famille 
le genre cimex de Linnaeus, il etoit naturel de conserver la de- 
nomination de PuNAiSE, Cimex. a I'insecte malheureusement trop 
connu qui porte ce nom. II m"a paru ridicule de voir appeler 
achanfhie ce que tout le monde nomme punaise. Le genre dont 
je traite ici a done pour type la punaise des lits (acanthia lectu- 
laria Fab.). Les cimex du celebre entomologiste de Kiell re- 
pondront a nos genres Pentatome et Scutellebe [sic]". . . . 

The next to the last sentence as translated reads : The genus which 
I have treated here has therefore for type the bed bug. 

There can be no question that this is a valid type fixation, which, 
fortunately, does not alter the opinion of the Commission of the 
International Code that Cimex must be retained for lecfiilarius Linn. 

^ Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, volume y^^, number 2 
(Publication 2747). February c), [924. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the HvookUjn Entoinological Society 107 


Robert R. Hkaton, Rushville, Indiana. 

As no work had been done on the F"ulgoridae in IncHana. the 
writer collected the insects of this group and studied them with 
much additional state material in order to discover what species 
are common to the State. This preliminary work has established 
the following list of 34 species and one variety of which only six 
have been heretofore recorded. 

In this list the initials in parentheses are for the following col- 
lectors to whom thanks are due for furnishing specimens with 
valuable records: J. J. Davis (J. J. D.), H. O. Deay (H. O. D.), 
G. E. Gould (G. E. G.), P. W. Mason (P. W. M.), B. E. Mont- 
gomery (B. E. IM.). L. I. Musgrave (L. I. M.), L. F. Steiner (L. 
F. S.), and A. W. Trippel (A. W. T.j. Records on insects taken 
from student collections are denoted bv (P. C.) and the writer's by 
(R. R. H.). 

The writer wishes to express his appreciation to Dr. E. D. Ball, 
University of Arizona, for the checking and correcting of all iden- 
tifications, and to H. O. Deay, Purdue University, for his guidance 
in this study. 

The following species are arranged according to Van Duzee's 
catalogue (i),^ although Doctor Ball's nomenclature has been re- 
tained. The county is taken as the imit for collection records. 

Subfamily Dictyophorixae. 

S col ops Schatim. 
I. Scolops siilcipcs (Say, 1825). 

Collection records: Clark Co., July 8, 1932 (P. C.) ; Knox 
Co., August 30, 1929 (B. E. M.) ; Kosciusko Co., August 
7, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; Lawrence Co., July 13, 20, 27. 1932 
(L. I. M.), 25, 1931 (B. E. AL), August 2, 21, 1932 (L. 
I. M.), 21, 1930 (H. O. D.) ; Morgan Co., July 13, 1931 
(R. R. H.) ; Porter Co., August 10, 22, 1931 (J. J. D.) ; 
Pulaski Co., July 24, 1932 (R. R. H.) : Rush Co.. July 

* Contributions from the Entomological Laboratories, Piu'due 
University. The data contained herein were compiled during the 
preparation of the writer's undergraduate thesis. 

^ Numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited. 

108 Bulletin of the Bvooldyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

i8, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; Starke Co., July 24, 1932 (G. E. 
G.) ; St. Joseph Co., July 12, August 11, 1932 (A. W. 
T.) ; Tippecanoe Co., July 11, 13, 1932 (B. E. M.), Au- 
gust 21, 1932 (H. O. D.), 21, 1932 (G. E. G.), October 
I, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; White Co., July 24, 1932 (G. E. G.). 

Seasonal range: July 8-October i. 

Notes: This species was taken from sweeping the following 
plants : corn, dewberry, and goldenrod. Specimens were 
also collected in fruit orchards and from weeds along 
river banks. This is a new record for Indiana. 

2. Scolops pitngcns (Germar, 1830). 

Collection records: Kosciusko Co., August 8, 1932 (G. E. 
G.) ; Lawrence Co., July 13, 20, 27, 1932 (L. I. M.), Au- 
gust I, 2. 1932 (L. I. M.), 27. 1931 (B. E. M.), 30, 1927 
(L. F. S.) ; Morgan Co.. July 14, 1931 (L. I. M.) ; St. 
Joseph Co., August 11, 1932 (A. W. T.) ; Tippecanoe 
Co., July 2, 1932 (G. E. G.), 11, 1932 (B. E. M.), 19, 
20, 1932 (A. W. T.). 21, 25, 1932 (H. O. D.), August 
10, 1932 (H. O. D.), 14, 1914 (J. J. D.) ; White Co., 
July 24, 1932 (G. E. G.). 

Seasonal range: July 2- August 30. 

Notes: Hosts from which taken : apple, aspai^agus, clover, 
corn, pine, and willow. A few specimens were taken in 
orchard sweepings. This species is recorded from Indi- 
ana in Van Duzee's catalogue (i). 

3. Scolops angustatus Uhler, 1876. 

Collection records: Clark Co., July 14, 1931 (P. C.) ; Law- 
rence Co., July 13, 20, 27, 1932 (L. I. M.), 25, 1931 (B. 
E. M.), August 2, 9, 1932 (L. I. M.), 21, 1930 (H. O. 
D.), 29, 1927 (L. F. S.), September 21, 1927 (L. F. S.) ; 
Rush Co., July 18, 1932 (R. R. H.). 

Seasonal range: July 13-September 21. 

Azotes: Taken from dogwood and by sweeping fruit or- 
chards and swamp weeds. Van Duzee (i) records this 
species from Indiana. 

Phylloscelis Germar. 

4. Phylloscelis atra Germar, 1839. 

Collection records: Knox Co., August 8, 1929 (B. E. M.) ; 

Lawrence Co., August 29, 1927 (L. F. S.). 
Notes: This is a new Indiana record. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 109 

Subfamily Achilinae. 
Elidiptera Spinola. 

5. Elidiptera opaca (Say, 1830). 

This species was described from Indiana by Say (2) ; but 
the writer has seen no specimens which ha\e been col- 
lected from Indiana. 

Catania Uhler. 

6. Catania nava Say, 1830. 

Callcctian records: Crawford Co., September i, 1925 (J. J. 

D.) ; Tippecanoe Co., September 26, 193 1 (R. R. H.). 
Notes: A single specimen was taken from sweeping weeds 

in a swampy wood-lot. Say (2) described this species 

from Indiana in 1830. 

7. Catania pnmila Van Duzee, 1908. 

Collection record: Lawrence Co.. August 22, 1932 (L. I. 

Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

Subfamily Cixiinae. 
Oliariis Stai. 

8. Oliarus placitus Van Duzee, 191 2. 

Collection records: Jefferson Co.. July 13, 1932 (P. C.) ;. 
Tippecanoe Co., July 19, 1932 (A. W. T.). 

Notes: The two specimens were taken from blackberry. 

Doctor Ball states that this determination is rather doubtful 
since the record is a wide departure in the distribution of 
a southern form. This is a new record for Indiana. 

9. Oliarus aridus Ball, 1902. 

Collection records: Owen Co., 1921 (J. J. D.). 
Notes: Another doubtful determination according to Doc- 
tor Ball. This is a new record for Indiana. 

10. Oliarus hmnilis (Say, 1830). 

Collection records: Lawrence Co.. .August 13, 1932 (L. I. 

Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

Pintalia Stal. 

1 1. Pintalia aspcrsa Fowler, 1904. 

Collection records: Rush Co., Julv 7. 1931, 18, 1932 (R. R. 

110 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol XXIX 

Notes: Two specimens were taken while at rest on young 
ash. Another was collected from sweeping swamp 
weeds. This is a new Indiana record. 

Cixhis Latreille. 

12. Ci.viits basalts Van Duzee, 1908. 

Collection records: Porter Co., Septemher i, 1925 (P. C.) ; 

Morgan Co., June 28, 1932 (L. I. M.), July 14, 1931 (R. 

R. H.) ; Porter Co., August 11, 1931 (J. J. D.). 
Seasonal range: June 28-September i. 
Notes: This is a new Indiana record. 

13. Cixius stigmatiis (Say, 1825). 

Collection records: Morgan Co., October 10, 1931 (L. I. 
M.) ; Tippecanoe Co., September 21, 1931 (P. C), 22, 
1932 (L. I. M.), October i, 1932 (R. R. H., L. I. M.). 

Notes: Taken by sweeping clover, potatoes, and roadside 
weeds. Tliis is a new Indiana record. 

Myndus Stal. 

14. Myndus pictifrons Stal, 1862. 

Collection records: Tippecanoe Co., ]\\\\ 10, 1922 (J. J. 


Notes: This is a new Indiana record. 

Subfamily Issinae. 

Fitchiella Van Duzee. 

15. Fitchiella robertsoni (Fitch, 1856). 

Van Duzee (i) records this species from Indiana but the 
writer has seen no specimens from this State. 

Thionia Stal. 

16. Thionia bnllata (Say, 1830). 

Collection records: Clark Co., July 12, 193 1 (P. C.) ; Craw- 
ford Co., August 30, 1926 (J. J. D.) ; Lawrence Co., Au- 
gust 21, 1932 (L. I. M.) ; Morgan Co., July 14, 1931 (R. 
R. H.). 

Notes: Taken on dogwood and from river weeds. This is a 
new record for Indiana. 

Subfamily Acanaloniinae. 
Acanalonia Spinola. 

17. Acanalonia bivitfata (Say, 1825). 

Collection records: Bartholomew Co., October 15, 1932 (H. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomoloyical Society 111 

O. D.) ; Clark Co., July 22, 1931 (P. C.) ; Crawford Co., 
August 30, 1926 (J. J. D.) ; Ifnox Co., August 8, 1929 
(B. E. M.) ; Kosciusko Co., August 7, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; 
Lawrence Co., July 13, 20, 1932 (L. I. M.), August 2, 4, 
9, 21, 29, 1932 (L. I. M.), 29, 1930 (H. O. D.), Septem- 
ber I, 1927 (L. F. S.) ; Morgan Co., October 10, 21, 1931 
(L. I. M.) ; Porter Co., August 22, 1931 (J. J. D.) ; St. 
Joseph Co., August 21, 22. 1932 (A. W. T.) ; Starke Co.. 
July 24, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; Tippecanoe Co., June 11, 1932 
(L. I. M.), July 5, 1922 (J. J. D.), II, 1922 (P. C), 19, 
20, 1932 (A. W. T.), 22, 1932 (G. E. G.), 25, 1932 (H. 
O. D.), August 10, 1932 (H. O. D.), 15, 1932 (P. C), 
September 7, 1932 (H. O. D.), 13, 1932 (A. W. T.), 22, 
25, 28, 1931 (L. I. M.), 22, 28, 1931 (P. C), 25, 1931 
(R. R. H.), October i, 1932 (R. R. H.). 

Seasonal range: June ii-October 21. 

Notes: Taken from the following plants: apple, ash, black- 
berry, black-eyed Susan, clover, corn, cottonwood, dew- 
berry, goldenrod, locust, soft maple, milkweed, morning 
glorv, and ragweed. Specimens were also swept from 
orchards, undergrowth in woods, and weeds in marshes. 
This is a new Indiana record. 
17a. Acanalonia bivitfata variety rnhcscens (jMelichar, 1901). 

Collection records: Lawrence Co., July 20, 1932 (L. L M.), 
August 21, 28, 1930 (H. O. D.), 30, 1927 (L. F. S.) ; 
Tippecanoe Co., Mav 26, 1929 (P. C), September 22. 

1931 (L. LM.). 

Notes: Captured in codling moth bait traps and swept from 
marsh weeds. This is a new Indiana record. 
18. Acanalonia conica (Say, 1830). 

Collection records: Daviess Co., June 25, 1921 (J. J. D.) ; 
Knox Co., August 8, 1929 (B. E. M.) ; Kosciusko Co., 
July 24, 1932, August 7, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; Lawrence Co., 
August 9, 1932 (L. I. M.) ; Morgan Co., July 14, 1931 
(R. R. H.) ; Rush Co., July 18, 1932, September 11, 1931 
(R. R. H.) ; St. Joseph Co., July 25, 1932, August 22, 

1932 (A. W. T.) ; Tippecanoe Co., July 11, 1922 (P. C), 
19, 1932 (B. E. M., A. W. T.), August 21, 1932 (H. O. 

Seasonal range: June 25— September 11. 

Notes: Taken from dogwood, goldenrod, locust, and weeds 

along river and swamp. Say (2) described this species 

from Indiana in 1830. 

112 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T'oLXXIX 

Subfamily Flatinae. 
Onncnis Stal. 

19. Onncnis pntinosa (Say, 1830). 

Collection records: Cass Co., July i, 1932 (H. Ramsey) ; 
Crawford Co., August 30, 1926 (J. J. D.) ; Daviess Co., 
June 25, 1921 (J. J. D.) ; Jefiferson Co., July 26, 1932 
(P. C.) ; Knox Co., August 22, 1924 (B. E. M.) ; Kos- 
ciusko Co., July 21, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; Lawrence Co., 
July 20, 1932, August 2, 21, 1932 (L. I. M.), 28, 1930 
(H. O. D.) ; Morgan Co., June 19, 1931 (L. I. M.), July 
13, 1931 (R. R. H.), August 28, 1932, September 17, 28, 
1932 (L. I. M.) ; Parke Co., August 28, 1932 (G. E. G.) ; 
Porter Co., August 11, 22, 1931 (J. J. D.) ; Rush Co., 
July 18, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; St. Joseph Co., July 25, 1932, 
August 22, 1932 (A. W. T.) ; Tippecanoe Co., June 11. 
1932 (L. I. M.), 24, 1932, 25, 1931 (P. C), July 10, 
1932 (A. W. T., B. E. M.). 17, 1922 (P. C, P. W. M.), 
19, 20, 1932 (A. W. T.), 22. 1932 (G. E. G.), 31. 1932 
(H. O. D.), August 15, 1932 (P. C), 21, 1932 (G. E. 
G., H. O. D.j, September 22, 1931, 29, 1932 (L. I. M.), 
28, 1924, October 5, 1931 (P. C). 

Seasonal range: June ii-October 18. 

A'otes: Taken from water beech, blackberry, corn, dogwood, 
hickory, mulberry, red oak, poplar, willow, and marsh 
weeds. This is a new record for Indiana. 

20. Ormenis vennsta Melichar, 1902. 

Collection records: Lawrence Co.. July 13, 1932, August 21, 
1932 (L. L M.) ; Morgan Co., August 28, 1932 (L. I. 
M.) ; Tippecanoe Co., November 20, 1932 (P. C). 

Seasonal range: July 13-November 20. 

Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

21. Ormenis scptcntrionalis (Spinola, 1839). 

Collection records: Jefiferson Co., August 8, 1932 (P. C.) ; 
Lawrence Co., August 16, 21, 1932 (L. I. M.) ; Pulaski 
Co., August 5, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; Rush Co., September 
24, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; St. Joseph Co., August 22, 1932 
(A. W, T.) ; Tippecanoe Co., June 11, 1931 (P. C), 
July 17, 1922, 20, 1932 (P. C), 20, 1932 (A. W. T.), 26, 
1932 (A. W. T., B. E. M.), August 21, 1932 (H. O. D.). 
September 22, 1931, 25, 1932 (L. I. M.), October 3, 18, 
1930 (P. C). 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 113 

Seasonal range: June ii-October i8. 

A'Otes: Taken by sweeping ash, corn, elm. wild grape, 

honey locust, maple, sycamore, willow, and marsh weeds. 

This is a new record for Indiana. 

Subfamily Derbinae. 
Cediisa Fowler. 

22. Ccdusa kcdnsa McAtee, 1924. 

Collection records: Kosciusko Co., July 8. 1932 (G. E. G.) ; 
Rush Co., July 13, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; Tippecanoe Co., 
July 12, 1932 (B. E. M.), 16, 23, 1932 (H. O. D.). 

Notes: Taken on elm, hickory, and by sweeping swamp 
w^eeds. This is a new record for Indiana. 

Amalopota Van Duzee. 

23. .hnalopota iilileri Van Duzee, 1889. 

Collection record: Crawford Co., August 30, 1926 (J. J. 

Azotes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

Anofia Kirby. 

24. Aiwtia burnetii Fitch, 1856. 

Collection records: Rush Co., September 24, 1932 (R. R. 

Notes: Taken by sweeping weeds in moist lowlands. This 
is a new record for Indiana. 

Apache Kirkaldy. 

25. Apache degeerii (Kirby, 1819). 

Collection records: Lawrence Co., August 21, 1932 (L. I. 

M.) ; Tippecanoe Co., June 27, 1912 (J. J. D.). 
Notes: Taken on maple. This is a new record for Indiana. 

Otiocerus Kirby. 

26. Otiocerus abbotii Kirby, 1819. 

Collection records: Tippecanoe Co., Tulv 12, 13, 1932 (B. 

E. M.), 14, 1932 (H. O. D.). 
Notes: Taken on hickory and maple. This is a new record 

for Indiana. 

27. Otiocerus coquebertii Kirby, 1819. 

Collection records: Clark Co., June 13, 1932 (B. E. M.). 
Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

114 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Voi.xxix 

Subfamily Delphacinae. 
Stenocranus Fieber. 
2^. Stcnocrauiis dorsalis (Fitch, 1851). 

Collection records: Rush Co., July 3, 1932 (R. R. H.). 
Notes: Taken by sweeping shrubs. This is a new record 
for Indiana. 

Stohaera Stal. 

29. Stobaera tricarinata (Say, 1825). 

Collection records: Bartholomew Co., October 15, 1932 (G. 
E. G.) ; Marion Co., October 15, 1932 (H. O. D.) ; Mor- 
gan Co., July 13, 1931 (R. R. H.), 14, 1931 (L. I. M.), 
November 7, 1932 (L. I. M.) ; Rush Co., September 17, 
1932 (R. R. H.) ; Tippecanoe Co., August 11, 1932 (P. 
C), September 10, 1932 (H. O. D.). 

Seasonal range: July 13-November 7. 

Notes: Taken on clover, corn-field weeds, and river-bank 
weeds. This is a new record for Indiana. 

Libnrniclla Crawford. 

30. Libnrniclla ornata (Stal, 1862). 

Collection records: Morgan Co., November 7, 1932 (L. I. 
M.) ; Rush Co., September 17, 1932 (R. R. H.) ; Tippe- 
canoe Co.. October 7, 1932 (H. O. D.), 8, 1932 (G. E. 

Notes: Taken from weeds in cornfield. This is a new record 
for Indiana. 

Liburnia Stal. 

31. Liburnia puclla Van Duzee, 1894. 

Collection records: Morgan Co., November 7, 1932 (L. I. 

M.) ; Rush Co., June 12, 1932 (R. R. H.). 
Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

32. Liburnia basivitta Van Duzee, 1909. 

Collection records: Rush Co., September 24, 1932 (R. R. 

Notes: Swept from grass in swamp. This is a new record 
for Indiana. 

Delphacodes Fieber. 

33. Delphacodes osborni (Van Duzee, 1894). 

Collection records: Tippecanoe Co.. September, 1912 (P. 

Notes: This is a new record for Indiana. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 115 

Peiifagraiinna Van Duzee. 
34. Pcntagrauiuia vittatifrons (Uhler, 1878). 

Collection records: Porter Co., September i, 1925 (B. E. 

Notes: This is a new Indiana record. 

References Cited. 

1. Van Duzee, E. P. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America 

North of Mexico excepting the Aphididae, Coccidae, and 
Aleurodidae. Univ. Cahf. Publ., Tech Bui. 2: 1-902. 

2. Say, Thomas. Descriptions of new North American He- 

mipterous insects, belonging to the first family of the sec- 
tion Homoptera of Latreille. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
6: 235-244. 1830. 

The Winter of 1933-34, and Insect Occurrence: — With the 
Spring season retarded well into April, we are wondering what 
effect the unusually severe winter just past has had upon our most 
obnoxious insect pests of garden and woodlands here in the East. 

The Fall and the Spring Cankerworms again should prove a 
serious problem, judging by the number of moths about in early 
winter and early spring. The tent caterpillar. Malacosouia aincri- 
cana, will be a greater nuisance than it has been in many years. 
The little white tents between the forks of branches in orchards 
and along hedgerows are forming now. If people only would take 
advantage of the habits of these caterpillars to gather in colonics 
under the tents during the day, siiuple crushing of the contents 
of each tent would prevent much trouble later on. — Geo. P. Engel- 
HARDT, Hartsdale. N. Y. 

Some interesting State Noctuid Records from the State 
Museum : — 

Philouictra hanhauii Sm. i 5 Wells, X. Y., julv 30. 1916; I $ Cen- 
ter, N. Y. July 14. 1879 (W. W. Hill Coll.)': i $ Lewis Co.. N. 
Y. July — , 1880 (W. W. Hill Coll.). 

Bleptina medialis Sm. Albany. X. ^'.. June 1882 (W. W. Hill 
Coll.) New to state list. 

Syngrapha devcrgens Hbn. Plattsburgh. X. ^^. July 21. 1893 (G. 
H. Hudson Coll.). First record of this genus for the state. 

Apatcla lanccolaria Grt. Xewport, X. V.. May 21, 1902. Xew to 
state list. 

Eriopus floridensis Gn. Two specimens bred from pupae, Lock- 
l)ort. N. Y., July 5. 1916. Probably an importation of this 
southern species. — A. Gi.kxn Rich.\rds. Jr., Rochester. X. Y. 

116 Biilletin of the Broollyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 




With the completion of vokime XXVIII of the Bulletin, our 
publication attained its majority — this is the twenty-first volume 
published since we resumed publicationwith vol. VIII in 1912. It 
also rounds out the present Editor's twenty-first year on the Pub- 
lication Committee and his fifteenth year as Editor. It therefore 
seems fitting at this time to depart from the formal stated report 
of progress and to consider historically the intervening years. 

The first number of the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Ento- 
mological Society appeared under May date in 1878. Its sub- 
scription price was 60c. per year. This first number had 8 pages, 
including one page of advertisements, and 8 additional pages, both 
parts consecutively numbered from page i to page 8; in fact, these 
were tzvo complete May numbers, separately paged and not iden- 
tical. The first Editor was F. G. Schaupp. This first volume ran 
to 96 plus 8 pages. The last volume of the original Bulletin was 
vol. VII, under the editorship of John B. Smith. Its last number 
was for March and April, 1885, with 85 pages; the whole volume 
ran to 160 pages. The Bulletin was then discontinued and 
merged with Papilio to form Entomologica Americana. The 
last named endured 6 years, a continued life for the publication 
under two names, of 13 years, after which the Society went into 
hibernation until 1900, when it once more resumed activity. 

In 1912, 22 years ago, the Bulletin was revived. The first 
number was for October of that year — no. I, vol. VIII. This vol- 
ume ran to 7 numbers, to bring the volumes to coincide with the 
calendar year. The next volume, vol. IX, began with the number 
for February, 1914, as no. i. From that time to this date we have 
published five numbers each year. 

Volume VIII had for its first Editor Mr. Charles L. Pollard ; 
the other members of the Publication Committee being Mr. C. 
Schaeffer and J\Ir. Robert P. Dow, then our Secretary. Mr. Pol- 
lard resigned in February, 191 3, after getting out the first two 
numbers of vol. VIII. He was succeeded on the Committee by 
Mr. J. R. de la Torre-Bueno on February, 13, 191 3, twenty-one 
years ago at this time. Mr. R. P. Dow took over the editorship 
succeedincf ]\Ir. Pollard. Mr. Bueno assisted Mr. Dow in various 

* Read at the February, 1934, meeting of the Society. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entouiological Society 117 

minor editorial matters, mainly in soliciting advertisements. In 
November, 1918, because of failing health, Mr. Dow resigned the 
editorship, after five years of service. The present Editor took 
charge with the number for December, 1918. With the completion 
of vol. XXVIII, for 1933, he has rounded out 15 years as Editor 
of the Bulletin and later of Entomologica Americana and of 
the 3rd edition of the Glossary. The new Bulletin has now at- 
tained its majority, having been in continuous pul)lication for over 
twenty-one 3'ears. 

The first personnel of the Publication Committee lasted until 
Mr. Dow's resignation, when Mr. George P. Engelhardt was 
elected to the Committee at the Annual Meeting on January 16, 
1919; which position he has held for the 15 years since. At the 
February 13 meeting following. Dr. Jos. Bequaert, as Secretary, 
under the By-Laws replaced Mr. Schaeft'er. The Committee thus 
made up lasted for y years, until 1924, when Dr. Bequaert moved to 
Boston. He was replaced by Mr. E. L. Bell, the Secretary, fol- 
lowed in turn in 1931 by Mr. C. G. Siepmann, our present Secre- 
tary. Our Publication Committee has had in the twenty-one years 
since it was reestablished the following members : 

Charles L. Pollard, Editor, 1912 (2 months). 

Robert P. Dow, Editor, 1913-1919. 

J. R. de la Torre-Bueno, 1913-1919; Editor, 1919-1933. 

Charles Schaefifer, 1912-1919. 

George P. Engelhardt, 1919-1933. 

Dr. Jos. Bequaert, 1919-1926. 

E. L. Bell, 1927-1930. 

Carl Geo. Siepmann, 1 931-1933. 

These twenty-one years have witnessed growth and change ; 
when our Bulletin once more saw the light in 1913, we were 
financially poor, even though rich in enthusiastic and devoted mem- 
bers, a riches thai have always been our strength and our mainsta\" 

The first volume of our new series, vol. VIII, ran to 7 numbers 
with a total of 128 pages, plus 6 pages of index; it contained 44 
articles of varying lengths, mostly short, together with 8 short 
notes, with the addition of the Proceedings of the Society. The 
following volumes naturalK- varied in pages and contents thus: 
vol. IX, III pp.; vol. X, 112 pp.; vol. XI, 115 pp.; vol. XII. 130 
pp.; vol. XIII, 130 pp.; vol. XIV, 153 pp.; vol. XV, 159 pp.; vol. 
XVI, 150 pp. ; vol. XVII, 161 pp. ; vol. XVIII, 184 pp. ; vol. XIX, 
209 pp. ; vol. .XX, 242 pp. ; vol. XXI, 217 pp. ; vol. XXII, 306 pp. ; 
vol. XXIII, 296 pp. ; vol. XXIV, 358 pp. ; vol. XXV, 321 pp. : vol. 
XXVI, 282 pp. ; vol. XX\^IT, 261 pp. ; vol. XXVIII, 248 pp. This 

118 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

gives a total of 4,273 pages published in 21 years. Our subscrip- 
tion price to non-members has ranged from 75c. per year at the 
start to $2.50 a year now. Our first Bulletin cost us 50 cents 
per page; we now pay $2.75 — or, comparatively, it costs us today 
nearly six times as much as at the beginning, but we only charge a 
little over three times as much, even though we have given more 
than three times as many pages as at the beginning ; and even now, 
we give at least twice as many pages. 

During this period, our indices have carried some 13,000 specific 
names, about 1,000 of them being those of species newly described 
in the Bulletin. 

In 1926 we revived Entouwlogica Americana with vol. VII; we 
have just completed vol. XIII. Here we have published some 1,795 
pages. We do not dilate on this publication, except to point out 
that in the last 21 years, the Society has published in its two jour- 
nals over 6,000 pages of matter, most of it interesting and a good 
part — perhaps one half — of lasting value. 

We have also published two editions, or reprintings, of Smith's 
Glossary ; and we have in active preparation a third edition, revised 
and brought to date. 

Our original subscription list carried some 50 names, mostly 
members of the Society. In spite of the cruel losses sustained be- 
cause of the depression, we have at this date nearly six times as 
many paying subscribers to the Bulletin ; Entouwlogica Ameri- 
cana, being a highly specialized journal, has only about half as 
many subscribers. 

Financially, our publications have shown an increasing return. 
An early report of the Treasurer (1919) showed special contribu- 
tions to the publication from members, to the amount of $50. We 
have had none such since. In 1926, Mr. Wm. H. Nichols, Jr., con- 
tributed the sum of $500 toward enlarging the publications — 
namely, toward Entomologica Americana and the last printing of 
the Glossary. Our peak of income was reached in 1932, during the 
depression, when our Treasurer handled over $3,500 from our 

What does the future hold in store for our publications? No 
man can tell; but if we were able to weather the World War and 
its great dislocation of all activities, we can certainly survive pres- 
ent adverse conditions. 

A rigid pruning of subscription lists and careful collection of re- 
sources has shown a relatively small net loss ; new subscriptions 
still continue to come in, even though in no great numbers. We 

June, 1964 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entonioloyical Society 119 

have thus far met our costs; and we are trimming our journals to 
correspond to our income. Our chief and real asset is the friendly 
good-will of our subscribers and authors, which has always been 
sedulously cultivated both by the Editor and the Treasurer. 

As to material for our publications, we have enough MSS. of 
high quality on hand practically for the remainder of this year for 
the Bulletin and for vol. XIV of Entoinologica Auiericana — 
those for the latter being of unusual excellence. 

The preparation of the new, enlarged and improved Glossary 
is about to enter the final stages of activity. This publication has 
always yielded a steady income and has been a source of prestige 
to the Society. 

In short, portents are favorable; and with the unfailing support 
and loyalty of the Society, your Publication Committees, present 
and future need have no fearful anticipations. Rather should we 
look forward all together to continued fruitful elTort for our sci- 
ence of entomology at large ; and in particular for our Society. 
Respectfully submitted, 

J. R. DE LA ToRRE-BuENO, Editor 
Geo. p. Engelhardt 
Carl Geo. Siepmann 

Decapitation of Notonecta insulata Kby. by Dineutes sp. ; — 

■On July 4, 1933, I was watching from the dock at Onteora Lake, in 
the Catskills, the very numerous nymphs of Notonecta insulata. 
mostly in the last instar. These nymphs seem not to cling to the 
surface, but stay some distance below, coming up now and then for 
air. In a little cove formed by the dock and the shore I saw some 
half dozen just transformed adults floating on the surface with 
wings outspread and quite dead ; all were headless. While I 
watched, one nymph molted and transformed to the adult, at the 
surface, as usual. As it struggled after casting its skin, two 
Dineutes pounced on it ; when they left it, its head was gone. The 
decapitation was so (|uicklv done, it was inijiossible to see how it 
was accomplished. 

The color of the just transformed adult is a pure white, slightly 
creamy, with a slight discoloration along the edges of the wings now 
and tlien in some of them. The specimen pinned kept its white 
color, and has not darkened at this writing (April 26, 1934). — J- R- 
DE LA Torre-Bueno, White Plains, N. Y. 

120 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological iSociety Vol. XXIX 


By S. C. Bruner and Z. P. Metcalf. 

The new species described below would seem to constitute a dis- 
tinct new genus of Bythoscopidae and to be worthy of an isolated 

Chinaia genus nov. 

Head broadly rounded anteriorly in both lateral and vertical 
views, short, scarcely as broad as pronotum. Face nearly ver- 
tical, more or less convex, smooth ; ocelli situated on the face 
as in Idiocerus. not strongly differentiated. Genae broadly 
rounding below to apex of anteclypeus. Rostrum very short, 
in type species scarcely reaching base of anterior femora. An- 
tenna inserted in shallow cavity beneath sharp ledge near 
eyes ; basal segment considerably enlarged, extending laterally 
to margin of eye, much larger than second segment; the seta 
filiform, very long, sometimes extending beyond apex of 
elytra, without preapical enlargement in either sex. Pronotum 
and scutellum as in Idiocerus. Pronotum broad and short 
fully three times as broad as long, about as long as crown, an- 
terior lateral margins short strongly divergent, posterior lateral 
margins broadly curved and merging into posterior margin. 
Scutellum as long as pronotum forming a neaidy equilateral 
triangle. Elytra elongate, narrow, without an appendix, ner- 
vures thin, not distinctly raised, without papillae, evanescent 
and without distinguishable cross-veins before apex of clavus. 

This genus because of the position of ocelli necessarily falls 
within the family Bythoscopidae and is somewhat nearer the genus 
Idiocerus than any other. However, it is apparently not very 
closely related to that or any other described genus. It is at once 
separated from Idiocerus by the absence of an ai)pendix to elytra, 
the greatly elongated antennae inserted under a small sharp ledge 
near eyes with enlarged basal segment ; narrower, rounded, head ; 
and especially by the elongate delicate elytra with evanescent or 
obsolete venation over basal half. The latter character and gen- 
eral delicate appearance are suggestive of the Eupteryginae in spite 
of large size. 

The species described by Fowler in the Biologia Centrali- Ameri- 
cana, 2, as Tettigouia dorsiguata, page 282, plate xix, figure 6, and 
T. rubescens, page 282, plate xix, figure 7, and later in the supple- 
ment of the same work (page 322) removed from the Cicadellinae, 
but without generic designation are also members of this genus. 

June, 1934 Bulletin uf the Brooklyn Entotnological Society 121 

The antennae were proI)ably even longer than shown on the plate 
as they are very fragile and easily broken. These and the new 
species described below are brightly colored insects, which colora- 
tion would appear to be characteristic. The vertex in the three 
known species is relatively longer than Idioccnis. 

The genus is dedicated to Mr. \\'. E. China, of the British Mu- 

Orthotype : Chiiiaia bclla n. sp. 

Chinaia bella n. sp. 

A beautiful orange red and pale green species marked with 
black, resembling Tctfigonia nihcscciis Fowler. Crown of 
head wider than long, broadly excavated posteriorly, extend- 
ing as a narrow triangle behind the eyes, sloping anteriorly 
and broadly curved and merging into the face. Face with the 
lateral margins slightly diverging to the lower level of the 
eyes, then suddenly converging in a distinct ledge above the 
antennae. Ocelli inconspicuous on a level with the middle of 
the eyes near the lateral borders. Antennae with the flagellum 
when folded backward extending somewhat beyond apex of 
elytra, basal segment as long as and about twice as broad as 
second segment. Lateral margins of the clypeus broadly con- 
verging to the anteclypeus, which is spatulate in shape. Lorae 
with the lateral margins curved not extending to the apex of 
the anteclypeus. Lateral margins of the genae broadly curved, 
converging extending beyond the apex of the anteclypeus. 
Pronotum broad, nearly three times as broad as long. Scu- 
tellum with broad transverse impression, posterior half con- 
vex. Venation of elytra obscure except on the translucent 
apical membrane. 

Female genitalia: penultimate ventral segment broad, short, 
slightly excavated ; ultimate segment about three times as long 
as penultimate, the apical half triangularly produced with 
sides of the triangle sinuate, giving the appearance of a median 
tooth, apex with small notch, slightly embrowned ; pygof er 
with a row of pale bristles along inner margin; ovipositor dis- 
tinctly exceeding pygofer. Male, last ventral segment nearly 
straight behind, subequal to penultimate segment ; plates con- 
vex, inner margins raised over central area and meeting at 
rather acute angle, inserted about one-fifth of length behind 
posterior margin of last ventral segment, sides rounding to 
lateral margins, without bristles but with scattered growth of 
fine white hairs, apices well rounded, exceeded by pygofer 
which are produced behind into pairs of laterally compressed, 
horizontal, chitinous processes. 

General color above bright yellow or pale greenish yellow, 

122 Bulletin of the BrooM/yn Entomological Society Vol.xxix 

heavily marked with orange red with a few black markings on 
elytra. Crown light yellow to pale, slightly greenish yellow 
with a broad band of orange red on posterior margin, and 
often a pair of obscure, poorly defined, translucent dashes or 
rounded marks about middle ; eyes black. Pronotum light 
yellow or pale greenish yellow with posterior and lateral mar- 
gins broadly orange red. Scutellum, basal half pale yellow or 
greenish yellow, the broad lateral margins and narrower cen- 
tral area usually washed with orange yellow ; entire apical half 
orange. Tegmina with apical fourth translucent pale smoky 
yellow with 4 or 5 black dots along veins or disc ; inner half 
more largely orange red, this more intense anteriorly next to 
claval suture and over an oblique area projecting froni inner 
margin before center and towards apex, fading gradually to 
])ale greenish yellow or light yellow over costal area, separated 
from translucent apical area interiorly by a variable, irregular, 
incomplete narrow black border; clavus pale yellow or green- 
ish yellow on basal half, paler behind and over outer margin, 
with broad orange red dash on disc, the apical half orange 
with an obliquely placed, irregular, narrowly triangular black 
mark anteriorly followed by a number of black spots along 
inner and outer margins. Wings pale yellowish to dull pink- 
ish hyaline with yellowish or pink veins, lightly infuscate api- 
cally with dark veins behind cross-veins. Beneath including 
face and legs largely pale flavescent, sometimes distinctly 
greenish, especially on abdomen which is washed with orange 
above ; base of antennae, lower margins of face, anterior tibiae 
and knees, basal third of posterior tibiae and sometimes the 
f rons, more or less washed with orange yellow. The sexes are 
similar, the female usually slightly larger. 
Length : 6-7 mm. 

Holotypc, male, San Jose, Costa Rica, March, 1933, C. H. Bal- 
lon, coll., on avocado. Allotype, female, San Jose, Costa Rica, 
June, 1932, C. H. Ballou, coll., on pear and avocado. Paratypcs, 
14 specimens of both sexes from San Jose, Costa Rica (S. P. de 
^lontes de Oca) all collected on avocado by C. H. Ballou. June, 
1932; January and March, 1933. Types and 7 paratypes in collec- 
tion of Z. P. Metcalf, 5 paratypes in collection of the Estacion 
Agronomica, Cuba, and one paratype in British Museum. 

To eliminate an}- possible uncertainty regarding the specific iden- 
tity of this form a specimen was sent to the British Museum where 
Mr. W. E. China very kindly compared it with the type of Tcffi- 
goiiio rubescens Fowler, confirming our belief that it was distinct 
.specificially although congeneric. 

Bull. B. E. S., Vol. XXIX, No. 3 

Plate VII 

124 Bulletin of the Brooklyn. Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

Explanation of Figures. 
Plate VIl 

Chinaia bella n. sp. 



—Dorsal view of female. 



—Lateral A-iew of head and thorax. 









— Female genitalia. 



— \[a.\e genitalia. 



—Internal male genitalia, A-entral view 



—Same, lateral view. 

Fulvius imbecilis Say, a mirid new to New York. — It is al- 
ways a pleasure to add to the faunal list of our great State; and 
here we have another of those oddities or accidents of collecting, 
which makes field entomology such an adventure, as this record 
shows. While getting fire-wood from my cellar, I came across a 
log with loose bark, which I always pry off to see what may be 
found — aradids mostly, or perhaps Xylocoris. This time two agile 
little bugs ran out from under the bark. One got away, but the 
other I was able to catch with my fingers and to carry up safe, if 
slightly crushed, to my study, where it landed in a killing bottle. 
When mounted I saw at once it was something never seen by me 
before. My friend Dr. R. F. Hussey, to whom it was shown, rec- 
ognized it as a Fulvius. The determination has been checked by 
Hemiptera of Connecticut, by Blatchley's Heteroptera of Eastern 
North America, and by Say's original description. It is unmis- 
takably F. imbecilis. Say originally recorded it from Indiana; Dr. 
Knight in various papers has given it as found in Florida, Virginia, 
Alabama, Tennessee. Illinois, District of Columbia and New Jer- 
sey; Blatchley records it from North Carolina, Michigan, and In- 
diana, and Van Duzee's Catalogue recites it from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and Indiana. It is not recorded in 
the New York State List by Dr. Knight in the list of Miridae, nor 
have I been able to find any such record elsewhere. The little bug 
was found on October ii, 1933, in White Plains, but the logs came 
from further up the County, so Westchester County, even though 
a broader record is probably more accurate.- — J. R. de la Torre- 
BuENO, White Plains, N. Y. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 125 


On Measuring Insects under the Microscope. — The only 
proper way to measure extremely small insects (lO mm. or less 
long), or the small parts of larger insects— tarsi, antennal joints, 
and so on — is by means of a carefully calibrated eye-piece mi- 
crometer. In my own practice, measurements can be made to 
within .05 mm. — that is, within 1/500 inch. This result is easily 
attained by the use of a step (scalar) eye-piece micrometer, cali- 
brated to a stage micrometer. 

This is how^ it is done: The eye-piece micrometer is sharply 
focused to the upi)er lens of the eye-piece by pushing up or down 
the diaphragm in the eye-piece. This must be done for the eye 
used for observation ; or, in the case of a binocular microscope, for 
whichever eye is to do the measuring. The stage micrometer is 
now sharply focused. It will be noticed at once that the divisions 
of the eye-piece micrometer do not coincide exactly with those of 
the stage micrometer. Now, the eye-piece is pulled out (and, of 
course, the microscope refocused) until tivo of the step-divisions 
of the eye-piece micrometer coincide exactly with the i mm. scale 
of the stage micrometer. With a sharp instrument scratch a line 
all around the eye-piece at the top of the sleeve, thus making it 
possible to change eye-pieces at any time and to replace the eye- 
piece with the micrometer at the exact measuring focus. The bin- 
ocular combination of 55 mm. objective and xio eye-piece gives 
ordinarily X17 or xi8 magnification, but the drawing out of the 
eye-piece makes the magnification an exact x20 without affecting 
the optical qualities of the instrument. This is the best combina- 
tion for general use. For minuter measurements, the 40 mm. or 
the 24 mm. objective with the xio eye-piece give magnifications of 
X40 or .x8o ; that is, the eye-piece micrometer divisions become re- 
spectively .025 mm. or .0125 mm., equivalent respectively to i/iooo 
and 1/2000 of an inch, which is perhaps too fine for anything but 
the minutest insects — i mm. or less in length, with correspondingly 
minute appendages. 

And in this connection, descriptions and detailed taxonomic or 
anatomical studies should always specify at what magnification 
they are made ; and at what magnification the smaller structures 
are visible, if they are clear at or have been described at greater 
magnifications than that of the general descriptions. Descriptions 
and structural studies lacking this concrete information are still 
walking with Adam in Eden, in primordial innocence. 

J. R. T.-B. 

126 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 


Recent Advances in the Study of Plant Viruses, by Kenneth 

M. Smith, vvitli a P'oreword by F. T. Brooks. (Pp. i-xii + 

1-423, I plate and text-figures 1-67. P. Blakiston's Son & 

Co., Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. $4.00.) 

Phytopathology, as everyone knows, is the science, or study, of 
morbidity in plants. Many of the diseases which afflict plants are 
clearly contagious and are produced by viruses — that is, poisons — 
of various kinds, sometimes the result of germ diseases and at 
others arising from infection with the so-called filterable viruses. 
The work before us treats of these viruses, their nature, action and 
conveyance in fourteen chapters. Three of these (about 1/5 of 
the book) are on "Insects in Relation to Viruses," bringing to- 
gether much scattered information into a coordinated whole. These 
chapters (V to VII), survey the insect species concerned as car- 
riers ; give a numerical analysis of insect types in relation to 
viruses, the technique of managing the insects in plant virus 
studies, various observations on the factors in relation to insects as 
vectors, and methods of insect feeding in relation to transmission 
of viruses. 

Of the 2T, Orders of insects considered, four only — the Orthop- 
tera, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera (sens, lat.), Coleoptera, are pos- 
sible vectors ; two of these — Orthoptera and Coleoptera, which 
have biting mouth parts — are practically negligible. The principal 
ofifenders, as might be expected, are among the numerically abun- 
dant Hemiptera, specially the Homopterous Aphidae and Jassidae. 
The paucity of records of Heteropterous vectors is probably due to 
lack of knowledge rather than to absence of injury, particularly 
among the most abundant Aliridae. 

From the point of view of entomological technique, the part of 
Chapter V with regard to management of insects will be of great 
use to students of life-histories, particularly of the smaller plant 
feeding bugs. This chapter alone makes the book desirable to stu- 
dents of the biology of the Hemiptera. Added to this, each chap- 
ter appends a long list of references. 

The work has the usual indices — author and subject — and a 
brief but informing glossary of terms. 

The work is to be recommended to entomologists whose interests 
lie beyond a dreary waste of pinned bugs into that most interesting 
field of observation — the myriad ways of life of the uncounted in- 
sect legions. 

J. R. T.-B. 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 127 



One of our readers has asked this question after reading our 
February editorial 

By rigid definition an amateur in anything is a person who fol- 
lows a given pursuit for pleasure and not for gain or as a means 
of a livelihood; one whose gainful vocation is not his unprofitable 

From this it follows that, strictly, an amateur entomologist is 
one whose study of insects is an avocation for leisure hours apart 
from his labor for a livelihood. This excludes at once anyone who 
practices entomology as a profession ; and whose antecedent train- 
ing has had that end in view. 

Now, there is really no clean-cut boundary between these two 
classes, for sometimes the amateur may receive remuneration for 
some piece of expert work in his field; and the professional may 
follow with ardor some study not even remotely connected, except 
in kind, with his professional duties. 

A rough classification is that all teachers of entomology and all 
economic workers are professionals : all collectors and casual stu- 
dents of insects as a side line are amateurs of high or low degree. 

But perhaps after all it is a question of the psychological ap- 
proach ! 

T. R. T.-B. 


The crystal-winged cicada's wooing song- 
Rises shrill and falls in cadenced throbs 
In the tepid scented summer dusk. 
His keen voice gashes now the quiet air. 
As darkness flows, his song of love is stilled — 
Its piping ceases till the morrow's dawn. 
And now, the night-long strains of black and cryptic 
Crickets constant wound the ear. 

J. R. T.-B. 

128 Bulletin of the Brookliin Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 


^Meeting of December 14, H)t,t,. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held on Decemher 14. 1933, at the Brooklyn Museum. 

Present: Mr. Wm. T. Davis in the chair, and Messrs. Ballon. 
Cooper, Eisenhardt, Engelhardt, Nicolay, Ragot, Torre-Bueno and 
Lemmer; and visitors, Dr. and ]Mrs. R. F. Hussey and Mr. Stecher. 

Minutes of the meeting of Novemher 16 were read and approved. 
In the absence of the Secretarv. the Chair appointed Mr. Lemmer 
Secretary pro tent. 

For the Publication Committee, i\Ir. Torre-Bueno re])orted 

Mr. Torre-Bueno also showed the following: the centenary vol- 
ume History of the Entomological Society of London ; Dr. P. de 
Peyerimhof's critique of Boving and Craighead on the Larvae of 
Coleoptera; and Dr. C. H. Kennedy's Methods for the Study of 
the Internal Anatomy of Insects. 

The Chair appointed the following Nominating Committee: 
Messrs. Lemmer, Ballon and Nicolay. 

Mr. Eisenhardt showed two species of Cocytia, diirvillci and 
ribcia, from Alon Island. Oceania; there is only one other species 
known in the genus. 

Mr. Davis showed a copy of an old work, Gallery of Nature and 
Art by several authors, printed in London in 1819. He also showed 
two different insects in reference to this work. Cicada plehcja L. 
and Cicada ami L., considered by the ancients to be the the same. 

Dr. Roland F. Flussey, who spoke on "Collecting Insects in 
Paraguay in the Summer of 1931-1932," reported the following 
captures: Aiuisa sp., whose eggs were attached to the parenchyma 
of the developing fruit ; Pacliycoris torridus, adults of which were 
standing over the eggs till hatched and sometimes longer; Spiniger 
spps., Scaniurius aniabilis, AtJiauniastus liacniaticus, A. suhtcdine- 
atus, two or three species of Lininogonus, Tclinatometra, Bracliy- 
nictra. Rliagovclia. an undescribed Martarcga. Mcsoveloidca and 
Hydronietra. Pentatomidae and Coreidae were common in cer- 
tain grassy glades. Three or four species each of EnscJiistus and 
Monnidca were found at night, feeding high on grass stems. Melo- 
idae, certain Miridae, Banasa sp., DiscocepJiala sp., DryptocepJiala 
punctata. Edcssa sp. (rufonuirginata:' ) , were taken on the small 
tree or bush, Solanuni verbascifoliiini, the last two in nymphal 
stages on this plant onlv. Dy.s'dcrciis rnficollis. a wide-spread 

June,iD34 Bulletin of the Hiookhjii Entovnologieal Society 12;) 

South American Pyrrhocorid. swarmed in immense numbers on 
Sida rJioiubifolia. as well as on other plants. Euryophthaluius 
nifipciiiiis was numerous on Sciiccio sp., and some on other Com- 
positae at the forest margins. Dr. Hussey gave attention almost 
wholly to the Hemiptera. lie spent three weeks at Colonia Inde- 
pendencia near \"illarrica. In mid-Xovember he proceeded north- 
ward across the watershed to the high plains area beyond Caa 
Guazu. Here numerous small streams flow eastward into the 
I'arana. He collected here for two months. The plains are sandy 
with sparse grass and little succulent herbage, l)ut bunch-grasses 
and Artemisia were common. The plains are dotted with dwarf 
palm-trees, Cocos jatay and some groups of two or three trees of 
the Euphorbiaceous Sapium haeiiiatospeniiuiu. Dr. Hussey could 
not collect much in the high forest, as the tree-top fauna was inac- 
cessible. He showed, however, 5 or 6 closely allied species of 
Bryocorine Miridae taken at one time in the calyx of the "Guembe"' 
flower {PJiilodcudrou s]). ). Light captures were mainly Miridae, 
small Myodochidae and various Reduviidae, especially Sirthcuea 
stria, Pygolainpis sp., Stcnopoda cinerca, etc. Collecting at light 
was poor, although the year before it was said to have been ex- 

Mr. hjigelhardt exhibited some hackberry l)utterflies collected in 
southern and western Texas. These butterflies, he said, are apt to 
be very common in regions of the West wherever their food-plant 
hackberry. Ccltis occideiitalis. prevails. Holland's Butterfly Book, 
pi. 23. beautifully illustrates seven s])ecies of these butterflies and 
others are cited in his text. At a first glance it seems easy to com- 
])are and name one's specimens, but on a close inspection one does 
not feel so sure. After all. there appear to be only two main divi- 
sions, one with eye-spots in the primaries (Ccltis group) and the 
other with these eye-spots lacking (Clyton group). Under these 
headings specimens can be arranged readily, but the question is. 
whether the many forms are entitled to recognition as species, or 
whether they are merelv variations and geographical races of the 
above two main groups. Air. Engelhardt's specimens were col- 
lected at random, mostly from the Davis ^Mountains, Texas, and 
are. according to Holland, as follows: Clvton group — Asterocauipa 
flora h2dwards. males and females, Davis Alts.. Texas; Celtis 
grouji — A. iiioiifis Edwards, male, Ellsworth. Kans. ; female, 
Austin. Texas; -i. aiitoiiio Edwards, both sexes from Davis Mts. 
and San Antonio. Texas; a dark brown form of antonio, not 
named, from Davis Alts, and l>ig Bend, Texas. Aside from varia- 
tions in color and size, some of tlie so-called species show a greater 

130 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

angulation of the hind wings in the males. No doubt this subject 
calls for more intensive investigations, especially breeding. 

Mr. Cooper recorded as new to New York State, Microinalflius 
debilis in rotten wood, Bronx Park ; and in rotten planks, New 
York City, taken by Mr. Alan Scott, Columbia University. 
Adjourned at p. m. 

Frederick Lemmer, 
Secretary pro ton. 

Meeting of January ii, 1934. 

A regular meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society was 
held at the Brooklyn Museum on January 11, 1934. 

Members present : Mr. Davis in the Chair, Ballou, Cooper, En- 
gelhardt. Dr. Hussey, Lacey, Moennich, Ragot, Rau, Dr. Risch, 
Sheridan, Shoemaker, Torre-Bueno, Wilford and Lemmer. Vis- 
itor Mr. Hans Stecher. 

Minutes of December meeting read and approved. 

Treasurer's report for 1933: Income, $1,658.40. Disburse- 
ments, $1,539.85. On hand and in banks, $938.96 (Dec, 1933). 
Report received with thanks. Mr. Engelhardt stated that consid- 
ering conditions the Society is doing quite well as far as finances 
are concerned. 

Mr. Torre-Bueno proposed for membership Dr. Roland F. 
Hussey. He was elected by acclamation. 

Election of officers resulted as follows : 

President, W. T. Davis. 

Vice-President, J. R. de la Torre-Bueno. 

Recording Secretary, Carl Geo. Siepmann. 

Corresponding Secretary, Frederick Lemmer. 

Treasurer, George P. Engelhardt. 

Librarian, Charles Schaeffer. 

Curator, L M. Sheridan. 

Delegate to N. Y. Academy of Sciences, Geo. P. Engelhardt. 

Mr. Lacey reported capture of Lcptnra dclcta from Mass. 

Mr. Davis reported and showed Mantis angustipcnnis Sauss.. 
from Staten Island. 

Mr. Cooper spoke on the Taxonomy and Ecology of the Byr- 
rhidae. He pointed out that correlation and structural characters 
of both larva and adult with biological data must result in a con- 
siderable change in the composite known to the older authors as 
the Byrrhidae. The Nosodendrids and Chelonarids have long- 
been properly removed from the Byrrhidae, and Brown in 1910 
writing of the New Zealand Byrrhidae considered the Limnichids 

June, 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entonwloyical Society 131 

as constituting the family Limnichidae. Ecological and structural 
peculiarities of the Amphicyi'tids are held by Mr. Cooper sufficient 
to warrant the establishment of the family Amphicyrtidae, to be 
included in the Byrrhoidae. 

Among the more interesting structures of members of the genus 
Byrrhus are the so-called "ocelli" or "eye spots," situated on the 
adult epicranium. They are entirely of a conjectural function, and 
are paralleled by structures of a similar nature common to the 
members of a Carabid genus. 

The true Byrrhids, in the main, are moss feeders, the larvae ap- 
parently feeding on the protonema of Dicrauum and its allies. The 
adult Byrrhid is generally to be found throughout the year, and 
hibernates in various situations. 

The Byrrhidae, limited as above, were then discussed from the 
viewpoint of their distribution in time and space. The Byrrhids 
were probably a circumpolar group peculiar to the Northern hemi- 
sphere. The present distribution of the members of the genus 
Byrrhus has probably largely resulted from Pleistocene glacial ad- 
vances and recessions. 

Adjourned at 10.20 p. m. 

Frederick Lemmer, 
Secretary pro tem. 


Under conditions of the prevalent financial depression we have 
secured an option on the few remaining available sets of the early 
volumes of the Bulletin and of Entomologica Americana in 
the hands of dealers. These we offer at the following greatly re- 
duced prices for iiii mediate sale. 

The Bulletin, vols. 1-7 (1878-1885), cloth bound .... $25 
Entomologica Americana, vols. 1-6 (1885-1890), cloth 

bound 20 

The same, unbound i/oO 

Postage Additional. 

These volumes teem with papers of prime importance by lead- 
ing American pioneer authors and are essential to every working 
entomological library. They have been out of print for some time 
and will be difficult to obtain, even at premium rates, once our lim- 
ited supply is exhausted. 

Orders will be filled promptly in order of receipt. ^ 

Please address: Geo. P. Engelhardt, Treasurer, Hartsdale, N. Y. 

132 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T'ol.XXIX 


This one page is intended only for wants and exchanges, not 
for advertisements of articles for sale. Notices not exceeding 
THREE lines free to subscribers. Over lines charged for at 
15 cents per line per insertion. 

Old notices will be discontinued as space for new ones is 

COLEOPTERA. — Am interested in exchanging Coleoptera. 
Carl G. Siepmann, R. F. D. No. i, Box 92, Rah way, N. J. 

DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA.— Have many desirable west- 
ern species to exchange, inckiding Argynnis atossa, macaria, iiior- 
inonia, inalcolrni, )iokoiiiis; Melitaca neumocgeni; Lycacua speci- 
osa; etc. Send lists. Dr. John A. Comstock, Los Angeles Mu- 
seum, Exposition Park, Los Angeles, Calif. 

CATOPINI: Catops (CJioleva), Prionochaeta, Ptomaphagus. 
— Wanted to borrow all possible specimens of these genera from 
North America for a revisional study. Correspondence solicited. 
— Melville H. Hatch, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 

HISTERIDAE — Desire to obtain material, all localities, for 
identification, by purchase or exchange of other families. Chas. 
A. Ballou, Jr., yj Beekman St., New York, N. Y. 

LOCALITY LABELS. — 60c per 1000, 5 in strip, i to 3 lines. 
5 sizes type. 3j% point, 75c per 1000. Good heavy paper. Prompt 
service. A. L. Stevens, 691 Culver Rd., Rochester, N. Y. 

BUY OR EXCHANGE : Pinned Microlepidoptera and papered 
Pieridae of North America. Full data with all specimens. Named 
material of all groups offered. Alexander B. Klots, College of the 
City of New York, New York City. 

viding I receive sufficient orders prior to collecting to justify my 
proceeding. Have many specimens in stock at all times for sale. 
Louise Knobel. Hope, Arkansas. 

Vol. XXIX 

OCTOBER, 1934 


No. 4 


Brooklyn Entomological 



NEW SERIES ^ KuU t- ^ iv-0-+ 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


Published for the Society by the 

Science Press Printing Co., 

Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa., 

Price, 60 cents Subscription, $2.50 per year 

Mailed August 28, 1934 

Entered as second-class matter January 21, 1919, at the post office at Lancaster, Pa., 
under the Act of March 3, 1879 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Meetings are held on the second Thursday after the first Tuesday of each 
month from October to June, inclusive, at the Central Museum, Eastern 
Parkway and Washington Ave., Brooklyn. The annual dues are $2.00. 


Honorary President 


President Treasurer 


Vice-President 28 Clubway 

. E. DE LA TOEEE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 

Recording Secretary Librarian 


Corresponding Secretary Curator 


Delegate to Council of New York 
Academy of Sciences 




NOTE ON DYAE'S LAW, Forbes 146 


SPECIES, Eeinhard 150 


Beuno 155 


THYSANUEA, Sweetnian 158 



Harrison & Usinger 168 





Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Published in 
February, April, June, October and December of each year 

Subscription price, domestic, $2.50 per year ; foreign, .f 2.75 in advance ; single 
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reprints free if ordered in advance of publication. Address subscriptions and 
all communications to 

J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor, 

38 De Kalb Avenue, White Plains, N. Y. 



Vol. XXIX October, 1934 No. 4 




By Roland F. Hussey, New York City, N. Y. 


In east-central Paraguay the Scutellerid Pachycoris torridus is 
most frequently found on the under side of the leaves of a small, 
scraggy, rough-barked tree called the curitpi-cahii. This plant is 
of the family Euphorbiaceae, and Mr. Pedro Jorgensen, of Villa- 
rrica, informs me that the botanists know it by the name Sapium 
liacmatospcrmum. On the sandy plains north of Caa Guazu this 
tree occurs singly or in groups of two or three, and only rarely is 
there any bushy growth about their bases. Usually the Sapium is 
much less than ten meters in height, but on better soil or on ter- 
races above the streams it sometimes exceeds this size. 

Two other Hemiptera, in my experience, are also primarily asso- 
ciated with the cunipi-cahu. One is a Coreid whose description 
will shortly appear under the name Aiiasa sapiicola, a species whose 
eggs and nymphs, like the adults, occur in mid-summer on the de- 
veloping fruit. The other is an unidentified Bryocorine Mirid 
which occurs on the leaves. Neither of these, however, approaches 
in interest Pachycoris torridus, as this species adds another to the 
relatively few which are known where the parent stands guard over 
the eggs and the young nymphs. 

PacJiycoris torridus is a highly variable species, but the speci- 
mens I took in Paraguay in 1931—32 are more constant in their 
coloration than others I have seen, and none of them can be re- 
ferred to either of the varieties named by Breddin ( i ) . The 
ground color varies from pale sepia to black, with the extremes less 
numerous than the intermediates. The pronotal red spots appar- 
ently are always eight in number, though the two on the median 


134 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Vol. XXIX 

line sometimes are extremely reduced, to mere points or short nar- 
row lines. Berg (2), speaking of the Argentine specimens, says 
there are usually thirteen scutellar spots, the median one of the 
third transverse row commonly being absent. In my Paraguayan 
material the scutellar spots commonly are fourteen, arranged in 
four transverse rows of five, four, three, and two spots respectively. 
But in about one-fifth of my specimens there are only twelve spots, 
as the two median ones of the second row are absent. All the 
spots are narrowly edged with black, but in darker specimens this 
is progressively less evident until finally no such margin is visible 
on individuals whose ground color is black. 

I first took this species on December 31, 1931, from a ciirupi- 
cahu growing on a narrow terrace above a small stream. Subse- 
quently I discovered individuals on other trees of the same species, 
both in similar situations and on the arid campo ; and once only I 
found a specimen, with its eggs, under the leaf of a different plant 
near the place where my first specimens were seen. All the Pachy- 
coris I found, up to the time of my departure late in January, 
were on the under side of the leaves, and almost half of them were 
standing over their eggs when discovered. It is interesting to note 
also that I secured ten times as many females as I did males of this 

The leaf of the curiipi-cahu is smooth-surfaced, long and nar- 
row, in shape not unlike the leaves of many willows common in 
eastern North America, and its margins are entire. The lower sur- 
face is longitudinally elevated slightly by the mid-rib, but is hardly 
broken by other veins. The leaf, for about three-fourths of its 
length, is about 9 to 10 mm. wide — or, in other words, is of about 
the same width as the Pachycoris. 

The individual eggs of Pachycoris torridus are oblong-elliptical, 
and measure about 1.3 x i mm. The chorion is unmarked, as seen 
under low magnification (lox), and no chorial processes are vis- 
ible near the anterior pole. The eggs are deposited in flat plaques, 
each ovum glued to the leaf surface at its caudal end, and the num- 
ber of eggs per plaque averages probably about 100. I have found 
masses with as few as 50 eggs, and others with nearly three times 
that number. Throughout the greater portion of the plaque the 
eggs are regularly arranged, in straight lines intersecting at angles 
of 60°, so as to produce a honey-comb pattern in the mass as a 
whole. Near the edge of the mass, apparently among the eggs laid 
last, the regular pattern is often more or less lost and the ova are 
irregularly disposed, but this seems to be true only of the larger 
egg masses. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 135 

When first laid the eggs are pale honey yellow, this color being 
due to the appearance of the yolk as seen through the semi-trans- 
parent chorion. As the embryos develop they rapidly acquire a red 
pigmentation, visible first in the eye and along the legs, and the 
egg mass generally acquires a reddish color as a result. Here and 
there in the mass may be seen eggs which fail to develop, whose 
yellow hue makes them conspicuous. In my specimens these 
amount to about lo per cent of the total number, and their posi- 
tion or arrangement in the plaque is most haphazard. 

At the edge of the mass, though commonly only in the larger 
plaques, may be seen other eggs which also do not develop, and 
which are readily recognized by their grayish or blackened appear- 
ance. Though I have no direct observations on them to support 
my belief, I regard these as infested with hymenopterous egg para- 
sites, as I have observed similar phenomena in the &gg masses of 
other Hemiptera. Ayyar (3) has observed Telenomns indi emerg- 
ing from similarly blackened eggs of the Indian Cantao ocellatus, 
a Scutellerid with similar brooding habits ; and like myself he 
found these blackened ova only at the edge of the egg mass. In 
Pachycoris torridus the blackened ova may amount to as much as 
15 per cent of the total number of eggs in the mass, and in my ex- 
perience they occur only in that part of the mass which is beneath 
the caudal end of the parent as she stands over them. 

Throughout the period of incubation, and even throughout the 
first nymphal stage after the young emerge, the parent Pachycoris 
stands guard over her brood. The cnnipi-cahu leaf, as has been 
said, measures 9 to 10 mm. in width, and the egg mass occupies 
nearly its entire breadth. In length the plaque may measure some- 
what more, and the average dimensions, I would say, are about 
9x11 mm. Thus the mass commonly occupies an area just about 
as great as can be covered by the adult bug. After emergence the 
young do not move about at once, but commonly remain huddled 
for a time in a mass whose area is nearly the same as that of the 
egg mass, but of somewhat greater depth. 

Whether the female takes food from the plant during this time 
is a question I cannot answer. Certainly she does not move about, 
nor can she be driven from her position, although Pachycoris tor- 
ridus flies rather readily under other circumstances. If approached 
from either side while brooding over her eggs or young, the bug 
most commonly tips her body toward that side, pivoting as if on a 
longitudinal axis, so as to present the dorsal side of the body toward 
the approaching menace. Ordinarily, if the bug is approached from 
in front, the antennae are extended with their tips against the leaf 

136 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^IX 

and the anterior part of the body is lowered as if to shield the 
nymphs or the eggs from view, and consequently from harm. If 
one approaches closer, the insect will sometimes start swaying from 
side to side with abrupt, jerky movements of the posterior part of 
the body, the head and the fore legs being kept motionless ; and 
these jerky movements may be strong enough to cause the leaf to 
flutter as if in a breeze, or to be plainly felt if the end of the leaf 
is held in the fingers. At the same time the wings and the scutellum 
may be slightly raised. Only once did I observe an individual 
which lifted its wings and raised the fore part of the body as if to 
attack the approaching enemy. Excepting only the jerky move- 
ments referred to, all the changes of position made by the Pachy- 
coris under these conditions are very slow and deliberate, and the 
bug gives an impression of extreme clumsiness. 

The normal position of Pachycoris on the leaf is longitudinal, 
and commonly the head is directed toward the distal end of the 
leaf. Often the bug stands with its claws hooked under the edges 
of the egg mass, and if the insect is lifted from its place very fre- 
quently the entire egg mass is torn away from the leaf and is then 
held in the air by the bug, firmly gripped with the claws of all six 
feet. At other times the claws may be hooked over the edge of the 
leaf, gripping the latter so strongly that the plant tissue may be 
torn and a flow of latex started if the bug is removed. I have 
rarely seen a Pachycoris change its position on a leaf or even 
move its feet when approached; and on more than one occasion I 
have removed leaves from the trees and handled them for ten 
minutes or more without causing the bugs to move. 


It is surprising that this remarkable habit of Pachycoris tor- 
ridus has not previously been reported in the literature. The spe- 
cies is a common one throughout much of South America, and it 
would seem that its behavior must surely have been noted by some 
naturalist before this. Mr. H. G. Barber, in conversation, has told 
me of a similar habit in an Antillean species of the genus, probably 
P. fahricii, but I have failed to find an account of it in his papers 
or in any other publication in my library. 

This species is one of the Tetyrine Scutelleridae, and the only 
one I know of for which such a habit has thus far been described. 
On the other hand, two Oriental species of the subfamily Scutel- 
lerinae, belonging to closely allied genera, are known to exhibit 
phenomena which are almost precisely similar. Tectocoris dioph- 
thalmus {= T. lineola), according to Dodd (4), attaches its eggs to 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 137 

upright twigs and then stands over them until they hatch. Ballard 
and Holdaway (5), in a life-history study of this cotton pest in 
Queensland, have confirmed Dodd's statements, though modifying 
them to some extent. Apparently, in this species the female may 
occasionally leave her eggs but will always be found near-by, and 
her brooding may continue for as long as seventeen days. Ballard 
and Holdaway also report having the adult bug move her body so 
as to interpose it between her eggs and Chalcidid wasps which were 
buzzing around as if attempting to reach them. 

The brooding of a second Scutellerine, Cantao oceUatiis, seems 
first to have been referred to by Lefroy (6), and has been the sub- 
ject of a study by Ayyar (3), to which reference has already been 
been made. Unfortunately I have not been able to utilize Taka- 
hashi's paper (7) dealing with this species. In India Cantao occl- 
latus, according to Ayyar, deposits its eggs on the leaves of a Eu- 
phorbiaceous tree, Trewia nudifolia, and its brooding habits seem 
precisely similar to those I have described for Pachycoris torridus, 
except that Ayyar does not mention any jerky swaying movements 
from side to side like those occasionally seen in the Paraguayan 
species. The first mention of brooding habits in the Scutelleridae 
was published by Montrouzier (8), but without definite reference 
to any one species. Kirkaldy (9) believed that his account referred 
probably to Tectocoris diophthalmus, but in my opinion it might 
equally well apply to Cantao ocellatus, or possibly to some other 

Not the least amazing feature of the performance given by these 
three insects is their close conformity with that of the European 
Pentatomid Meadorus griseus, whose habits were first noted by 
Modeer (10) and DeGeer (11). Their accounts were ridiculed 
by Fabre (12), but Kirkaldy (13) has shown conclusively that 
Pabre, with his unfortunate disregard for the systematic phase of 
entomology, had not even troubled to obtain for his experiments 
the same species which had been observed by those earlier writers. 
The observations of Modeer and DeGeer have since been confirmed 
and amplified by a number of competent observers: an excellent 
summary of Meadorus griseus is given by Butler (14), and figures 
of the brooding insect have been published by Heymons (15) and 
Nielsen (16), the latter from a photograph. In addition to the 
papers cited by Kirkaldy (13) and Butler (14) on Meadorus 
griseus, I may call attention to the remarks of Schouteden (17), 
Jensen-Haarup (18), and Schumacher (19) on various phases of 
its brooding habits. 

138 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^I^ 

On comparing the behavior of the Paraguayan Pachycoris tor- 
ridus with that reported for the European birch-tree bug, Mead- 
orus griseus, I am struck with the ahnost complete agreement be- 
tween the two, even down to small details. And this is the more 
remarkable when we consider that Pachycoris and Meadorus are 
not closely related forms and that they occur in widely separated 
regions. Indeed, all the reported cases of brooding in the Hemip- 
tera occur by ones or twos in regions far remote from one another ; 
and usually single species only are concerned, while their nearest 
relatives display no such behavior. No such case has yet been re- 
ported, so far as I am aware, for any Pentatomid or Scutellerid in 
Africa or in North and Central America, if we except the doubtful 
one mentioned by Rau (20) of a female Mecistorhiniis tripterus, 
found with second instar nymphs on a banana imported into Mis- 
souri from tropical America, an association which may have been 
purely fortuitous. Africa and North America, however, have 
given us instances of parental care in other very distinct groups of 

In North America brooding has been reported in two species of 
Tingidae and in one species of the Mezirine Aradidae. The Tingi- 
dae referred to are Gargaphia solani and Gargophia tiliae. Weiss 

(21) speaking of the latter, remarks that a female is always in at- 
tendance during the incubation period of the eggs, though appar- 
ently she does not stand over them in the manner described above 
for the Pentatomoids ; and each cluster of nymphs usually has a 
female standing near-by until the young are fully grown. Fink 

(22) writing of Gargaphia solani, describes a similar habit in this 
species, and adds that if the brood of nymphs migrates from one 
leaf to another, the female directs the way and keeps the nymphs 
together during the march by stroking or pushing them with her 
antennae. I may add that I have seen what I take to be similar 
family groups of nymphs with guardian adults in a third species of 
Tingidae (unidentified) occurring on Cordia corymbosa in Para- 
guay, but I first discovered this species almost at the end of my 
stay, and consequently had no opportunity to observe its habits 

In Texas McClure (23) reports the Aradid Neuroctenus pseu- 
donymus as laying its eggs in masses of from ten to fifty ova, in 
the channels cut by wood-boring insects under the bark of a dead 
oak tree. After oviposition is completed and the female has de- 
parted from the scene, another adult (which McClure thought was 
probably the male) crawls astride the eggs and remains there im- 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 139 

mobile for two weeks or so, until the eggs hatch. The young 
nymphs of this species, like those of Pachycoris torridus, remain 
clustered under their guardian for a day or two after their emer- 
gence. On removing specimens to the laboratory, McClure found 
that the brooding instinct in Ncuroctcmis pseud ouyums is strong 
enough to overcome the normal negative phototropism of this spe- 
cies, the brooding individual being the only one which failed to 
migrate to the darker side of the piece of bark when exposed to a 
strong light. 

From Africa comes the amazing case of a Reduviid, Rhynocoris 
albopilosus. Bequaert (24) first reported that the female of this 
species stands over the eggs, but a year later he published a cor- 
rection (25) stating that it is the male which performs this task. 
The eggs are attached to herb stems at heights of about 30 cm. 
from the ground, in single plaques containing about two dozen 
eggs, arranged in two to five irregular rows. The insect stands 
over them with the venter almost touching the eggs, and if alarmed 
it may run up and down the plant stem but does not fiy. This be- 
havior was noted by Bequaert on three occasions, in the Belgian 
Congo, and he reports having seen the watchful bug repulse Chal- 
cidid wasps from the eggs which it was protecting. After the young 
emerge they run about on the plant stem and frequently will be 
seen walking over the guardian adult. 

Cantao ocellatus and Tectocoris diophthalmus are closely related 
forms, and possibly the behavior of these two species may be of 
common origin: but this is doubtful in view of the absence of simi- 
lar habits in other species of Cantao, as far as they have been re- 
ported. In this connection, however, we must bear in mind the 
possibility that Montrouzier's remarks may refer to one or an- 
other species of Cantao. There is a strong probability of common 
origin for the habits observed in the two species of Gargaphia, but 
the brooding habit must certainly have arisen independently in each 
of the other cases where it has been observed — unless we are to ac- 
cept the untenable alternative that the brooding habit was once gen- 
eral throughout a great part of the terrestrial Hemiptera and that 
these few species are the only ones in which it still persists. 

In the Hemiptera, then, we have the remarkable phenomenon of 
a certain type of parental solicitude which has appeared indepen- 
dently in seven (or eight?) different families or subfamilies, and 
in each of the major zoogeographical regions. One of these in- 
volves a Reduviid, the others are all phytophagous forms ; in one, 
or possibly two, cases it is the male that is concerned; in the others 

140 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

the female is said to be the guardian. These instances are as fol- 

Scutelleridae : Tectocoris diophthahmis (Scutellerinae). Aus- 
( females) tralia, etc. 

Cantao ocellatus (Scutellerinae). India to Papua. 
Pachycoris torridiis (Tetyrinae). South America. 
Pentatomidae : Meadonis griseus (Acanthosomatinae). Europe, 
(females) Siberia. 

Phloeophana longirostris (Phloeinae). Brazil. 
?Mecistorhinus tripterus (Pentatominae). Tropi- 
cal America. 
Aradidae: Neiiroctenus psendonymiis (Mezirinae). North 

(males?) America. 

Tingidae: Gargaphia solani. North America, 

(females) Gargaphia tiliae.. North America. 
Reduviidae : Rhynocoris albopilosus. Belgian Congo, 

Formerly, in considering the significance of the brooding habit 
in Meadonis griseus, as also the egg-carrying habit of the North 
American Belostoma fiununcum, it was usual to assume that both 
of these phenomena had as their aim the protection of the ova 
from the male of the species, to which were imputed cannibalistic 
traits plus an extremely voracious appetite. This view, however, 
has been opposed by several writers and is no longer generally 
held; and the case of Rhynocoris albopilosus, a predatory species, 
in which the male is the guardian of the eggs, offers direct evi- 
dence against this theory. In this connection, it would be interest- 
ing to know if, in the other cases enumerated, it is ahvays the 
female that is concerned. 

Another explanation, and a more reasonable one, I believe, of 
these phenomena is the protection afiforded the ova against &gg 
parasites. In support of this we have the direct observations of 
Bequaert and of Ballard and Holdaway, cited above, and the indi- 
rect evidence that parasitized eggs are found only at the edges of 
the egg mass, where they are less effectively covered by the 
guardian adult, as observed by Ayyar and myself. 


In tracing the development of the parental instinct in the Hemip- 
tera, it is difficult to know where to begin. It is a matter of com- 
mon knowledge that the phytophagous forms, at least, habitually 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 141 

deposit their ova upon some preferred food plant from which the 
newly hatched nymphs can extract suitable nourishment upon be- 
ginning their independent existence. This can not be cited as a 
case of parental care, as the parent leaves the scene at once when 
oviposition is done and has no further care for her young. The 
curious habits of some Belostomatids whose females attach their 
ova to the backs of the males must be eliminated, as also the case 
of the Coreid Pliyllomorpha laciniata, whose females, according 
to Jeannel (26) deposit their eggs upon the spinose backs of others 
of their kind, males or females, indiscriminately. In both of these 
cases the guardians of the ova are pressed into service to carry the 
eggs until they hatch ; and in the case of Belostoma flumineum at 
least, there is evidence that the male is a most unwilling accessory 
to incubation. 

Bueno (27) has found specimens of Halobates with ova attached 
to the abdomen externally, and Bouvier (28) writes that in these 
marine Gerridae the eggs "sont reunis sur le dos de la femelle," a 
statement I have not seen confirmed by any other author. If this 
unusual, not to say impossible, condition does obtain in Halobates, 
then we should have to consider it as a very primitive type of 
maternal solicitude, and a phenomenon entirely unrelated to the 
protection of the ova against egg-parasites. As to the condition 
described by Bueno, although he writes me that it is of frequent 
occurrence, I prefer not to consider it at length in view of our 
scanty knowledge of the ethology of these insects. 

T. C. Barber (29) has given us an account of a very interesting 
performance in the Pyrrhocorid Dysdercits ohscuratus which evi- 
dences an advance toward maternal solicitude on the part of this 
bug. Eggs are laid in pieces of the preferred food plant, Sida sp., 
which have fallen to the ground, or near such pieces, and the female 
then covers them with earth, piling dust over the plant tissues and 
the eggs alike. The first instar nymphs appear to live underground, 
feeding upon the plant matter provided by the parent, and nymphs 
of the second instar may do likewise during most of this stage. I 
did not personally observe any such behavior on the part of the 
common Paraguayan Dysderctis ruficollis, which likewise feeds 
principally on Sida spp., but I do not exclude the possibility of its 
occurrence as I noted a conspicuous absence of the smaller nymphs 
on this plant, though older ones, like the adults, were abundant in 
December and January. 

This seems to be the only instance of this sort reported for the 
Hemiptera, and it is definitely a step forward on the road toward 
parental solicitude, being comparable to such cases as the Scara- 

142 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^I^ 

beid beetles which provide pellets of dung before oviposition so 
that the larvae are supplied with the food which they will consume 
during their underground existence, or the solitary wasps which 
lay their eggs upon their paralyzed prey and then bury them be- 
neath the soil. In none of these, however, is there any actual per- 
sonal care displayed by the parent toward the young during incu- 
bation or early life. The brooding habits of the various species re- 
ferred to above represent a very great advance over the case of the 
Dysdercus, since here the parents stand guard over the young until 
they emerge, or even longer. 

Similar brooding habits are also observed in the curious Brazil- 
ian Phloeophana longirostris, a Pentatomid of the subfamily Phloe- 
inae. But here there is still a further advance, in that the female 
is reported actually to carry her young during their infancy. 
Heymons (15) reports a parallel case in an Emesine Reduviid of 
the genus Ghilianella, but I have been unable to locate the original 
reference for this and therefore pass it by without further mention. 

The habits of Phloeophana longirostris were the subject of a 
brief account by P. S. de Magalhaes (30), first published in a daily 
newspaper in Rio de Janeiro and reprinted shortly afterward by R. 
von Ihering (31). The publications where these notes appeared 
are so inaccessible to most entomologists that I give here an ab- 
stract of the account written by Magalhaes. It should be noted 
that he uses the name Phlea admiravel, a Portuguese translation 
of Phloca paradoxa, with which species he confused the form 
under observation. Brien (32) has more recently given an account 
of the early stages of a "Phloea paradoxa/' but since I have been 
unable to see his paper, I can not say whether he was treating of 
the same species as was Magalhaes. 

According to Magalhaes, the curiously flattened Phloeophana, 
with its broadly explanate and deeply excised margins, so closely 
resembles a patch of lichens on the tree trunks or branches where 
it occurs that it is easily overlooked. The Phloeines, like other 
Pentatomids, have odoriferous glands which secrete highly vola- 
tile, non-staining liquids : in some individuals the secretion is most 
offensive in odor, in others quite agreeable, even in different speci- 
mens of the same species taken from a single tree. If these bugs 
are handled for any length of time, the fingers become almost in- 
delibly stained a rusty yellow color, apparently from the secretion 
of small glands in the dorsal integument. A most unusual defence 
reaction is observed in these bugs: if disturbed they eject a jet of 
clear, limpid liquid from the anal orifice, often to a considerable 
distance. Only a slight stimulus is needed to provoke this reac- 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 143 

tion, and even the pressure of a strong wind is sufficient, so that 
where the bugs are numerous the drops of Hquid fall on a windy- 
day like a shower from the trees. This discharge is neutral or very 
weakly acid in reaction, and is non-irritating even when received 
on the conjunctiva of the eye. The bug walks only very slowly, 
with a curious hitching movement of the hind part of the body; 
and it flies with great reluctance unless it is dropped from a con- 
siderable height. 

"During the development of the ova," says Magalhaes, "from 
oviposition until hatching, the mother Phloca remains steadfast at 
the point on the bark where they were laid, and covers them with 
her body." After hatching, the nymphs attach themselves to the 
venter of the parent and are carried by her for many days. "It is 
to be presumed that they are fed by their parent," Magalhaes con- 
tinues. "In what way this service is performed, we do not know. 
The position of the little ones, holding on to the parent, their backs 
turned to the surface of the tree where the parent lives, and the 
softness of the rostrum in the newly hatched nymphs, are reasons 
for supposing that the latter receive their food from the parent. 
In spite of our interest and our close attention, we could not dis- 
cover whether the parent spreads over her abdomen the sap she 
has drawn from the tree, or whether the feeding takes place in some 
other way. . . . Although delicate, fine and flexible, the rostrum 
of the adult penetrates deeply through the cortex of the tree in 
search of the sap which provides its food. It can be withdrawn 
only with difficulty when in this situation, and the insect may even 
be left suspended by its rostrvmi without the latter being pulled 
from the tree trunk." 


1. Breddin, Gustav. 1906. Rhynchotographische Beitrage. 
III. Pachvcoris torrid us auct., eine Sammelart. Wien. Ent. Zeit. 
XXV: 188-191. 

2. Berg, Carlos. 1878. Hemiptera Argentina, etc. Anal. 
See. Cientif. Arg. V: 249. (Reprint, 1879, Hem. Arg. p. 25.) 

3. Ayyar, T. V, M. 1920. Parental Care in Cantao ocellatus. 
Rept. Proc. 3d Entom. Meeting, Pusa, III: 910-914, PI. 142 (in 
color) . 

4. Dodd, F. P. 1904. Notes on Maternal Instinct in Rhyn- 
chota. Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 483-485, PI. XXVII. 

5. Ballard, E., and Hcldav^^ay, F. G. 1926. The Life-history 
of Tectocoris Uncola, and its connection with internal boll-rots in 
Queensland. Bull. Entom. Research XVI : 329-346, 3 pis., 4 figs. 

144 Btdletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

6. Lefroy, H. Maxwell. 1909. Indian Insect Life. Calcutta. 

7. Takahashi, R. . 1921. Parental Care of Canthao (sic) 
ocellatus. Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa XI, No. 54. 6 pp. 
(In Japanese). 

8. Montrouzier, Pere. 1855. Essai sur la faune de Tile de 
Woodlark ou Mouiou. Ann. Sci. phys. nat. agric. Lyon (2) VII 
(pp. 91-92). (Translation by Kirkaldy, 1902, Entomol. XXXV: 

9. Kirkaldy, G. W. 1909. Catalogue of the Hemiptera. I. 
(p. 307.) Berlin. 

10. Modeer, A. 1764. Nagra niarkvardigheter hos Insectet 
Cimex ovatus pallide griseus, abdominis lateribus albo nigroque 
variis alis albis basi scutelli nigricante. Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 

XXV: 41-57- 

11. DeGeer, Carl. 1773. Memoires pour servir a I'histoire 

des Insectes. Ill : 261—266. 

12. Fabre, J. H. 1903. Souvenirs entomologiques, 8me ser., 
pp. 66-87. (Reprinted from: Revue des Questions Scientifiques, 
L: 158-176, 1901.) 

13. Kirkaldy, G. W. 1904. Upon Maternal Solicitude in 
Rhynchota and other Non-social Insects. Smithsonian Rept. 1903 : 
577-585. (Revised by the author from: Entomol. XXXVI : 113- 
120, 1903). 

14. Butler, E. A. 1923. A Biology of British Hemiptera- 
Heteroptera. (pp. 80-84.) London. 

15. Heymons, R. 1915. Schnabelkerfe, in: Brehm's Tier- 
leben, 4. Aufl., II : 143. 

16. Nielsen, E. 1920. Track af Insekternes Liv. Nogle lagt- 
tagelser. Entom. Meddel. (Copenhagen) XIII: 168-180. (p. 

17. Schouteden, H. 1903. La sollicitude maternelle chez 
les Hemipteres. Rev. Univ. Bruxelles VIII : yyi-yjy ; reprint, pp. 

5-1 1- 

18. Jensen-Haarup, A. C. 1916. Flor. og Faun. (Copen- 
hagen) pp. 124-126; also 1917, Ent. Mitteil. VI : 187. 

19. Schumacher, F. 1917. Ent. Mitteil. VI : 243-249. 

20. Rau, P. 1918. Maternal Care in Dinocoris tripteriis. 
Ent. News XXIX: 75. 

21. Weiss, Harry B. 1919. Notes on Gar^o/'/n'a ^//m^ Walsh, 
the Linden Lace-Bug. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXXII : 165-168, 

22. Fink, D. E. 1915. The Eggplant Lace-Bug. Bull. 239, 
U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Entom, 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 145 

23. McClure, H. Elliott. 1932. Incubation of Bark-bug 
Eggs (Aradidae). Ent. News XLIII: 188-189. 

24. Bequaert, J. 1912. L'instinct maternal chez RJiinocoris 
albopilosus (Sign.). Rev. Zool. Afric. I: 293-296, i fig. 

25. Bequaert, J. 1913. Note rectificative concernant I'etho- 
logie de Rhinocoris albopilosus Sign. Rev. Zool. Afric. II: 187- 

26. Jeannel, R. 1909. Sur les moeurs et metamorphoses de 
Phyllouwrpha laciniata. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, pp. 282-286, figs. 

2"/. de la Torrfe-Bueno, J. R. 191 1. The Gerrids of the At- 
lantic States (Subf. Gerrinae). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 
XXXVn : 243-252. (p. 252.) 

28. Bouvier, E. L. 192 1. Habitudes et metamorphoses des 
Insectes. (p. 179.) Paris. 

29. Barber, T. C. 1925. Preliminary Observations on an 
Insect of the Cotton Stainer Group new to the United States. 
Jour. Agr. Res. XXXI: 11 37-1 147, figs. 

30. de Magalhaes, Pedro S. 1909. No mundo dos Insectos. 
Jornal de Commercio (Rio de Janeiro), April 19, 1909, p. 4. 

31. Von Ihering, Rodolpho. 1909. As especies 'brasileiras 
do gen. Phloea. Entomol. Brasileiro (Sao Paulo) II: 129-133. 

32. Brien, P. 1923. Note sur P/i/o^a /^araJara Burm. (1835). 
Bull. Soc. Ent. Belg. V: 109-113. 

146 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^^- ^^I^ 


By Wm. T. M. Forbes, Department of Entomology, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. 

It has been generally recognized that the chitinous parts of the 
successive stages of an insect tend to increase at each molt in con- 
stant ratio. In the caterpillar the most convenient part to measure 
is the width of the head, and the ratio between head widths at suc- 
cessive molts is known as Dyar's ratio. ^ 

There is still much room for study of the exceptions and irregu- 
larities in this law. A common condition is that one sex should 
have a stage more than the other, where it is much larger in the 
adult; and this seems to be the case in the tussock caterpillars 
(Heincrocaiupa). Another common variation is that one of the 
regular stages should be omitted, giving a double ratio for one molt 
and a total number of stages one less ; or in contrast there may be 
an additional stage interpolated, giving a half ratio for two suc- 
cessive molts. ^ Finally the law may be less rigidly carried out, and 
we get a variable head size, depending on the food supply or some 
other unknown factor. The latter group of cases have not been 
analysed as yet, and cannot be solved by the simple attack of mak- 
ing a few scattered measurements of single larvae, or even carry- 
ing a stray larva or two through its series of stages. 

A recent paper at last gives us some data on a case of this type.^ 
The black or greasy cutworm {Agrotis ypsilon), which must be 
carefully discriminated from the black or black army cutworm of 

^ Dyar, Psyche v. 420-422, 1890; see also Imms, Text-Book of 
Entomology, 183. 

^ Dyar gives a striking example of skipped stages in Psyche vi 
146, 316. Apatelodes torrefacta shows the ratio 1.26, which should 
indicate eight stages: one larva measured had the sizes .65, .8, 1.3, 
2.2, 3.3 mm. omitting stages 3, 5 and 7 ; while another showed the 
measurements 1.3, 1.6, 2.1, 2.6 and 3.2 mm., showing all the stages 
in the part of the development obtained. On the other hand, there 
are many cases of an interpolated stage, e.g., Stretchia pliisiiformis 
and Syneda Jiozvlandi in Dyar's report on Colorado Lepidoptera, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. xxv: 377. In the former the stages are .4, 
.6, i.o, 1.5 (1.8) and 2.3 mm., the next to last stage interpolated in 
one case, with ratios half the usual ; in the latter the series is .4, .6, 
1.0 (1.3), 1.5, 2.3 and over 3 mm., the interpolated stage occurring 
between the normal third and fourth. 

^ Satterthwait, Jour. Agr. Res. xlvi, 517 ff. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 147 

the North (A. fennica), has a variable number of stages, 6 or 7, 
rarely 8. We find that specimens with the larger number of molts 
grow hardly larger (fig. i), though Satterth wait's tables 6 and 7 
indicate that the ones with 7 stages consume from 7 to 10 per cent 
more food, sex for sex, than those with 6. 

Fig. I. 

In Fig. I I have plotted the head-sizes given in Satterthwait's 
table I ; using a logarithmic scale, so that a straight line will indi- 
cate a steady percentage increase in size. It is noticeable that in 
this case the final size (upper ends of lines) is about the same with 
all three sets, and that each line is fairly straight, with some falling 
off at the top, indicating a slower increase in the last 2 or 3 stages. 
Also the molts are about evenly spaced on each line, indicating that 
instead of interpolating a stage to make the larger number, or 
jumping a stage to make the smaller number, each number of 
stages is foreshadowed from the first molt. 

If we plot these ratios (Fig. 2) we find that as before, the ratio 
of growth is lower for each added stage, but the irregularities are 
such that the difference in the first three stages may not mean any- 
thing. What is striking is a large jump in head-size at the third 
molt, for those which are only going to have six stages, the head 
practically doubling in diameter — and a somewhat smaller special 
increase in the following molt. It appears on the face of the record 

148 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^ol xxix 

that whatever makes the difference between the six and seven 
stage cycles occurs shortly before the third molt. 

Dyar's ratios calculate as follows : 

Stage 6 stages 

1-2 1.63 

2-3 1.72 

3-4 1-93 

4-5 1.82 

5-6 1-49 



Average 1.72 

Av. 1-5 1.77 

Av. rest 1.49 

7 stages 8 stages 













1. 17 







Unfortunately no protocols are given so that it is not possible to 
say if this jump is due to a general increase of head size in the 
entire lot, or to the averaging in of a group of specimens that 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 149 

skipped a molt at tliis point, with others that skipped one at some 
later stage. 

Both the curve, and the figures of average Dyar's ratios indicate 
that growth falls off in the later stages (after the fifth) . This spe- 
cies has an unusually small tgg in proportion to its adult size, and 
it would appear that the earlier stages show abnormally large incre- 
ments of growth, while the later ones are more normal. It is con- 
sidered most typical for an insect to double in volume at each molt, 
which would indicate a Dyar's ratio of only 1.26; but somewhat 
higher ratios are more common in the caterpillars. The averages 
given for the later stages: 1.49, 1.37, 1.21, are within the normal 

Synonymy of two North American Mycetophilidae (Dip- 
tera). — A specimen of Mycetophila (Opistlwloba) occllata Joh. 
(1912) has been compared by Dr. F. W. Edwards, of the British 
Museum, with the European M. caudata Staeger (1840) and found 
to be identical. Landrock in Lindner's "Die Fliegen der palaearkt- 
ischen Region" places Exechia casta Joh. (1912) as a synonym of 
Exechia frigida (Holm. 1865). — O. A. Johannsen, Ithaca, N. Y. 

150 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^L xxix 




By H. J. Reinhard, College Station, Texas. 

This paper contains a discussion of the generic characters of 
the tachinid genus Spathidexia, with a key to the species, four in 
number, of which two are described for the first time. Types of 
the new species are in my collection. 

Townsend erected the genus on internal characters of the female 
reproductive system, with clemonsi, new, as the type and sole spe- 
cies (Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc, vol. 20, 1912, p. no) ; having previously 
referred to the intended genus under the number TD371 (Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer., vol. 4, 191 1, p. 140). In 1916, he pubHshed a 
brief description of the external characters (Ins. Insc. Mens., vol. 
4, p. 23). Perhaps the most striking character of the genus is the 
unusually long backwardly directed larvipositor in the female. The 
genus is briefly recharacterized below. 

Generic characters, from the type species: Eyes bare, de- 
scending almost to vibrissae ; cheeks very narrow ; length of 
head at antennae much greater than at vibrissae, which are on 
the oral margin at lower edge of head ; front moderately wide 
in both sexes with two pairs of proclinate orbitals present; 
ocellars distinct, proclinate ; frontal bristles reaching to middle 
of second antennal segment ; antennae inserted a little below 
middle of eye, elongate reaching nearly to oral margin, third 
segment three times longer than the second; arista slender, 
with short basal segments ; parafacials bare, greatly narrowed 
on lower part; facial ridges diverging downward, bearing a 
few hairs next to vibrissae ; palpi well developed ; proboscis 
short, with a fleshy labella. Thoracic chaetotaxy: acrostichal 
3, 3; dorsocentral 3, 3; humeral 3 or 4; posthumeral 3; pre- 
sutural I (outer); notopleural 2; intraalar 3; supraalar 3; 
postalar 2; sternopleural 1,1; pteropleural o; scutellum with 
two marginal, one small discal and a good-sized decussate api- 
cal pair; prosternum and propleura bare; postscutellum nor- 
mally developed; infrasquamal hairs absent. Abdomen with- 
out any discal bristles ; female with a long flattened retractile 
larvipositor, tapering shortly before apex which is not very 
acute, behind with a shallow median groove and in profile 
rather distinctly bowed from base to tip. Claws and pulvilli in 
both sexes shorter than apical tarsal segment. Wing rather 
short and broad, with ordinary venation ; first vein bare, sec- 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 151 

oncl setulose to small cross vein; apical cell open shortly before 
wing tip ; costal spine distinct. 

Key to Species of Spathidexia. 

1. Abdominal segments two to four with defined silvery bands on 

base ; paraf rentals and pleura pale-haired ; mesonotum thickly 

pollinose 2 

Fourth abdominal segment wholly polished black, the two pre- 
ceding ones with thin or changeable whitish pollen on basal 
margin ; paraf rontals, pleura, and mesonotum blackish, sub- 
shining, and clothed with black hairs ; legs black, middle tibia 
with three anterodorsal bristles (Wisconsin and Ohio). 

rasilis n. sp. 

2. Mesonotal hairs black; parafacials bare 3 

Hairs on mesonotum white ; parafacials with fine white hairs 

extending to lower third ; arista slender to base, finely pubes- 
cent ; first abdominal segment with a pair of median mar- 
ginals ; legs black ; third vein of wing setulose almost to mid- 
dle of last section (Ohio) cerussata n. sp. 

3. Arista distinctly short-haired; abdominal pollen bands covering 

the basal third of segments two to four ; tibiae reddish ; mod- 
erate-sized species 6 to 7.5 mm. (New England, Washington, 

D. C, Kentucky, and Texas) clemonsi Townsend 

Arista microscopically pubescent ; last three abdominal seg- 
ments silvery on basal fifth to fourth; legs wholly black; 
small species 4 to 5.5 mm. (Texas, Illinois to New England). 

dunningii Coquillett 

Spathidexia clemonsi Townsend. 

Spathidexia clemonsi Townsend, Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc, vol. 20, 
1912, p. no; Ins. Insc. Mens., vol. 4, 1916, p. 23. 

The principal characters of the species have been mentioned in 
the generic discussion and the key. The larvipositor is a trifle 
broader, shorter, and more strongly bowed than in dunningii. 
There are 15 females in my collection taken at College Station, 
from June to October. I have not seen any specimens of the male 

Spathidexia dunningii Coquillett. 

TJiryptocera dunningii Coquillett, Jr. N. Y. Ent. Soc, vol. 3, 

1895. P- 54- 
Hypostena dunningii Coquillett, Revis. Tachinid., 1897, p. 60. 
A small species closely resembling the genotype ; the main dis- 
tinguishing characters are given in the accompanying key. The 
female larvipositor is about the same, but less distinctly bowed, ap- 
proximating the combined length of last two abdominal segments 

152 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

above, in repose the apical fourth to third projecting beyond tip of 
abdomen. Male genitalia with rather broad outer forceps, the tips 
rounded and bowed inward ; inner forceps divided and delicate be- 
yond the slightly swollen base ; penis simple, thickest shortly before 
apex; fifth sternite with a shallow V-shaped incision behind thence 
narrowly divided, the lobes bearing a few short brownish hairs. 

A long series of specimens, including both sexes, taken at Col- 
lege Station, Texas, from May to October. The host relationships 
are not known. 

Spathidexia cerussata, n. sp. 

Male. — Eyes bare, descending to the vibrissae which are at 
the oral margin ; pollen on face, cheeks, posterior orbits, and 
front dense, silvery-white with a faint yellow tinge near the 
vertex; front 0.27 of the head width in the one specimen, 
barely wider at base of antennae ; paraf rontals clothed with 
white hairs which extend thinly downward to lower third of 
paraf acials ; median stripe dark, narrow, obscured by pollen in 
most views ; inner verticals and two procHnate orbitals strongly 
developed ; ocellars present, divergent and proclinate ; f rontals 
in a single row of four strong bristles interspaced with three 
smaller ones, the lowermost weak at middle of second anten- 
nal segment, upper pair large diverging posteriorly, the next 
two strong bristles reclinate and decussate ; antennae about as 
long as face, basal segments red, third largely black, convex 
on front edge, nearly four times the length of second ; arista 
blackish, finely pubescent, hardly thickened on basal part, sec- 
ond segment short ; paraf acials linear on lower extremity ; 
facial ridges bearing one or two hairs next to vibrissae ; pro- 
boscis short, fleshy ; labella and palpi pale yellow ; cheek almost 
linear; back of head blackish, gray pollinose, with pale hairs 
which become longer and denser downward. 

Thorax black, covered with thick white pollen which is unin- 
terrupted on the mesonotum ; the latter and pleura clothed 
with white hairs ; scutellum concolorous with mesonotum but 
the hairs on disk black. Chaetotaxy as in clemonsi; postscu- 
tellum black, densely gray pollinose ; infrasquamal hairs ab- 
sent; calypters semitransparent, whitish, inner margin of 
posterior lobe tinged with yellow. 

Abdomen slender, tapering evenly from near base to apex, 
shining black with dense silvery pollen on basal fourth of seg- 
ments two to four; no discals present, hairs on entire upper 
surface depressed ; two basal segments each bearing a marginal 
row of bristles which are depressed between the median sub- 
erect pair and the larger ones at the sides ; third and fourth 
segments with a marginal row of eight or ten well developed 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 153 

bristles; venter with some pale hairs at middle of first seg- 
ment, the pollen bands of last three segments tapering inward 
to the median line. 

Legs black, fore femora thickly white pollinose and pale- 
haired on hind side ; hind tibia not ciliate, the middle pair with 
one anterodorsal bristle ; claws and pulvilli small. 

Wings subhyaline ; veins bare except third which is setulose 
almost to middle of last section ; fourth vein with a broad 
evenly rounded stumpless bend, thence oblique to costa nar- 
rowing the apical cell which is open shortly before the exact 
wing tip; hind cross vein joining the fourth a trifle nearer 
bend than small cross vein ; last section of fifth vein fully one- 
third the length of the preceding section; epaulets blackish; 
costal spine distinct. 

Length, 7 mm. Female not known. 

Described from one specimen, Amherst, Ohio, July, 1933 (H. J. 

In general appearance the species is very similar to cleiiionsi and 
dunningii, differing from both in having the mesonotum clothed 
with white hairs, parafacials bearing a few fine but distinct hairs, 
first abdominal segment with a pair of median marginals, and the 
third wing vein setulose far beyond the small cross vein. 

Spathidexia rasilis n. sp. 

Female. — Front at vertex 0.33 of the head width in one 
specimen, widening slightly downward; parafrontals black 
and subshining on upper part with denser gray pollen below 
the middle, clothed with short black hairs ; median stripe dark 
velvety brown, slightly narrower than one paraf rontal ; inner 
verticals stout, curving backward; ocellars not very large, di- 
vergent and proclinate ; f rentals above antennae decussate ex- 
cept the uppermost which is directed outward and backward, 
the preceding pair distinctly reclinate with the lowermost about 
at middle of second antennal segment ; orbitals two, proclinate ; 
face and cheeks dark with moderately shining gray or almost 
plumbeous pollen ; parafacial bare, greatly narrowed on lower 
part; facial ridges bearing bristly hairs on lower third; vibris- 
sae at level with front edge of mouth ; antennae as long as 
face, third segment black, about two and one-half times the 
length of second which is red at apex; arista black, slightly 
thickened on proximal fifth, microscopically pubescent, middle 
segment short ; palpi yellow, thickened apically ; proboscis 
short ; labella fleshy, reddish-yellow ; eyes bare ; cheeks about 
one-tenth the eye height ; back of head black with thin plum- 
beous pollen and only a few pale hairs on lower margin. 

154 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o?. xxix 

Thorax black, thinly dusted with gray pollen ; mesonotum 
subshining, showing no defined vittae and clothed with coarse 
black hairs ; scutellum black, subshining, at most faintly pru- 
inose; pleural hairs black. Chaetotaxy as in clemonsi; post- 
scutellum normally developed ; inf rasquamal hairs absent ; 
calypters semitransparent, white. 

Abdomen polished black, basal edge of second segment with 
thin gray pollen, which is thicker on basal third of the follow- 
ing segment and interrupted at the middle when viewed from 
above, fourth without pollen and wholly shining; hairs on 
upper surface depressed, no discals ; first segment without 
median marginals ; second with a large pair besides some dis- 
tinct bristles at the sides ; third with a marginal row of ten or 
twelve ; fourth bearing a similar row of about eight with some 
smaller bristles between these and the apex ; genitalia w^ith a 
flattened posteriorly directed larvipositor about as in clemonsi. 

Legs shining black ; middle tibia with two large bristles and 
one smaller on outer front side; hind tibia with two good- 
sized bristles on the inner and outer posterior edge, the rest 
smaller and uneven ; claws and pulvilli short. 

Wings subhyaline, with a faint yellow tinge along costal 
margin ; bend of fourth vein rounded, without a stump or fold ; 
apical cross vein slightly arcuate ; first posterior cell open just 
before wing tip; first vein bare, third with hairs extending 
from base almost to small cross vein ; hind cross vein reaching 
the fourth about two-fifths the distance from bend to small 
cross vein; last section of fifth vein approximately one-third 
the length of preceding one ; costal spine well developed. 

Length, 4.5 to 6 mm. Male unknown. 

One specimen without collector's label, Madison, Wisconsin, May 
31, 1931 (holotype) ; and one specimen, Amherst, Ohio, July, 1933 
(H.J. Reinhard). 

Like the genotype, the species has a backwardly protruding larvi- 
positor but differs from this and the rest of the species by having 
a blacker and more shining general appearance. Additional differ- 
ences are mentioned in the description and key. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 155 


By J. R. DE LA ToRRE-BuENo, White Plains, N. Y. 


The bugs collected in the West and Southwest in the course of 
his trip in the summer of 1933 by Mr. George P. Engelhardt, while 
naturally limited as to species and numbers, nevertheless contain 
some interesting forms and new records for the States of Oregon, 
Washington, Utah and Nevada. All are set forth here, either as 
confirmatory of published records or as extending the range of 
some of the forms. The species are typical of the West and South, 
except for widespread nearctic or palaearctic species, such as 
Thyanta custator, Eurygaster alternatiis, Brochymena quadripiistu- 
lafa, Elasuiostethns cruciafiis, Harmostes reflexidus, Corisus lat- 
eralis, Lygaeus kalmii, two Nysius, Geocoris bullafus, Emhlcthis 
vicarius, Sinea diadema, Salda inter stitialis and 6^. coriacea, and the 
very interesting ant-mimic Orectoderus obliquus. Characteristi- 
cally western are : Thyanta hrevis, Pentatoina sayi, Perillus hiocu- 
latus var. clanda, Alydus pluto, Corizus scutatus, Geocoris atri- 
color, Ligyrocoris latimarginatus, Aradiis hlaisdelli, Nabis lovetti. 
However, many of these are new distributional records, as will be 
noted hereafter. 

Eurygaster alternatiis Say — Alt. Rainier National Forest, Oregon, 

4 specimens. May 5. 
Brochymena quadripustidata Fabricius — One from Coleman Lake, 

Oregon, June 24; seems not heretofore reported from the 

Thyanta custator Fabricius — Guano Ranch, Nevada, June 24 ; Lake 

View, Lake Co., Oregon, June 23. 
Th. brevis Van Duzee — Blitzen River, Oregon, June 25 ; Garfield 

Co., Utah. New for Oregon. 
Th. sp. — A small species something like brevis, but not identified. 

Guano Ranch, Nevada, June 24. 
Pentatoma sayi Stal — W^iite Swan, Washington, July 4; Green 

River, Utah, August 4 ; Moab, Utah, August 6. These seem 

to be new records for both States. 
Perillus bioculatus Fabricius var. clanda Say — Utah Lake, Utah, 

August I. 
Elasmostethus cruciatus Say — Pine Creek, Baker, Oregon, June 

14, 3 specimens of this widespread form. 

156 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society Vol. XXIX 

Mozena sp. — St. George, Utah, July 22 ; this is a common south- 
western species not as yet satisfactorily determined specifi- 

Catorhititha guttula Stal — Westport, Nevada, July 7 ; one specimen 
of this species, which does not appear to have been recorded 
from the State heretofore. 

Alydus pluto Uhler — White Swan, Washington, July 4, and Pull- 
man, July 1 1 . 

Harmostes refiexulus Say — Mt. Rainier National Forest, Oregon, 


Coricus crassicornis Linne — One from Pullman, Washington, July 
13, which appears to be a new distribution record for this 
holarctic species. 

Corl::us scntatus Stal — One from Grand Pass, Oregon, June 20. 

Corisus lateralis Say — One from White Swan, Washington, July 
4 ; the common nearctic species. 

Lygaeus kalmii Stal — Fish Lake, Utah, July 23 ; Timpanogas, 
Utah, July 30 ; Utah Lake, Utah, August i ; Garfield Co., 
Utah, July 4; Pine Creek, Baker Co., Oregon, July 14; Mal- 
heur Pass, Canyon Mts., Oregon, June 26. These are mostly 
the western var. angustimarginatus Parsh. 

Nysins thymi Wolfif — Guano Ranch, Nevada, June 20; Moab, 
Utah, August 8. 

Nysius ericae Schilling — Fish Lake, Utah, July 23 ; Mt. Rainier 
National Park, Oregon, July 5. The two species above are 
likewise widespread, holarctic in distribution. 

Ligyrocoris latiuiarginatns Barber — White Swan, Washington, 
July 4. This is a characteristically western species. 

Emhlethis vicarius Horvath — Garfield Co., Utah, July 4, 2 speci- 
mens; Newport Beach, Washington, one. I can find nothing 
to distinguish this from eastern specimens. It seems not as 
yet recorded from Washington. 

Aradus hlaisdelli Van Duzee — Pine Creek, Baker, Oregon, July 14; 
one somewhat dilapidated specimen of this western form. 

Reduviolus snhcoleoptratus Kirby — Pullman, Washington, July 11. 

Nobis capsiformis Germar — Provo Lake, Utah, August 8, one 
specimen of this palaearctic species which seems widely dis- 
tributed in the nearctic region. 

Nabis lovetti Harris — Utah Lake, Provo, Utah, August i ; 2 speci- 
mens of this species described and reported only from Oregon. 

Pagasa sp., nymphs — Two from Garfield, Utah, July 4 ; too young 
to determine. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 157 

Sinea diadcina Fabricius — Pullman, Washington, July 4 ; one speci- 

Apioincrus spissipes Say — Two from Whistler, Alabama, June ii ; 
this is the common southern species. 

Orius sp. — Klamath Indian Reservation, Oregon, June 22 ; there 
is only one badly dilapidated specimen of this, which is prob- 
ably our common widespread insidiosiis Say. 

Anthocoris sp. — Mount Timpanogas, Provo, Utah, July 29; the two 
specimens before me look like the European nemorum. 

There is in addition one undetermined Anthocorid, from Pullman, 
Washington, July 13. 

Orectodcnis ohliquus Uhler — One specimen from Mt. Rainier Na- 
tional Forest, July 5. This is the widespread ant-mimic. 

Labops hirtits Knight — Mount Rainier National Forest, Oregon, 
July 5 ; 5 specimens of this species, which apparently has here- 
tofore been recorded only from Alberta, British Columbia 
and Wyoming. 

There are also eight other species of Miridae, thus far undeter- 

Gerris robiistus Uhler — Five specimens from Santa Rita Mts., Ari- 
zona, June 14; one a nymph. According to Drake, this is a 
synonym of Gerris reiiiigis Say. 

Microvelia sp. — Las Vegas, Nevada, July 21. There are eight 
specimens of this species, near amcricana Uhler, which I have 
not yet succeeded in determining to my satisfaction. 

Salda coriacea Uhler — One from Mt. Rainier National Forest, 
Oregon, July 5. 

Saldida interstitialis Say — 3 specimens of this widespread North 
American species from Utah Lake, Provo, Utah. 

Notonecta lohata Hungerford — Santa Rita Mts., Arizona, June 
16; 3 specimens of this typical southwestern form, common in 
that State. 

Notonecta insitlata Kirby(?) — Ogden, Utah, July 25; this is the 
western species, usually so determined. 

158 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 

Vol. XXIX 


By Harvey L. Sweetman, Massachusetts State College, 
Amherst, Mass. 

The Apterygota is a very primitive group of insects, none of 
them reaching the high morphological specialization that is com- 
mon among the Pterygota. While several species of apterygotan 
insects are being studied, this report will be confined largely to two 
species, Thermobia domestica Pack., and Lepisma saccliarina L.^ 
The Thysanura, according to Crampton (1928) are among the 
more advanced of the apterygotan insects. Crampton's classifica- 
tion of the Apterygota will be followed in this paper. 

It is well known that the Apterygota are ametabolous in their de- 
velopment, that is, the young are essentially like the adults in struc- 
ture and undergo no radical morphological changes. While a few 
structures of the adults are lacking among the newly hatched 
nymphs, the most conspicuous one is the absence of scales until the 
third molt when the young nymphs become sparsely clothed with 

A common belief among entomologists is that the Thysanura, at 
least, do not molt directly as most insects do, but that the cuticula 
is shed in small bits at a time and more or less continuously. How- 
ever, this is not the case with the species under observation. The 
molts are definite and complete, even on legs, antennae, and cerci. 
The cuticula splits along the dorsal midline of the thorax and head, 
and the insect emerges through this opening leaving the exuvium 
intact and in one piece, including the appendages. Generally the 
exuviae are eaten by the newly emerged individuals, or others, 
shortly after being cast oiT, except after the first and second larval 
instars. This habit, which is common among many insects, per- 
sisted even though fish meal and dried beef were available in the 

The frequency of molting of Therniobia domestica and Lepisma 
saccliarina depends very much on the rate of metabolism, which in 
turn in influenced by the environmental conditions ; a temperature 
of 37° C. and a relative humidity of 75 per cent being near the 
optimum for the former, and a temperature of about 28° and rela- 

^ A more complete report, the results of an investigation cover- 
ing two years, of the ecology and biology of Thermobia domestica 
is being prepared for publication. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 159 

tive humidity of 90 per cent being near the optimum for the latter. 
Under such conditions, especially with Therinobia, molting is fre- 
quent with both nymphs and adults. The time between molts is 
quite variable, but roughly among adults can be expected to occur 
on an average of 20 to 25 days at ^7° and 40 to 50 days at 22° for 
Thennobia. Among the immature stages at 37° the interval be- 
tween molts, after the first, which occurs when the nymphs are 
about one day old, gradually lengthens with age from about 5 to 6 
days to that of the adult. At 22° the time before the first molt re- 
quires approximately 4 days, the second instar requiring about 11 
days. The intervals between the last two or three molts preceding 
death of the adults is frequently shortened and may approximate 10 

The number of molts that the Thysanura undergo is indefinite. 
Spencer (1930) suggests that approximately 14 instars are passed 
in the immature stages of the fire brat, but some of the specimens 
under observation by the writer have passed beyond that number 
and are definitely still immature. The writer knows of no criterion 
that can be said to definitely indicate maturation, but it is suggested 
that the length of the ovipositor may furnish a useful measure with 
the females. The writer has considered specimens definitely adult, 
once eggs are produced, but oviposition cannot be taken as a cri- 
terion since high temperature seems to be essential for egg produc- 
tion although development will occur at much lower temperatures. 
Size cannot be used as a measure of reaching adulthood as some in- 
dividuals are much smaller than others when the first eggs are laid, 
even when reared in identical environments. Since the adults molt 
throughout life it is evident that no definite numbers of molts can 
be assigned to a given species. 

Apparently it has not been recognized that the Thysanura molt 
throughout life at frequent intervals, although the Collembola are 
credited with this phenomenon (Folsom, 1926; Comstock, 1926; 
Imms, 1929). Metcalf and Flint (1932) make no reference to 
adult molting of Thysanura and Collembola, and in a table indicate 
that adult molting does not occur. Imms definitely states that the 
Collembola and Ephemeroptera are the only forms that molt after 
maturation. Spencer (1930) reports that apparently Thcrmohia 
domcstica can go through life molting if necessity arises. Well- 
house (1928) states that Cauipodea stapJiyliniis Westw. molts the 
same as other insects, but may continue to molt after reaching the 
adult stage. However, Imms following Grassi says, Cauipodea has 
only a single fragmentary ecdysis during its development. Appar- 

160 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- -^■X'lZ 

ently Spencer and Wellhouse believe that adult molting of these in- 
sects is unusual. Sanborn (1919) claims to have worked out the 
life history of Lepisma saccharina in some detail, but makes no 
reference to the adults molting. Rafif (1933) working with Cteno- 
lepisma lincata Fabr. speaks of six to seven instars in the life cycle. 
Folsom (1920) in a general paper definitely states that the Aptery- 
gota molt at frequent intervals throughout life and that the number 
of molts is indefinite. However, in his text (1926) no reference 
is made to adult molting of Thysanura, while the Collembola and 
mayflies are so mentioned. Cornwall (1915) in studying a lepis- 
matid in India, tentatively identified as L. saccharina, found that 
the adults molted as well as the nymphs. The writer (1933) em- 
phasized the fact that normally the Thysanura molt throughout life. 
Recently Adams (1934) reported molting among the adults of T. 

Several writers (Tillyard, Metcalf and Flint, Imms) refer to 
certain insects as Plecoptera, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera as hav- 
ing 20 or more molts. Imms assigns 23 for mayflies and a single 
molt for Campodca and Japyx. My records show that the Thy- 
sanura, in certain favorable environments at least, commonly ex- 
ceed this number. If all this is true the variation among the spe- 
cies of Apterygota in number of molts is far greater than any 
known cases among the Pterygota. 

A few records of the regeneration of appendages are available 
(Lubbock, 1870; Sanborn, 1919), but apparently it is thought to 
be confined to the nymphs. The writer has observed regeneration 
in adults as well as nymphs of the greater portion of the antennae, 
lateral and caudal cerci, and at least the tibia and tarsi of the legs. 
Complete regeneration is evident following a molt, unless molting 
only a few days following injury, and not partial as frequently 
seen among the Arachnida. 

Molting throughout life, after maturation as well as before, is 
common to the apterygotan insects, Crustacea, and chilopods,^ and 
perhaps other groups of Arthropoda. Regeneration of jointed ap- 
pendages is common throughout the molting periods of apterygotan 
insects, Crustacea, chilopods, diplopods, and arachnids, and perhaps 
other groups of Arthropoda. The method of fertilization as given 
by Spencer (1930) for Thermohia domestica and, partially con- 
firmed by the writer, is more primitive than is known among ptery- 

^ The information regarding chilopods and diplopods was fur- 
nished through the kindness of Dr. R. V. Chamberlin at the Uni- 
versity of Utah. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 161 

gotan insects. The males go through a "love dance" performance 
in the presence of the females, during which a spermatophore is 
dropped. This later is picked up by the female and the transfer of 
sperm accomplished. This, according to Spencer, is suggestive of 
that occurring among the chilopods. These facts are suggestive of 
a close relationship or, at least, of common ancestry of these ar- 
thropodan forms. 

Adams, J. A. 1934. Biological notes upon the fire brat, 

TJiennobia doiiicstica Packard. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 41 : 

Comstock, J. H. 1926. An introduction to entomology. 

The Comstock Publishing Co., Ithaca. N. Y. 
Cornwall, J. W. 1915. Lepisnia saccharina {?), its life history 

and anatomy and its gregarine parasites. Ind. Jour. Med. 

Res. 3: 116-34. 
Crampton, G. C. 1928. The grouping of the insect orders 

and their lines of descent. The Entomologist 61 : 82-5. 
Folsom, J. W. 1920. The life cycle of Apterygota. Ann. 

Ent. Soc. Amer. 13: 133-7. 
. 1926. Entomology with reference to its ecological 

aspects. P. Blakiston's Son Co. Philadelphia. 
Imms, A. D. 1929. Textbook of entomology. Mcthuen & 

Co., Ltd. London. 
Lubbock, J. 1870. British Thysanura. Trans. Linnean 

Soc. 27 (Abs. in Zoo. Rec. 7: 446-7. 1870). 
Metcalf, C. L. & Flint, W. P. 1932. Fundamentals of insect 

life. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York. 
Raff, J. W. 1933. Notes on silver fish. Victorian Nat. 

50: 1 1 1-5. 
Sanborn, C. E. 1919. The silver fish. Mo. Agr. Exp. Sta. 

28 Rpt. 1919:43-4. 
Spencer, G. J. 1930. The fire brat, Thennobia domestica 

Packard (Lepismidae) in Canada. Can. Ent. 62: 1-2. 
Sweetman, H. L. 1933. (Paper delivered before the Ent. 

Soc. of Amer. at the Boston meetings of the A. A. A. S.). 
Tillyard, R. J. 1926. The insects of Australia and Nev^ 

Zealand. xAngus & Robertson, Ltd., Sydney. 
Wellhouse, W. H. 1928. How insects live. An elementary 

entomology. The Macmillan Co., New York. 

162 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 



By Harry H. Knight, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

For a number of years the writer has had in mind a careful study 
of Neurocolpus material. Recent work on a monograph of Illinois 
Miridae has made it necessary that I arrive at some conclusion re- 
garding the variable species, nubilits Say and allies. Some results 
of this study are herewith presented in a key with descriptions of 
five new species. Good specific characters have been found in the 
structure of the antennae, while some species dififer in the length 
of rostrum. Three of the new species are recorded from New York 
and added to the list brings the total number of known Miridae up 
to 306 species for the state. 

Neurocolpus tiliae n. sp. 

Allied to nubilus Say but distinguished by the relatively 
longer first antennal segment, also by the longer rostrum 
which exceeds posterior margins of hind coxae. 

^. Length 5.7 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head : width .996 mm., 
vertex .476 mm. Rostrum, length 2.55 mm., exceeding poste- 
rior margins of hind coxae and touching upon fourth ventral 
segment. Antennae: segment I, length 1.43 mm., slightly 
compressed, greatest width .237 mm. near middle, clothed with 
erect, flattened black hairs, intermixed with erect, slightly 
longer, simple pale hairs, orange yellow, irregularly marked 
with reddish to fuscous dots; II, 2.03 mm., slender, becoming 
clavate on apical third (width .15 mm.), pale, thickened part 
dark red to blackish; III, .78 mm., yellowish, apical third red- 
dish to black; IV, .74 mm., fuscous. Pronotum: length 1.25 
mm., width at base 1.82 mm., basal margin distinctly sinuate 
on middle. 

Dorsal aspect yellowish to orange red, hemelytra with a con- 
siderable number of yellowish spots, larger and in part conflu- 
ent on cuneus ; scutellum paler, irregularly marked with dark 
granulate reticulations ; pronotum yellowish, usually darkened 
by hypodermal reddish granulations, propleura pale, coxal 
cleft crossed by two irregular dark rays. Membrane fuscous, 
a rounded spot each side touching margin, discal spot, also 
bordering cuneus within areoles, paler. Hemelytra clothed 
with golden, slightly sericeous, recumbent pubescence, inter- 
mixed with some simple, pale to fuscous hairs, pronotum 
with much longer hairs. Body beneath pale to yellowish, sides 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 163 

of thorax and abdomen darkened with reddish and fuscous, 
two paler longitudinal lines running through the dark color. 
Legs pale to yellowish, hind femora darkened on apical half 
with reddish and fuscous, also provided with a few flattened 
black hairs ; tibiae pale to reddish, not distinctly banded. 

$. Length 5.6 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head : width .996 mm., 
vertex .476 mm. Antennae : segment I, length 1.47 mm., width 
.238 mm.; II, 1.95 mm., width of clavate part .173 mm.; Ill, 
.86 mm.; IV, .86 mm. Pronotum : length 1.25 mm., width at 
base 1.77 mm. Very similar to the male in form and colora- 

Holotypc: ^, July 11, 1922, St. Anthony Park, Ramsey County, 
Minnesota (H. H. Knight) ; author's collection. Allotype: same 
data as the type. Paratypes: 48J*, $, taken with the types on Tilia 
americana where the species was breeding. 5- J^^^Y ^4> 7(^' ?' J^^Y 

24, 1924, topotypic (H. H. Knight). <^, 5, July 11, topotypic; ^, 
July II, 1921, Lake City (A. A. Nichol). ^, 2$, July 12, 1922, 
topotypic (C. Johnson). Iowa — ^, June 21, $, June 24, 1929, 
Ames (H. H. Knight) ; on Tilia americana. 5> July 4, 1929, Ames 
(H. A. Stabe), $, July 7, 1931, Traer (Drake & Harris). Illi- 
nois — J*, July 17, 1896, Algonquin. 4$, July 24, 1892, Galesburg 
(Stromberg). J, July 4, 1915, Urbana. $, June 8, 1933, Frank- 
fort (Mohr & Townsend). New York — .(^, July 29, 1927, <^, July 

25, 1929. Albany (N. Y. S. coll. A3510). 

Neurocolpus jessiae n. sp. 

Allied to nubilns Say but distinguished by the relatively 
shorter first antennal segment and by the pale hind femora 
with black apices. 

(^. Length 6.3 mm., width 2.34 mm. Head: width 1.08 
mm., vertex .43 mm. Rostrum, length 2.5 mm., extending to 
near hind margins of posterior coxae. Antennae: segment I, 
length 1.25 mm., slightly compressed, greatest width (.22 
mm.) near middle, the black scale-like hairs only moderately 
conspicuous, intermixed with a few more erect black bristles, 
brownish black, closely and irregularly spotted with pale; II, 
2.64 mm., slender, distal half gradually tapered to thicker api- 
cally, black, basal half more yellowish; III, 1.08 mm., black, 
pale at base; IV, i.ii mm., black. Pronotum: length 1.34 
mm., width at base 1.95 mm. 

Dorsum chiefly black, basal half of cuneus. spots on em- 
bolium and scutellum, and more or less broadly on anterior 
half of pronotum, pale to yellowish; body beneath pale to yel- 
lowish, sides of thorax and venter more or less infuscated. 

164 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- -X'XIX 

Legs pale, apical one-fourth of hind femora black, front and 
middle femora reticulate with fuscous apically; tibiae pale, 
front and middle pair with knees, apices and two narrow rings 
between fuscous ; hind tibiae with basal one-fourth and broad 
band just below middle, black, apices fuscous ; tarsi yellowish, 
apical segment largely black. Genital claspers not exhibiting 
evident specific characters. 

5. Length 6.5 mm., width 2.3 mm. Head: width 1.08 mm., 
vertex .47 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 1.3 mm., mod- 
erately compressed, greatest width .22 mm. ; II, 2.6 mm. ; III, 
1.04 mm.; IV, i. mm. Pronotum: length 1.34 mm., width at 
base 1.99 mm. Very similar to the male in form and colora- 

Holotype: ^, July 3, 1921, HoUister, Missouri (Jessie Knight) 
author's collection. Allotype: same data as the type. Paratypes 
6(^, taken with the types. 2(;^, July 18, 191 5, Springfield, Missouri 
(H. H. Knight) . lowA^^j", July 29, 1928, Ames (H. H. Knight) . 
J*, July 4, 1929, Ames (H. A. Stabe). Illinois — iij^, 15$, July 
20, 2(^, 95, July 24, 1889, Urbana (C. A. Hart), "from panicles of 
elder fruit" ; also two nymphs with the same label which indicates 
that the species was breeding on this host plant. Massachusetts 
— $, July 29, 1916, Pigeon Cove (Chris E. Olsen). New York — 
5, August 4, 1923, Ithaca (J. L. Buys). Mississippi — ^, June 8, 
1929, Carthage; 2$, June 13, 1929, Starksville (H. G. Johnston). 
Texas — ^$, June 24, 1917, Wharton (H. H. Knight). Wisconsin 
— ^c^, July 14, Madison. Ontario, Canada — .^, 5, July 12, 191 5, 
Simcoe (H. G. Crawford), "on apple." 

Named in honor of my wife who collected the best series of 
specimens, from which the types are selected. 

Neurocolpus rubidus n. sp. 

Allied to nubilus Say but distinguished by the shorter first 
antennal segment and in general aspect by the reddish colora- 

ij*. Length 6 mm., width 2.1 mm. Head: width i mm., 
vertex .41 mm. Rostrum, length 2.3 mm., just attaining poste- 
rior margins of hind coxae. Antennae: segment I, length 
1.04 mm., compressed, greatest width (.22 mm.) near middle, 
reddish, irregularly but closely marked with yellowish, usual 
flattened black hairs abundant, intermixed with somewhat 
longer pale to fuscous bristle-like hairs; II, 2.16 mm., slender, 
gradually thickened (width .12 mm.) on apical half, yellowish, 
apical half reddish; III, .82 mm., fuscous, pale at base; IV, 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 165 

.83 mill., l)lack. Pronotum : length 1.12 mm., width at base 
1.73 mm., moderately sinuate on basal margin. 

General coloration reddish, in dark specimens fuscous ap- 
pearing on hemelytra; embolium and scutellum with several 
yellowish spots ; membrane dark fuscous, a pale spot each side 
on margin, veins dark, apical curve of cubitus reddish. Dor- 
sum clothed with golden sericeous pubescence, intermixed with 
simple pale to fuscous hairs, wnth distinct black hairs on pro- 
notum. Femora reddish, hind pair with a distinct pale spot 
above at slightly beyond middle ; tibiae yellowish, two narrow 
reddish rings on front and middle pair, hind pair reddish on 
middle and basal one-fourth. 

$. Length 6.2 mm., width 2.34 mm. Head : width 1.06 mm., 
vertex .46 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 1.12 mm.; II, 
2.16 mm. ; III, .86 mm. ; IV, .87 mm. Pronotum: length 1.25 
mm., width at base 1.9 mm. Very similar to the male in form 
and coloration. 

Holotypc: J*, August 2, 1915, Batavia, New York (H. H. 
Knight) ; author's collection. Allotype: same data as the type. 
Paratypes: 6^^, 1$, taken with the types. <^, August i, ^, August 
3, 5, August 19, 1913; 3J*, 2$, August 10, 1916, Batavia, New- 
York (H. H. Knight). 

Neurocolpus arizonae n. sp. 

Color aspect suggestive of mexicanus Dist., but distin- 
guished by the short, non-inflated apex of first antennal seg- 
ment and by the shorter rostrum. 

(^. Length 6 mm., width 2.16 mm. Head: width mm., 
vertex .43 mm. Rostrum, length 1.95 mm., only reaching to 
middle of intermediate coxae. Antennae: segment I, length 
1.02 mm., slightly compressed, greatest width (.22 mm.) near 
middle, simple and scale-like hairs relatively short, brownish 
black, closely and irregularly spotted with pale ; II, 2.64 mm., 
yellowish, apical third slightly thickened and blackish; III, .64 
mm., yellowish, apex blackish; IV, .51 mm., yellowish to fus- 
cous. Pronotum: length 1.27 mm., width at base 2.03 mm. 

Hemelytra blackish, embolium and cuneus with pale spots ; 
membrane fuscous, usual pale spots at each side and within 
base of larger areole, veins fuscous, apical angle of cubitus 
whitish ; scutellum fuscous to black, apex with rather large 
white spot ; pronotum with pale ground, becoming fuscous 
each side of median line and on collar. Clothed with silvery, 
sericeous pubescence and intermixed with simple fuscous hairs, 
also with some golden sericeous pubescence on hemelytra; 
basal half of pronotum with several tufts of erect black hairs. 

166 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society T^^l. XXIX 

Femora brownish black, marked with numerous small dots and 
spots, tibiae banded with black and pale. 

5. Length 6.6 mm., width 2.47 mm. Head: width 1.12 
mm., vertex .476 mm. Antennae : segment I, length 1.21 mm., 
width .26 mm. ; II, 2.51 mm. ; III, .69 mm. ; IV, .52 mm. Pro- 
notum: length 1.31 mm., width at base 2.08 mm. Slightly- 
more robust than the male and generally somewhat paler in 

Holotype: <^, May 10, 1924, Tucson, Arizona (A. A. Nichol) ; 
author's collection. Allotype: same data as the type. Paratypes: 
SJ", ?, taken with the types. Arizona — ^J*, May 9, Salt River Mts., 
alt. 1300 ft.; J*, 2$, May 20, 1928. Empire Mts., alt. 5000 ft.; 3J*, 
2$, May 27, 1928, Rincon Mts., alt. 3300 ft. ; $, June 7, 1926, Tuc- 
son, alt. 4000 ft. (A. A. Nichol). 2$, May, 1929, Tucson; 3^^, 
May 9, 1929, Santa Rita Mts. (E. D. Ball). $, May 6, 191 5, 
Phoenix (A. K. Fisher). 2$, April 17, 2$, April 26, 1916, Sabino 
Canyon, Santa Catalina Mts. (J. F. Tucker). Texas— J^, ?, April 
27, 1932, College Station (J. C. Gaines). 

Neurocolpus johnstoni n. sp. 

Allied to uiexicanus Dist., but distinguished by the shorter 
first antennal segment and by the uniformly reddish brown 

J*. Length 5.8 mm., width 2.12 mm. Head: width 1.06 
mm., vertex .40 mm. Rostrum, length 2.46 mm., scarcely at- 
taining posterior margins of hind coxae. Antennae : segment 
I, length 1. 1 2 mm., greatest width (.28 mm.) at the moder- 
ately inflated apex, with pale bristles among the erect, black 
scale-like hairs, reddish brown with paler markings; II, 2.29 
mm., gradually thickened from base to .13 mm., near apex, 
pale yellowish, reddish brown on apical third; III, .75 mm., 
pale to fuscous apically; IV, .69 mm., blackish. Pronotum: 
length 1. 21 mm., width at base 1.73 mm. 

General coloration rather uniformly reddish brown, apex of 
scutellum yellowish white, body more reddish beneath. Dor- 
sum clothed with silvery, sericeous pubescence and intermixed 
with pale and blackish simple hairs. Femora reddish, hind 
pair darker, irregularly marked with paler spots ; tibiae pale, 
hind pair reddish on basal fourth, with an obsolete fuscous 
band beyond middle, front and middle tibiae with narrow red- 
dish ring at middle of basal half ; tarsi blackish, paler at base. 

Holotype: ^, September 10, 1930, College Station, Texas (H. G. 
Johnston), collected in light trap; author's collection. Paratype: 
J*, taken with the type; collection of H. G. Johnston. 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 167 

Key to Species of Neurocolpus. 

1. Antennal segment I widest at the inflated apex 2 

Antennal segment I not wider at apex 4 

2. Rostrum just attaining hind margin of middle coxae ; color uni- 

formly yellowish or fulvous simplex Van D. 

Rostrum surpassing the middle coxae; otherwise colored ... 3 

3. Antennal segment I just equal to half the length of segment II ; 

uniformly dark reddish, apex of scutellum white or yellowish. 

johnstoni n. sp. 
Antennal segment I equal to three-fifths the length of segment 
II ; coloration varied with fuscous and black. 

mcxicanus Dist. 

4. Antennal segment I three-fifths or more the length of segment 

II 7 

Antennal segment I not or only slightly exceeding one-half the 
length of segment II 5 

5. Hind femora pale, apical one-fourth black jessiae n. sp. 

Hind femora fuscous or reddish on basal half 6 

6. Antennal segment I equal to or slightly greater than half the 

length of segment II ; femora and first antennal segment 

chiefly reddish and irrorate with paler rubidus n. sp. 

Antennal segment I not equal to half the length of segment II; 
femora and first antennal segment chiefly brownish and ir- 
rorate with pale arizonae n. sp. 

7. Antennal segment I nearly equal to three-fourths the length of 

segment II; rostrum exceeding posterior margins of hind 

coxae tiliae n. sp. 

Antennal segment I not equal to more than two-thirds the length 
of segment II ; rostrum not exceeding posterior margins of 
hind coxae nubilus Say 

168 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. xxix 


A Simple Device and Method for Blowing Insect Larvae. 

— The problem of adequate preservation of material has always 
been a serious one to entomologists who must collect perhaps a 
greater variety of forms than workers in any other single field. 
Amateurs, experimental workers under field conditions, and in- 
structors who must carry on where the advantages of a large, well- 
equipped laboratory are not available must all make the most of 
what material they have at hand. While engaged in field collecting 
of red-humped, tomato worm, and other caterpillars the authors 
evolved the following modification of the usual method of larval 
blowing. The merit of this method lies not in originality of prin- 
ciple, for entomologists have inflated larvae with air and dried them 
in this condition for many years. Nor is there anything original in 
the idea of filling such specimens with some material in order to 
make them more solid and permanent. The purpose of the authors 
has been to accomplish certain desired results, namely, reasonably 
permanent preservation of soft-bodied caterpillars, etc., in a condi- 
tion as nearly approaching their natural appearance as possible, 



Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 169 

using only material zvhich was on hand at the time and zvhich zvoidd 
be available to a zvorker under practically any conditions (see figure 

A two-holed rubber stopper, through which two short pieces of 
glass tubing have been forced, is put in the mouth of a toy balloon. 
To one of these pieces of glass tubing is attached a rubber tube 
leading to an atomizer bulb which has a check valve at each end. 
To the other is attached a rubber tube leading to the oven. A piece 
of glass tubing is heated over a flame, drawn out to a fine capillary, 
and then broken at this point. Inserting this latter piece at the end 
of the rubber tube and fastening two clips (two pieces broken from 
a clock spring or two paper clips will do nicely) to the tip by means 
of a rubber band completes the essential part of the apparatus. The 
clips will hold the larva much more securely if their tips are notched 
with a rat-tail file (see inset). A caterpillar may now be prepared 
by inserting a dissecting needle in the anus to break the membrane 
and then rolling from head to anus using a pencil or some other 
round object. When the body contents have been entirely evacu- 
ated the skin may be fastened to the small apex of the glass tube by 
means of the aforementioned clips. Air is pumped into the reser- 
voir (balloon) with the atomizer bulb and a continuous source of 
air is thus established which will keep the larva inflated for ten 
minutes or more. 

For the "baking," heat from electric light bulbs was first used, 
the tube with its fully extended and inflated larva being held near a 
lamp. This necessitated frequent turnings to insure vmiform dry- 
ing on all sides and often resulted in burning of the specimen. 
Finally a tin can was substituted, being used as an oven, with one 
or more holes cut in its side to admit the specimens and a test tube 
holder soldered below each hole to hold the glass tube. Any heat- 
ing element, bunsen burner, gas stove, etc., is satisfactory. A ther- 
mometer inserted through a hole in the top of the can aids in main- 
taining an even temperature (about 70° F. is best for most larvae). 

After inflation and drying it was found that the dry, brittle skin 
of the caterpillars was not only very fragile l)ut, in many cases, not 
even the same color as in nature due to the absence of the coloring 
matter of the body fluid. Both of these conditions may be over- 
come by melting paraffine (paraffine with a high melting point will 
be found most satisfactory) and adding pieces of children's Crayola 
of various colors until a shade is obtained which is similar to that 
of the body contents. A medicine dropper is heated, the above mix- 
ture drawn up, and then injected into the open anus of the larva. 

170 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^o^- ^^I^ 

If any paraffine remains visible at the anus after the whole body 
cavity has been filled it will soon be drawn in due to the shrinking 
of the paraffine and will leave no trace of the inner filling. 

Specimens preserved in this manner have remained unchanged, 
even with rather rough treatment, for two years and appear to be 
satisfactory in every way. — A. S. Harrison and R. L. Usinger, 
Berkeley, California. 


Phil Rau, Kirkwood, Mo. 

I failed on many occasions successfully to carry through the 
winter the queens of the bald-faced hornet, even though I placed 
them in cages out of doors during the winter. Finding twelve 
queens hibernating in three fallen logs at Rankin, Missouri, on No- 
vember 9 and December 5, 1931, gave me first-hand information 
of the conditions under which they naturally hibernate. 

The queens had dug pockets for themselves in the moist and rot- 
ten logs in which to spend the winter. All three trunks were near a 
creek bed, on a very shady slope, and even though the days were 
comfortably warm when examination was made, the soft, rotten 
pulp in the interior of the log was moist and cold. This then is the 
method of successful hibernation; the selection of a "hibernacle" 
that is sufficiently moist and located so that it is not easily influ- 
enced by the rising temperature of an occasional warm day in the 
midst of winter. The positions of the logs on the slope were such 
that intermittent warm days would not afifect the temperature of 
the interior of the log, and thereby not arouse the queens to pre- 
mature activity. 

The queens were not hibernating in ready-made galleries, but had 
actually made their own ; in one case a pile of freshly bitten chips 
on the ground under the pocket was evidence that she had done her 
own work. In most cases one queen was in each pocket, but in two 
instances I found two queens in each pocket. Queens of Polistes 
wasps, and also of Bumble-bees select the same locality or are at- 
tracted to the same spot by the presence of the other queens of their 
respective species ; in one of the above logs in an area of six square 
inches, I found six queens of V. maculata hibernating indepen- 
dently in as many pockets. 

The secret, in all probability, for the successful hibernation of 
maculata queens seems to be cold and very moist conditions ; with 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 171 

this knowledge one ought therefore to be able to solve some of the 
problems of hibernation by experimenting with them in the laliora- 
tory under similar conditions. 


Phil Rau, Kirkwood, Mo. 

One often sees the workers of the bald- face hornet swoop down 
upon a resting fly, pick it up without alighting, carry it to a nearby 
twig, where they remove a wing or two and readjust the body 
preparatory to a flight to the nest. I was therefore very much sur- 
prised to see at Iron Mountain Lake, Missouri, August 30, 193 1, a 
worker of this species actually stalking its prey. On a small pad 
of semi-hard animal excrement that was almost as black in color 
as the wasp, a worker quietly took its position. As soon as a fly 
would alight upon it, she would pounce at it and carry it away. Re- 
turning again and again she would assume the same waiting posi- 
tion which frequently led to success. She missed many in her at- 
tempts, and the flies got away, although when I amused myself by 
dropping newly killed flies on the pad, she grabbed them quickly 
and almost before they landed. 

Stalking prey in this manner is a new and different way for this 
species to get food, and this new habit undoubtedly had its incep- 
tion in the disappointments that the worker had when too many 
flies got away from her when she used the old method of swooping 
down on them from the air. Now certain Hemiptera lie in ambush 
for their prey, but since they consume their food then and there, 
their behavior seems to me to be lower in the scale of psychic de- 
velopment than the ambush habits of the wasp. The wasp must re- 
member to return to the same spot, and she must also remember 
(against her instinctive equipment to do pouncing) that stalking 
brings results. 

It is also of interest that, even though she made a dozen or more 
trips to the food supply, she did not communicate the good fortune 
to her sisters, and she alone returned. This is the same type of be- 
havior observed for Vespa gennanica, where one lone individual 
spent several days gathering chalcid flies from the clay bank with- 
out bringing others with it.^ 

^ Ecology of a Clay Bank. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 25 : 212, 

172 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 


Meeting of February 15, 1934 

Minutes of the previous meeting — January 11, 1934 — read and 

Members present : Mr. W. T. Davis in the chair, Ballou, Cooper, 
Engelhardt, Lacey, Moennich, Nicolay, Rau, Sheridan, Shoemaker, 
Torre-Bueno, Wilford, and Wurster. Visitors 3, Mrs. Moennich, 
Hans Hecher, Geo. Lipsey. 

The Treasurer reported for January. 

Report of PubHcation Committee by Mr. Torre-Bueno. Long 
and too speciaHzed articles not of general interest will be cut out in 
the future. The outlook for Entoinologica Americana is good. 
Articles of unusual excellence are at hand. For the next issues of 
the Bulletin he has ample papers. The annual report for 1933 
will be of historical nature, showing the growth of publications 
over 21 years. It will be printed in full. 

Mr. Engelhardt proposed for honorary membership Mr. Chas. 
Schaefifer. He was unanimously elected by a rising vote. 

Mr. Davis reported that a 5 walking stick, Diapheromera fcmo- 
rata Say was collected by Mr. Roy Latham at Orient, Long Island, 
on September 2, 1933. Several records from the Eastern end of 
Long Island are given in the N. Y. State List of Insects, but so far 
the species has not been reported from elsewhere on L. I. 

Mr. Engelhardt reported on collecting in Oregon and Washing- 
ton. He worked out five new life histories on Aegeridae or Clear- 
wing moths. His report will be printed in full. 

Mr. Wurster showed 10 variations of Sainia cecropia L., one $ 
with perfectly black margin. 

Adjourned at 10.20 P. M. Frederick Lemmer, 

Secretary pro tern. 

Meeting of March 15, 1934. 

Minutes of the previous meeting (February 15) read and ap- 

Members present: Mr. Davis in the chair, Messrs. Angell, Bal- 
lou, Cooper, Engelhardt, Lacey, Moennich, Nicolay, Rau, Sheridan, 
Shoemaker, Wilford, Wurster, and Lemmer, and two visitors. 

Mr. Engelhardt reported as Treasurer. 

Mr. Engelhardt proposed for membership Mr. Frank W. Parker, 
Globe, Arizona. 

Mr. Wm. Beutenmueller passed away on February 24, 1934. He 
was a charter member of the Brooklyn Society. Mr, Engelhardt 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 173 

conveyed the sympathy of the Society to Mrs. Beutenmueller and 
sent a flower piece. Mr. Davis showed three volumes of Mr. 
Beutenmueller's papers. 

Mr. Cooper read a letter from Mr. Ralph Hopping, who com- 
plains about the way new subspecies, forms, variations, etc., are de- 
scribed, which quite often have to be sunk into the synonymy. The 
discussion was by Messrs. Davis, Nicolay, and Lacey. 

Mr. Rau thinks that the European elm beetle may be one of the 
causes for spreading the Dutch elm disease. 

Mr. Ballou made an address devoted to the Coleopterous family 
Histeridae. He spoke concerning the general details of the fam- 
ily's classification, mentioning the divisions of the family into the 
various subfamilies and tribes, with remarks as to the various modi- 
fications of the individual genera and species in order to properly 
adapt them to their diversified life histories. 

The Hololeptinae in all instances are species living under the 
bark of trees and in such situations where the body form required 
insects being very thin. The members of this group are found in 
all parts of the globe. 

The Trypanaeinae and Trypcticinae, subfamilies found, respec- 
tively, in the tropical zones of the Western and Eastern Hemi- 
spheres, are modified so that their body form is cylindrical. This 
enables the adult beetle to burrow into the wood of trees in the bur- 
rows and grooves of such wood-boring insects as they prey upon. 
In some parts of the world, although little appreciated, these groups 
really accomplish considerable good in killing both the larvae and 
adults of the wood-boring insects which due to their habits are 
somewhat successful in avoiding Hymenopterous parasites. 

The Abracinae, consisting mostly of very small species, were 
mentioned. The species of this subfamily are found under bark, in 
decaying vegetation, and even in the nests of birds and small 
rodents burrowing in the ground. 

The Saprininae, a large subfamily, are found on all continents. 
The species are of normal shape, none of them being curiously 
modified as those of some of the other groups. The species are 
found, with few exceptions, at carrion, in excrement, and decaying 
vegetable matter, where it is supposed that they are predaceous 
upon the larvae of such insects which might be found there. In 
one genus, Gnatlwncus, some of the species are found only in birds' 

The Dendrophilinac consist of species found under bark and in 
decaying vegetation. The species are usually small, black in color, 
and have no outstandingly modified individuals or groups. 

174 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^ol. XXIX 

The Histerinac, which are divided into four tribes, Trihalini, 
Platysomini, Histerini, and Exosternini ; where there are many in- 
stances of modifications to suit the insect to its environment. 
Some are typically Histerid-like in form, being convex, oval and 
black in color. Others, found under the bark of trees and greatly 
flattened, appearing sometimes exactly like specimens belonging 
to the subfamily Hololeptinae. Some, too, are cylindrical, enabling 
them to enter the burrows of the wood-boring insects of the sec- 
tions of the world where they are found. Some examples of groups 
found in the tropical sections of the world are brilliantly metallic in 
color. In a very few cases, the species are the guests of ants. 

And the Hetaerinae comprise, to the general entomologist, the 
most interesting group of the entire family. In this subfamily 
most of the Histcridac of the world, which are called "ant guests" 
are found. Their bodily structure is curiously modified to protect 
them from any of their hosts which might become annoyed at the 
guest. The legs are flattened and so retractile that when folded 
close to the body they become to a great extent a series of shields. 
In some species tliey have glands on thoracic processes, the excre- 
tions of which are supposed to somewhat compensate for their 
being taken care of by the ants. In South America and Australia 
the species are very numerous, while in other parts of the world 
the species are few. All of these are difficult to collect, and the 
average collection discloses only a few individuals. 

The family, in the world, contains approximately 3,200 known 
species, of which less than 500 are found in North America. Mr. 
Ballou presented two boxes of specimens showing examples of all 
the subfamilies and the tribes, with many of the curiously modified 
species found in various parts of the world. 

Adjourned at 9.55 p. m. Frederick Lemmer, 

Secretary pro tern. 

Meeting of April 12, 1934. 

President Wm. T. Davis in the chair and the following members 
present: Messrs. Angell, Cooper, Eisenhardt, Engelhardt, Lacey, 
Moennich, Ragot, Rau, Sheridan, Torre-Bueno, Wilford, Wurster, 
Lemmer, also 3 visitors. 

Minutes of the previous meeting read and approved. 

Elected to membership : Mr. Frank W. Parker, Globe, Arizona. 

Mr. Bueno showed : Recent Advances in Plant Viruses, by Ken- 
neth Smith. Mr. Bueno thinks that no diseases are carried to 
humans from plants but that diseases are carried from plant to 

Mr. Angell records SylpJia inequalis from Englewood on April 

Oct., 1934 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 175 

1st. He showed 2 boxes of stag beetles, including Liicanus elaphus 
var. carlingi Angell. Type. 

Mr. Bueno showed a box of Hemiptera. 

Mr. Lacey showed a variety of showy insects from different 
orders and from different parts of the world. 

Mr. Engelhardt showed 3 boxes of very showy butterflies from 
Africa (Cameroons). 

Mr. Cooper showed a box of Dytiscus. 

Adjourned at 10.08 p. m. Frederick Lemmer, 

Secretary pro tern. 


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176 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^oZ. XXIX 


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COLEOPTERA. — Am interested in exchanging Coleoptera. 
Carl G. Siepmann, R. F. D. No. i, Box 92, Rahway, N. J. 

DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA.— Have many desirable west- 
ern species to exchange, including Argynnis atossa, inacaria, mor- 
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osa; etc. Send lists. Dr. John A. Comstock, Los Angeles Mu- 
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CATOPINI: Catops (Choleva), Prionochaeta, Ptomaphagus. 
— Wanted to borrow all possible specimens of these genera from 
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— Melville H. Hatch, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Wash., Seattle, 

HISTERIDAE — Desire to obtain material, all localities, for 
identification, by purchase or exchange of other families. Chas. 
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BUY OR EXCHANGE : Pinned Microlepidoptera and papered 
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viding I receive sufficient orders prior, to collecting to justify my 
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Vol. XXIX 



No. 5 


Brooklyn Entomological 



J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor 


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. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO Hartsdale, N. Y. 
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Vol. XXIX December, 1934 No. 5. 




By Edwin C. Van Dyke, University of California, 
Berkeley, California. 

The Staphylinid genus Trigoniirus was established by Mulsant 
and Rey,^ for the reception of mellyi, a peculiar flat species found 
in the Grand-Chartreuse of the Maritime Alps of Europe. Since 
that time, seven other species have been described. One of these, 
asiaticiis Riche, was found in the Caucasus. The other six have 
been collected on the Pacific Coast of North America. 

Of the American species, subcostafus Makl,- was described as 
from Sitka, Alaska and in the genus Latriuiaeiun. It was later 
removed from that genus and placed in Trigoniirus and stands as 
such in the Leng Catalogue, though referred back to its original 
genus in the 1933 supplement to the Staphylinidae of the Coleop- 
torum Catalogus. I believe that this species is a true Trigoniirus 
and quite close to crotchi Lee. if not identical. Its status, how- 
ever, will have to remain in doubt until we are able to again collect 
in its type locality. Of the other species, two, caclatus and crotchi, 
were collected by Crotch and described by Le Conte'' in 1874; and 
the remainder, edwardsi, lecontcus and rugosiis, collected by Henry 
Edwards and described by Sharp* in 1875. FauveP in 1878 re- 
viewed Sharp's work but added no new information. Keen'' in 
1895 mentions another species, ncbrioidcs Fauv., from the Queen 

^ Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon X, 1847, P- S^S- 
^ Bull. Mosc. 1852, p. 320. 
^ Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, v. 1874, p. 48. 
* Entom. Month. Mag., XI, 1875, pp. 205-206. 
^ Bull. Soc. Linn, de Norman., 3rd ser., II, 1877-1878, pp. 185- 

''Can. Ent., 27, 1895, p. 172. 


178 Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society ^^^- ^^I^ 

Charlotte Islands but this was never described as far as I can find 
and thus is without standing, a noiiien iiuduin. The species, more- 
over, was no doubt crotchi for Keen in 1905' lists this species when 
mentioning the insects collected on the mainland of British Colum- 
bia across the straits from the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

Considerable confusion has existed in the minds of entomologists 
for some time with regard to the status of a number of these spe- 
cies. I have attempted to settle this, first by gathering as much 
information as I could in